leukoplakia

Summary

Summary: A white patch lesion found on a MUCOUS MEMBRANE that cannot be scraped off. Leukoplakia is generally considered a precancerous condition, however its appearance may also result from a variety of HEREDITARY DISEASES.

Top Publications

  1. Chen Y, Lin J, Fong J, Wang I, Chou S, Wu C, et al. Use of methylene blue as a diagnostic aid in early detection of oral cancer and precancerous lesions. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;45:590-1 pubmed
    ..Methylene blue staining may, however, be useful as a screening tool for oral cancer in large, high-risk groups in a similar way to the more expensive toluidine blue. ..
  2. Mao L. Leukoplakia: molecular understanding of pre-malignant lesions and implications for clinical management. Mol Med Today. 1997;3:442-8 pubmed
    Oral leukoplakia is a white patch or plaque of the oral mucosa that cannot be characterized clinically or pathologically as any other diagnosable disease...
  3. Rhodus N. Oral cancer: leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma. Dent Clin North Am. 2005;49:143-65, ix pubmed
    ..This article reviews the epidemiology, etiologic risk factors, clinical presentation, recognition, and diagnosis of oral precancer and cancer. The actual treatment and complications from treatment of oral cancer are discussed only briefly...
  4. Almadori G, Bussu F, Galli J, Cadoni G, Zappacosta B, Persichilli S, et al. Serum levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and in laryngeal leukoplakia. Cancer. 2005;103:284-92 pubmed
    The authors evaluated serum levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B(12) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and in patients with laryngeal leukoplakia, a well known preneoplastic lesion.
  5. Mitra S, Sikdar N, Misra C, Gupta S, Paul R, Roy B, et al. Risk assessment of p53 genotypes and haplotypes in tobacco-associated leukoplakia and oral cancer patients from eastern Idia. Int J Cancer. 2005;117:786-93 pubmed
    ..In our case-control study consisting of 197 leukoplakia and 310 oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients and 348 controls, genotype frequencies at these 3 p53 loci ..
  6. Fillies T, Jogschies M, Kleinheinz J, Brandt B, Joos U, Buerger H. Cytokeratin alteration in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:639-43 pubmed
    ..In this study, we seeked to define the cytokeratin (Ck) expression pattern in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
  7. Isenberg J, Crozier D, Dailey S. Institutional and comprehensive review of laryngeal leukoplakia. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008;117:74-9 pubmed
    The nature and interpretation of vocal fold leukoplakia has been limited by small study sizes. The present study reviewed institutional data and the published literature to better characterize vocal fold leukoplakia.
  8. Woo S, Lin D. Morsicatio mucosae oris--a chronic oral frictional keratosis, not a leukoplakia. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67:140-6 pubmed publisher
    Morsicatio mucosae oris (MMO) presents as white papules and plaques that may resemble leukoplakia, and are often biopsied...
  9. Misra C, Majumder M, Bajaj S, Ghosh S, Roy B, Roychoudhury S. Polymorphisms at p53, p73, and MDM2 loci modulate the risk of tobacco associated leukoplakia and oral cancer. Mol Carcinog. 2009;48:790-800 pubmed publisher
    ..linked polymorphisms (G4C14-A4T14) at p73 and one polymorphism (309G > T) at MDM2 promoter with the risk of leukoplakia and oral cancer...

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Brzak B, Mravak Stipetic M, Canjuga I, Baricevic M, Balicevic D, Sikora M, et al. The frequency and malignant transformation rate of oral lichen planus and leukoplakia--a retrospective study. Coll Antropol. 2012;36:773-7 pubmed
    ..retrospective study was to determine the frequency and malignant transformation rate of oral lichen planus and leukoplakia in a large group of oral medicine patients...
  2. Abiko Y, Jinbu Y, Noguchi T, Nishimura M, Kusano K, Amaratunga P, et al. Upregulation of human beta-defensin 2 peptide expression in oral lichen planus, leukoplakia and candidiasis. an immunohistochemical study. Pathol Res Pract. 2002;198:537-42 pubmed
    ..We investigated the localization of hBD-2 peptide in tissue sections of oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, candidal leukoplakia and radicular cysts using immunohistochemistry...
  3. Gumus E, Yilmaz B, Miroglu C. Extensive bilateral renal pelvis, ureter and bladder leukoplakia. Int J Urol. 2002;9:653-5 pubmed
    We are presenting a case of leukoplakia spread to the bilateral renal pelvis, ureter and bladder in a 52-year-old woman...
  4. Sikdar N, Paul R, Roy B. Glutathione S-transferase M3 (A/A) genotype as a risk factor for oral cancer and leukoplakia among Indian tobacco smokers. Int J Cancer. 2004;109:95-101 pubmed
    ..GST) genes, causing variations in enzyme activities, may influence susceptibility to oral cancer and leukoplakia in smokers and/or smokeless tobacco users...
  5. Shiu M, Chen T. Impact of betel quid, tobacco and alcohol on three-stage disease natural history of oral leukoplakia and cancer: implication for prevention of oral cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2004;13:39-45 pubmed
    The natural history of the three-stage process from normal, oral leukoplakia to oral cancer in relation to betel quid chewing, smoking and drinking is rarely addressed...
  6. Sengupta S, Chakrabarti S, Roy A, Panda C, Roychoudhury S. Inactivation of human mutL homolog 1 and mutS homolog 2 genes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors and leukoplakia samples by promoter hypermethylation and its relation with microsatellite instability phenotype. Cancer. 2007;109:703-12 pubmed
    ..correlated alterations in the mismatch-repair genes human mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) and human mutS homolog 2 (hMSH2) in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tumors and in samples of leukoplakia with the MIN phenotype.
  7. Gambino A, Carbone M, Arduino P, Carrozzo M, Conrotto D, Tanteri C, et al. Clinical features and histological description of tongue lesions in a large Northern Italian population. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2015;20:e560-5 pubmed
    ..ulcer has a strong predicting association with a carcinoma, whereas a biopsy on a white lesion predicts for a leukoplakia or oral lichen planus...
  8. Bongiorno M, Rivard S, Hammer D, Kentosh J. Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia in a patient with dyskeratosis congenita. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017;124:e239-e242 pubmed publisher
    ..mucocutaneous triad of clinical features comprises reticulated skin pigmentation, nail dysplasia, and oral leukoplakia. Multiple somatic features, including bone marrow failure, pulmonary fibrosis, and liver disease, are also ..
  9. Staines K, Rogers H. Oral leukoplakia and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a review for dental practitioners. Br Dent J. 2017;223:655-661 pubmed publisher
    Objectives To provide an overview of the current thinking in terms of the diagnosis and management of oral leukoplakia and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia as relevant to general dental practitioners...
  10. Mallick S, Patil R, Gyanchandani R, Pawar S, Palve V, Kannan S, et al. Human oral cancers have altered expression of Bcl-2 family members and increased expression of the anti-apoptotic splice variant of Mcl-1. J Pathol. 2009;217:398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..was detected predominantly in differentiated epithelia in 27/33 (82%) oral tumours, 18/20 (90%) leukoplakia, 25/30 (83%) submucous fibrosis and 3/3 oral cell lines, with weak staining in 8/15 (53%) normal mucosa samples...
  11. Yılmaz T, Süslü N, Günaydın R, Kuşçu O, Sözen T, Atay G, et al. Microtrapdoor Flap Technique for Treatment of Glottic Laryngeal Stenosis: Experience With 34 Cases. J Voice. 2016;30:751-754 pubmed publisher
    ..for bilateral vocal fold paralysis; seven cases due to microlaryngoscopy (three laryngeal papilloma, one leukoplakia excision, one glottic cancer excision, one foreign body extraction, one biopsy from interarytenoid region); ..
  12. Rai V, Mukherjee R, Ghosh A, Routray A, Chakraborty C. "Omics" in oral cancer: New approaches for biomarker discovery. Arch Oral Biol. 2018;87:15-34 pubmed publisher
    ..were investigated for differentiating oral squamous cell carcinoma,oral sub-mucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, oral erythroplakia from normal cases. Electronic databases viz...
  13. Flores Hidalgo A, Lim S, Curran A, Padilla R, Murrah V. Considerations in the diagnosis of oral hairy leukoplakia-an institutional experience. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2018;125:232-235 pubmed publisher
    We report here the 10-year experience with oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) at the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA...
  14. Yang C, Chen C, Tseng Y, Huang S, Liou H, Lee Y, et al. The variant of pri-mir-26a-1 polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of betel quid-related oral premalignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017;124:378-389.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..038 and .005, respectively), oral leukoplakia (P = .01 and .001, respectively), and advanced-stage OSCC (P = .021 and .004, respectively)...
  15. Du B, Leung H, Khan K, Miller C, Subbaramaiah K, Falcone D, et al. Tobacco smoke induces urokinase-type plasminogen activator and cell invasiveness: evidence for an epidermal growth factor receptor dependent mechanism. Cancer Res. 2007;67:8966-72 pubmed
    ..These findings also strengthen the rationale for determining whether inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase reduce the risk of tobacco smoke-related second primary tumors. ..
  16. Cui J, Han X, Wang W. Expression and significance of p53 and mdm2 in patients with leukoplakia cancer. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2013;6:831-4 pubmed publisher
    To study the relationship of the expressions of p53 and mdm2 in leukoplakia cancer. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA of p53, mdm2 in patients with leukoplakia cancer...
  17. Rosin F, Barcessat A, Borges G, Ferreira L, Correa L. Vascular alterations after photodynamic therapy mediated by 5-aminolevulinic acid in oral leukoplakia. Lasers Med Sci. 2017;32:379-387 pubmed publisher
    ..Vascular alterations in oral leukoplakia (OL) treated with PDT have not yet been described...
  18. Bartsch H, Rojas M, Nair U, Nair J, Alexandrov K. Genetic cancer susceptibility and DNA adducts: studies in smokers, tobacco chewers, and coke oven workers. Cancer Detect Prev. 1999;23:445-53 pubmed
    ..and GSTM1 or GSTT1 gene deletion was analyzed in genomic DNA from lung parenchyma, WBCs, or oral biopsies (leukoplakia patients from India) and from oral exfoliated cells (healthy controls)...
  19. Kil T, Kim H, Kim H, Nam W, Cha I. Genetic Abnormalities in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Cancer Progression. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:3001-6 pubmed
    The cancer progression of oral leukoplakia is an important watchpoint in the follow-up observation of the patients. However, potential malignancies of oral leukoplakia cannot be estimated by histopathologic assessment alone...
  20. Shetty P, Hegde S, Vinod K, Kalra S, Goyal P, Patel M. Oral Leukoplakia: Clinicopathological Correlation and Its Relevance to Regional Tobacco-related Habit Index. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016;17:601-8 pubmed
    ..of habits quantified by habit index and its effect and severity on the clinicopathological features of oral leukoplakia in a cohort of 100 patients visiting Triveni Dental College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India...
  21. Lasch F, Weber K, Chao M, Koch A. A plea to provide best evidence in trials under sample-size restrictions: the example of pioglitazone to resolve leukoplakia and erythroplakia in Fanconi anemia patients. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2017;12:102 pubmed publisher
    In planning a clinical trial for demonstrating the efficacy of pioglitazone to resolve leukoplakia and erythroplakia in Fanconi anemia patients we had to discuss the need for a randomized controlled trial particularly under sample-size ..
  22. Ulrich M, Gonzalez S, Lange Asschenfeldt B, Roewert Huber J, Sterry W, Stockfleth E, et al. Non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of actinic cheilitis with reflectance confocal microscopy. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011;25:276-84 pubmed publisher
    ..However, marked inflammation represents a potential diagnostic pitfall. In this regard, biopsy should be performed in doubtful cases. ..
  23. Mondal P, Datta S, Maiti G, Baral A, Jha G, Panda C, et al. Comprehensive SNP scan of DNA repair and DNA damage response genes reveal multiple susceptibility loci conferring risk to tobacco associated leukoplakia and oral cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56952 pubmed publisher
    ..break repair, mismatch repair and DNA damage response pathways were genotyped on a total of 373 OSCC, 253 leukoplakia and 535 unrelated control individuals...
  24. Herrera Costa F, Narana Ribeiro El Achkar V, Costa V, Paladini I, Kowalski L, Rodarte Carvalho Y, et al. Different Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenases 1A1 and 2 in Oral Leukoplakia With Epithelial Dysplasia and in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of ALDH1A1 and ALDH2 in oral leukoplakia with epithelial dysplasia (OLP) and OSCC...
  25. Ralhan R, Agarwal S, Mathur M, Wasylyk B, Srivastava A. Association between polymorphism in p21(Waf1/Cip1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene and human oral cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2000;6:2440-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, overexpression of p21 protein in oral lesions harboring missense mutations in the p53 gene suggest a p53-independent role for p21 in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. ..
  26. Hashmi N, Mandel J, Mirza N. Laryngeal mask airway in laryngoscopies: a safer alternative for the difficult airway. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2009;71:342-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we recommend preoperative identification of difficult airways and consideration of elective LMA use with a flexible endoscope during laryngeal and upper tracheal procedures. ..
  27. Chawla R, Mitra P, Shetiya S, Agarwal D, Narayana D, Bomble N. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Women in Slums of Pimpri, Chinchwad, Pune, Maharashtra, India, regarding Usage of Mishri. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2017;18:218-221 pubmed
    ..Oral examination of the participants was also done for oral potentially malignant disorders, such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and hyperkeratinized pouch...
  28. Giardino S, Faraci M, Lanino E, Morreale G, Terranova P, Palmisani E, et al. Successful Second Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant in a Patient With Dyskeratosis Congenital After First Graft Rejection. Exp Clin Transplant. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare congenital telomeropathy characterized by cutaneous and nail dystrophy, oral leukoplakia, and bone marrow failure. Pulmonary fibrosis and cancers are late manifestations...
  29. Frolova I, Mestergazi G, Radzinskii V, Sheliastina N, Babichenko I. [Immunohistochemical examinations of dyskeratosis and exocervical neoplasia in gynecological pathology]. Arkh Patol. 2002;64:23-6 pubmed
    ..receptors (Ers), Ki-67, BCL-2, P53 and human papillomaviruses (HPV) of normal cervix (7 cases), cervical leukoplakia (5 cases), CIN I (7 cases) and CIN II-III (6 cases)...
  30. Chen J, Chang Y, Yu Y, Chao C, Kao H, Wu C, et al. Specific induction of the high-molecular-weight microtubule-associated protein 2 (hmw-MAP2) by betel quid extract in cultured oral keratinocytes: clinical implications in betel quid-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:269-76 pubmed
    ..analyzed expression of hmw-MAP2 protein in 88 oral specimens consisting of clinicopathologically pre-malignant (leukoplakia) and malignant (OSCC) lesions, along with their adjacent normal mucosa...
  31. Sun Z, Guan X, Li N, Liu X, Chen X. Chemoprevention of oral cancer in animal models, and effect on leukoplakias in human patients with ZengShengPing, a mixture of medicinal herbs. Oral Oncol. 2010;46:105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..5% (10/29) to 22.2% (6/27). Furthermore, in a randomized clinical trial on patients with oral leukoplakia, ZSP (4 tablets, 3 times per day for 8-12months) reduced the size of oral lesion in 67...
  32. Hassan N, Hamada J, Kameyama T, Tada M, Nakagawa K, Yoshida S, et al. Increased expression of the PRL-3 gene in human oral squamous cell carcinoma and dysplasia tissues. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12:947-51 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PRL-3 plays a role in oral cancer development and can be useful as a marker of pre-malignant and malignant lesion of oral mucosa. ..
  33. Yamauchi A, Yokonishi H, Imagawa H, Sakakibara K, Nito T, Tayama N, et al. Quantification of Vocal Fold Vibration in Various Laryngeal Disorders Using High-Speed Digital Imaging. J Voice. 2016;30:205-14 pubmed publisher
    ..HSDI was performed on 78 patients with various laryngeal disorders (20 with polyp, 16 with carcinoma, 13 with leukoplakia, 6 with vocal fold nodule, and 33 with others) and 29 vocally healthy subjects...
  34. Zhou J, Yang Y, Zhang D, Zhou L, Tao L, Lu L. Genetic polymorphisms and plasma levels of BCL11A contribute to the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171116 pubmed publisher
    ..In this research, 330 LSCC patients, 310 healthy controls, and 155 vocal leukoplakia patients were genotyped for the BCL11A (rs11886868 C/T and rs4671393 A/G) genotypes by pyrosequencing; the ..
  35. Francis D, Misono S, Somerville J, McWhorter A, Garrett C. Resolution of vocal fold leukoplakia during erlotinib treatment for lung cancer. Ear Nose Throat J. 2016;95:65-7 pubmed
    Treatment of vocal fold leukoplakia is complicated because it is associated with a high rate of recurrence after excision and it has the potential for progression to malignancy...
  36. Garcia Pola M, Llorente Pendás S, González Garcia M, García Martín J. The development of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia in oral lichen planus. A preliminary study. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2016;21:e328-34 pubmed
    Was to describe 14 cases of a proliferative verrucous leukoplakia as a clinical evolution of oral lichen planus...
  37. Kuriakose M, Ramdas K, Dey B, Iyer S, Rajan G, Elango K, et al. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Phase IIB Trial of Curcumin in Oral Leukoplakia. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016;9:683-91 pubmed publisher
    Oral leukoplakia is a potentially malignant lesion of the oral cavity, for which no effective treatment is available...
  38. Gaeta G, Gombos F, Femiano F, Battista C, Minghetti P, Montanari L, et al. Acitretin and treatment of the oral leucoplakias. A model to have an active molecules release. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2000;14:473-8 pubmed
    ..Patients' compliance was excellent. The results show that mucoadhesive tablets of topical acitretin are efficacious in the treatment of oral leucoplakia without systemic side-effects. ..
  39. Auluck A. Diabetes mellitus: an emerging risk factor for oral cancer?. J Can Dent Assoc. 2007;73:501-3 pubmed
  40. Ma L, Wang J, Xiao Y, Ye J, Xu W, Yang Q. Clinical classification and treatment of leukokeratosis of the vocal cords. Chin Med J (Engl). 2013;126:3523-7 pubmed
    ..on symptoms, examination results, and treatment efficacies as follows: 21 patients had type I inflammatory leukoplakia and their vocal cord morphology and voice quality recovered after conservative therapies; 76 patients had type ..
  41. Patel S, Manjunatha B, Shah V, Soni N, Sutariya R. Immunohistochemical evaluation of p63 and cyclin D1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia. J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;43:324-330 pubmed publisher
    ..are only a limited number of studies on cyclin D1 and p63 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and leukoplakia. This study compared cyclin D1 and p63 expression in leukoplakia and OSCC to investigate the possible ..
  42. Kamboj M, Mahajan S. Micronucleus--an upcoming marker of genotoxic damage. Clin Oral Investig. 2007;11:121-6 pubmed
    ..Micronucleus assay was performed on oral exfoliated cells of chosen subjects having leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using fluorescent (Acridine Orange) and conventional (Feulgen) stainings...
  43. Datta S, Ray A, Singh R, Mondal P, Basu A, De Sarkar N, et al. Sequence and expression variations in 23 genes involved in mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial apoptotic pathways and risk of oral leukoplakia and cancer. Mitochondrion. 2015;25:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..genes, involved in mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, were genotyped in 525 cancer and 253 leukoplakia patients and 538 healthy controls using Illumina Golden Gate assay...
  44. Flanagan C, Rhodus N, Cole K, Szabo E, Ondrey F. Correlation analysis of oral lesion sizes by various standardized criteria. Am J Otolaryngol. 2016;37:502-506 pubmed publisher
    Requirements of an NCI contract examining a novel treatment for leukoplakia were to compare standard bi-dimensional measurement of oral lesions to examine for correlation with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) ..
  45. Mizuki H, Abe R, Mikami T. Ultrastructural Changes during the Life Cycle of Mycoplasma salivarium in Oral Biopsies from Patients with Oral Leukoplakia. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:403 pubmed publisher
    ..cycle, we have previously reported the presence of Mycoplasma salivarium in the epithelial cells of oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. However, the mechanism underlying the pathogenicity of M...
  46. Kamperos G, Nikitakis N, Sfakianou A, Avgoustidis D, Sklavounou Andrikopoulou A. Expression of NF-κB and IL-6 in oral precancerous and cancerous lesions: An immunohistochemical study. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2016;21:e6-13 pubmed
    ..Thirty two oral premalignant lesions, clinically compatible with leukoplakia or erythroplakia, were investigated...
  47. Ottavioli A, Campana F, Catherine J, Massereau E, Del Grande J, Ordioni U. [Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: Three cases and literature review]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2016;143:187-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Malignant transformation occurs in over 50 % of cases. Diagnosis of PVL is difficult because of the presenting signs, which can be mistaken for those of other diseases. Management may be complicated and long-term follow-up is essential. ..
  48. Dippold S, Nusseck M, Richter B, Echternach M. The use of narrow band imaging for the detection of benign lesions of the larynx. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;274:919-923 pubmed publisher
    ..eight patients with a cyst on a vocal fold, eight with a polyp, seven with a Reinke´s edema, two with a leukoplakia, one with a carcinoma, one with a granuloma, and two without any pathologic finding) were examined with normal ..
  49. Lanssens S, Ongenae K. Dermatologic lesions and risk for cancer. Acta Clin Belg. 2011;66:177-85 pubmed
    ..cell carcinoma (sebaceous nevus), squamous cell carcinoma (chronic inflammation, actinic keratosis, kerato-acanthoma, Bowen's disease, leukoplakia, and lichen sclerosus) and malignant melanoma (lentigo maligna and dysplastic naevi).
  50. Carmel Neiderman N, Wasserzug O, Ziv Baran T, Oestreicher Kedem Y. Coexisting Vocal Fold Polyps and Sulcus Vocalis: Coincidence or Coexistence? Characteristics of 14 Patients. J Voice. 2018;32:239-243 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) of whom were diagnosed with SV-VFPs. Patients with SV-VFPs had significantly lower incidence of concurrent leukoplakia (P?=?0.01), higher incidence of contralateral vocal fold lesions (P?=?0...
  51. Sayan A, Wijesinghe S, Paraneetharan S, Ilankovan V. Revisiting lip shave: a solution for disorders of the vermilion border. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018;56:60-63 pubmed publisher
    Actinic keratosis, leukoplakia, carcinoma in situ, and superficially invasive carcinomas of the lower lip are caused mainly by the cumulative effects of exposure of the vermilion of the lower lip to ultraviolet radiation...
  52. Gifford A, Collins R, Timberlake D, Schuster M, Shapiro M, Bozzette S, et al. Propensity of HIV patients to seek urgent and emergent care. HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study Consortium. J Gen Intern Med. 2000;15:833-40 pubmed
    ..To assess the propensity of HIV-infected adults to seek care for common symptoms, and to determine whether they would seek care in the emergency department (ED) or with their primary care provider...
  53. Lin H, Corbet E, Lo E. Oral mucosal lesions in adult Chinese. J Dent Res. 2001;80:1486-90 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, tongue lesions and white lesions were relatively common in men, but pre-cancerous lesions were not prevalent...
  54. Chatterjee S, Chakrabarti S, Sengupta B, Poddar S, Biswas D, Sengupta S, et al. Prevalence of CYP1A1 and GST polymorphisms in the population of northeastern India and susceptibility of oral cancer. Oncol Res. 2009;17:397-403 pubmed
    ..But GSTT1-null genotypes were found to have higher risk of developing leukoplakia (OR 1.94, 95% CI 2.61-18.54)...
  55. Rubinstein I. Smokeless tobacco potentiates VIP-induced DNA synthesis and inactivates NEP 24.11 in oral keratinocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000;278:C391-6 pubmed
    ..11 in these cells. I suggest that NEP 24.11 modulates the mitogenic effects of smokeless tobacco in the oral epithelium, in part, by inactivating VIP...
  56. Scully C, Sudbø J, Speight P. Progress in determining the malignant potential of oral lesions. J Oral Pathol Med. 2003;32:251-6 pubmed
    ..Recent data on molecular and DNA changes in potentially malignant lesions suggest that it is now feasible to identify those lesions that are truly potentially malignant...
  57. Vora H, Shah N, Patel D, Trivedi T, Choksi T. BRCA1 expression in leukoplakia and carcinoma of the tongue. J Surg Oncol. 2003;83:232-40 pubmed
    Expression of BRCA1 was examined in patients with leukoplakia and carcinoma of the tongue. Its prognostic value was evaluated in patients with tongue cancer.
  58. Shiu M, Chen T. Intervention efficacy and malignant transformation to oral cancer among patients with leukoplakia (Review). Oncol Rep. 2003;10:1683-92 pubmed
    Elimination of leukoplakia is one of the strategies for prevention of oral cancer...
  59. Hsiu Hsi Chen T, Yen M, Shiu M, Tung T, Wu H. Stochastic model for non-standard case-cohort design. Stat Med. 2004;23:633-47 pubmed
    ..the effect of betel quids, smoking and alcohol on three-state disease progression, from normal, through leukoplakia and finally to oral cancer...
  60. Petrou S. Urinary urgency and frequency, and chronic urethral and/or pelvic pain in females. Can doxycycline help?. Int Braz J Urol. 2004;30:354-5 pubmed
  61. Norhany S, Kouzu Y, Uzawa K, Hayama M, Higo M, Koike H, et al. Overexpression of PAX5 in oral carcinogenesis. Oncol Rep. 2006;16:1003-8 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that PAX5 plays an important role during oral carcinogenesis, especially in the early stage, and that the gene may have potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target for OSCC...
  62. Bathi R, Rao R, Mutalik S. GST null genotype and antioxidants: risk indicators for oral pre-cancer and cancer. Indian J Dent Res. 2009;20:298-303 pubmed publisher
    This study was undertaken to detect the gene polymorphism of detoxification enzymes and estimate the antioxidant enzyme status in patients with oral cancer, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF).
  63. Yarom N, Epstein J, Levi H, Porat D, Kaufman E, Gorsky M. Oral manifestations of habitual khat chewing: a case-control study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;109:e60-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the association between habitual Khat use and oral/dental pigmentation, gingival health, and reports of oral dryness...
  64. Zhou J, Tao L, Zhang D, Chen B, Tang W, Lu L. [Association of IL-10 promoter polymorphism and plasma levels with susceptibility to vocal cords leukoplakia]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2013;48:1017-21 pubmed
    To investigated the association between interleukin-10(IL-10)-1082/-819/-592 promoter polymorphism, plasma IL-10 levels and risk of vocal leukoplakia.
  65. Chakravarti N, Mathur M, Bahadur S, Shukla N, Rochette Egly C, Ralhan R. Expression of RARalpha and RARbeta in human oral potentially malignant and neoplastic lesions. Int J Cancer. 2001;91:27-31 pubmed
    ..detect expression of these proteins in 30 histopathologically normal tissues, 45 potentially malignant lesions (leukoplakia) with histological evidence of either hyperplasia (31 cases) or dysplasia (14 cases) and 64 oral squamous-cell ..
  66. von Arx T, Koch S, Hardt N. [Lesions of the mouth mucosa. An anamnestic and clinical study of 100 consecutive patients with mucosal lesions]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 2002;112:326-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, 11 cases presented with leukoplakia and 4 cases with lichen planus, both recognized as possible precancerous conditions...
  67. Thomson P, Soames J, Booth C, O Shea J. Epithelial cell proliferative activity and oral cancer progression. Cell Prolif. 2002;35 Suppl 1:110-20 pubmed
    ..Measurement of cell proliferative activity in individual oral epithelial dysplastic lesions or invasive squamous cell carcinomas may thus provide unique, predictive information on clinical outcome...
  68. Sun G, Zhou S, Wen W, Li Z, Shen X. [Clinical analysis of the application of Diomed-25 laser in treatment of vocal cord leukoplakia in 30 cases]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi. 2004;18:141-2 pubmed
    To explore the effect of Diomed-25 semi-conductive laser in treatment of vocal cord leukoplakia.
  69. Nagao Y, Kawaguchi T, Ide T, Kumashiro R, Sata M. Exacerbation of oral erosive lichen planus by combination of interferon and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Int J Mol Med. 2005;15:237-41 pubmed
    ..We present a case of erosive OLP, cutaneous lichen planus (CLP), and leukoplakia of the vocal cord in a man with chronic hepatitis C infection treated with IFN and ribavirin...
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    While heavy drinking is a risk factor for oral leukoplakia, the effects of moderate drinking and of different alcoholic beverages are unclear and were investigated in this case-control study...
  72. Accortt N, Waterbor J, Beall C, Howard G, Brooks C. Need to educate primary caregivers about the risk factor profile of smokeless tobacco users. J Cancer Educ. 2005;20:222-8 pubmed
    ..In this article, we focus on smokeless tobacco (ST), a known risk factor for oral leukoplakia and oral cancer, and the cancer risk factors associated with its use.
  73. Kreuter A, Brockmeyer N, Wieland U. Irregularly shaped leucoplakic lesion of the anus. Diagnosis: anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007;32:621-3 pubmed
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    ..The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of tobacco chewing on buccal mucosa by using cytomorphometry...
  75. Amirchaghmaghi M, Mohtasham N, Mozaffari P. Comparison of COX2 expression between oral squamous cell carcinoma, leukoplakia and normal mucosa. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012;13:205-9 pubmed
    To compare cyclooxygenase 2 expression (COX2-E) between normal, oral leukoplakia lesions and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  76. Yabe M, Yabe H, Hattori K, Morimoto T, Hinohara T, Takakura I, et al. Fatal interstitial pulmonary disease in a patient with dyskeratosis congenita after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1997;19:389-92 pubmed
    ..There was no evidence of chronic GVHD in the skin and the liver. These findings raise the possibility that this pulmonary complication was associated with DC itself...
  77. Sadri M, McMahon J, Parker A. Management of laryngeal dysplasia: a review. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;263:843-52 pubmed
  78. Ranieri G, Grammatica L, Patruno R, Zito A, Valerio P, Iacobellis S, et al. A possible role of thymidine phosphorylase expression and 5-fluorouracil increased sensitivity in oropharyngeal cancer patients. J Cell Mol Med. 2007;11:362-8 pubmed
    ..N(0-1) M(0) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSC) and from 24 patients with non-dysplastic oropharyngeal leukoplakia (NDOLP)...
  79. Nishizawa A, Nakajima R, Nakano H, Sawamura D, Takayama K, Satoh T, et al. A de novo missense mutation in the keratin 13 gene in oral white sponge naevus. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159:974-5 pubmed publisher
  80. Geiges M. Traces of Marion B. Sulzberger in the Museum of Wax Moulages in Zurich and their importance for the history of dermatology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:980-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Today, the wax models of Sulzberger's work belong to the most important examples of moulages used in medical historical research. They also have value for teaching dermatology to medical students...
  81. Tang D, Tang W, Shi X, Li W, Zhou H, Lu L, et al. Association of the microsatellite (GT)n repeat polymorphisms of the HO-1 gene promoter and corresponding serum levels with the risk of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol. 2016;136:806-11 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 142 LSCC patients, 54 vocal leukoplakia patients and 98 healthy controls, were examined for (GT)n polymorphisms by sequencing, and the serum HO-1 ..
  82. Rutledge F, Sinclair M. Treatment of intraepithelial carcinoma of the vulva by skin excision and graft. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1968;102:807-18 pubmed
  83. Reibel J. Prognosis of oral pre-malignant lesions: significance of clinical, histopathological, and molecular biological characteristics. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2003;14:47-62 pubmed
    ..e., the initial presence of a precursor subsequently developing into cancer, is well-established. Oral leukoplakia is the best-known precursor lesion...
  84. Fan G, Xu F, Yang B, Fujieda S. p57(kip2) expression is related to carcinogenesis and tumor progression in laryngeal tissues. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006;126:301-5 pubmed
    ..Reduction of p57(kip2) expression is related to carcinogenesis in laryngeal mucosa. Assessment of p57(kip2) expression may be a promising candidate as a progressive biomarker in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)...
  85. Matthias C, Schuster M, Zieger S, Harreus U. COX-2 inhibitors celecoxib and rofecoxib prevent oxidative DNA fragmentation. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:2003-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro DNA protective or damaging effects of COX-2 inhibitors using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay...
  86. Mahiques L, Febrer I, Vilata J, Fortea J. A case of dyskeratosis congenita associated with schizophrenia and two malignancies. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:1159-61 pubmed
  87. Palmieri B, Iannitti T, Capone S, Flescher E. A preliminary study of the local treatment of preneoplastic and malignant skin lesions using methyl jasmonate. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011;15:333-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, they show a selective activity against transformed cells and affect drug-resistant cells as well...
  88. Reichel M, Grix A, Isseroff R. Dyskeratosis congenita associated with elevated fetal hemoglobin, X-linked ocular albinism, and juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Dermatol. 1992;9:103-6 pubmed
    ..It is a previously unrecognized, commonly associated finding in dyskeratosis congenita that may provide insight into the location and function of the gene for dyskeratosis congenita...
  89. Bissada N. Conservative extirpative treatment of cancer of the penis. Urol Clin North Am. 1992;19:283-90 pubmed
    ..Young and reliable patients with well-differentiated tumors are the most suitable candidates for conservative surgical extirpation...
  90. Burkhard F, Blick N, Hochreiter W, Studer U. Urinary urgency and frequency, and chronic urethral and/or pelvic pain in females. Can doxycycline help?. J Urol. 2004;172:232-5 pubmed
    ..We evaluated whether treatment with doxycycline of the patient and her sexual partner would be beneficial...
  91. Bremmer J, Braakhuis B, Ruijter Schippers H, Brink A, Duarte H, Kuik D, et al. A noninvasive genetic screening test to detect oral preneoplastic lesions. Lab Invest. 2005;85:1481-8 pubmed
    ..analysis using microsatellite markers, and evaluated on noncancer subjects and patients with oral leukoplakia. A noninvasive sampling method was developed with DNA yields ranging from 150 to 600 ng...
  92. Cakmak S, Gonul M, Kilic A, Gul U, Koçak O, Demiriz M. A case of dyskeratosis congenita with Chiari 1 malformation, absence of inferior vena cava, webbed neck, and low posterior hair neck. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:377-9 pubmed publisher
    ..congenita (DC) is a rare inherited disorder that is usually seen in males, consisting of the triad of leukoplakia of the mucous membranes, nail dystrophy, and skin pigmentation...