paraneoplastic syndromes

Summary

Summary: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.

Top Publications

  1. Taverne J, Delourme J, Dhalluin X, Copin M, Scherpereel A, Lafitte J, et al. [Should elevated beta-HCG levels be an exclusion criteria in clinical trials? A case report of paraneoplastic secretion associated with lung adenocarcinoma]. Rev Pneumol Clin. 2013;69:36-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Usefulness of serial measurements of beta HCG for monitoring NSCLC has yet to be demonstrated, but its use as a criterion for inclusion in clinical trials needs to be questioned...
  2. Kondo M, Sanuki R, Ueno S, Nishizawa Y, Hashimoto N, Ohguro H, et al. Identification of autoantibodies against TRPM1 in patients with paraneoplastic retinopathy associated with ON bipolar cell dysfunction. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19911 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the current study is to investigate whether there are autoantibodies against TRPM1 in the sera of PR patients exhibiting ON bipolar cell dysfunction...
  3. Feller L, Wood N, Khammissa R, Chikte U, Essop R, Meyerov R, et al. Oral cancer-associated paraneoplastic syndromes. SADJ. 2010;65:424-6 pubmed
    b>Paraneoplastic syndromes are cancer-associated endocrinological, haematological, dermatological or neurological disorders, which are directly related neither to the physical effects of the tumour mass, nor to invasion by the primary ..
  4. Abreu Velez A, Howard M. Diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous paraneoplastic disorders. Dermatol Ther. 2010;23:662-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Skin disorders that may be associated with paraneoplastic syndromes include: cutaneous metastases, tripe palms, Sweet's syndrome, glucagonoma, Paget's disease and ..
  5. McClelland M. Paraneoplastic syndromes related to lung cancer. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2010;14:357-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNSs) are defined as signs or symptoms that occur as a result of organ or tissue damage at locations that are remote from the primary tumor site or metastases...
  6. Kaltsas G, Androulakis I, de Herder W, Grossman A. Paraneoplastic syndromes secondary to neuroendocrine tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010;17:R173-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The term 'paraneoplastic syndromes' (PNSs) is used to denote syndromes secondary to substances secreted from tumours not related to their ..
  7. Pelosof L, Gerber D. Paraneoplastic syndromes: an approach to diagnosis and treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85:838-54 pubmed publisher
    Recent medical advances have improved the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of paraneoplastic syndromes. These disorders arise from tumor secretion of hormones, peptides, or cytokines or from immune cross-reactivity between ..
  8. Gozzard P, Maddison P. Which antibody and which cancer in which paraneoplastic syndromes?. Pract Neurol. 2010;10:260-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This article gives a practical overview of the tumour associations, and the neurological associations, of the onconeural antibodies. There is also guidance on how to investigate occult malignancy in antibody positive cases...
  9. Titulaer M, Soffietti R, Dalmau J, Gilhus N, Giometto B, Graus F, et al. Screening for tumours in paraneoplastic syndromes: report of an EFNS task force. Eur J Neurol. 2011;18:19-e3 pubmed publisher
    ..paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) almost invariably predate detection of the malignancy. Screening for tumours is important in PNS as the tumour directly affects prognosis and treatment and should be performed as soon as possible...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Jabbour S. Skin manifestations of hormone-secreting tumors. Dermatol Ther. 2010;23:643-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We will focus on clinical manifestations, mainly cutaneous, followed by a brief discussion on how to make the diagnosis of each condition in addition to treatment options...
  2. Hauber H. [Paraneoplastic syndromes in lung cancer]. Pneumologie. 2011;65:347-58 pubmed publisher
    b>Paraneoplastic syndromes occur in approximately 10% of all patients with lung cancer. They can be the first manifestation of the disease or of a recurrence...
  3. Qiao J, Zhou G, Ding Y, Zhu D, Fang H. Multiple paraneoplastic syndromes: myasthenia gravis, vitiligo, alopecia areata, and oral lichen planus associated with thymoma. J Neurol Sci. 2011;308:177-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that this is the first report of this particular combination of multiple paraneoplastic syndromes associated with thymoma.
  4. Ramos e Silva M, Carvalho J, Carneiro S. Cutaneous paraneoplasia. Clin Dermatol. 2011;29:541-7 pubmed publisher
  5. Costa M, Martinez N, Belicha M, Leal F. Acanthosis nigricans and "tripe palm" as paraneoplastic manifestations of metastatic tumor. An Bras Dermatol. 2012;87:498-500 pubmed
    ..We report the case of a patient with stage IV ovarian adenocarcinoma presenting acanthosis nigricans and tripe palm. Both findings are closely correlated to the neoplasm course...
  6. Ortega Loayza A, Ramos W, Gutierrez E, Paz P, Bobbio L, Galarza C. Cutaneous manifestations of internal malignancies in a tertiary health care hospital of a developing country. An Bras Dermatol. 2010;85:736-42 pubmed
    ..However, when identified, they might facilitate the early diagnosis of an associated tumor and contribute to increase the surveillance of patients...
  7. Shah A, Jack A, Liu H, Hopkins R. Neoplastic/paraneoplastic dermatitis, fasciitis, and panniculitis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2011;37:573-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Effective treatment of the associated neoplasm often leads to improvement of the cutaneous manifestations and should be the primary focus of each patient's management...
  8. Toro C, Rinaldo A, Silver C, Politi M, Ferlito A. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2009;36:513-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) represent the clinical manifestation of the remote and indirect effects produced by tumor metabolites or other products...
  9. Savchenko M, Bazhin A, Shifrina O, Demoura S, Kogan E, Chuchalin A, et al. Antirecoverin autoantibodies in the patient with non-small cell lung cancer but without cancer-associated retinopathy. Lung Cancer. 2003;41:363-7 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first case of the presence of serum anti-Rc in NSCLC patients in the absence of paraneoplastic retina degeneration. ..
  10. Mimouni D, Anhalt G, Lazarova Z, Aho S, Kazerounian S, Kouba D, et al. Paraneoplastic pemphigus in children and adolescents. Br J Dermatol. 2002;147:725-32 pubmed
    ..Serum autoantibodies against plakin proteins were the most constant diagnostic markers. Pulmonary injury appears to account for the very high mortality rates observed. ..
  11. Cohen P. Granuloma annulare, relapsing polychondritis, sarcoidosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus: conditions whose dermatologic manifestations may occur as hematologic malignancy-associated mucocutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:70-80 pubmed
  12. Nikolskaia O, Nousari C, Anhalt G. Paraneoplastic pemphigus in association with Castleman's disease. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:1143-51 pubmed
    ..Serum autoantibodies against plakin proteins are the most diagnostic markers. Pulmonary injury with respiratory failure is the cause of death in most cases. ..
  13. Rutherford G, Dineen R, O CONNOR A. Imaging in the investigation of paraneoplastic syndromes. Clin Radiol. 2007;62:1021-35 pubmed
    b>Paraneoplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of disease presentations caused by underlying tumours. As they are non-metastatic in nature an intensive diagnostic evaluation is warranted to identify potentially curable lesions...
  14. Hoffman M, Qiao X, Anhalt G. CD8+ T lymphocytes in bronchiolitis obliterans, paraneoplastic pemphigus, and solitary Castleman's disease. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:407-8 pubmed
  15. Ljubenovic M, Ljubenovic D, Binic I, Jankovic A, Jovanovic D. Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica (Bazex syndrome). Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2009;75:329 pubmed publisher
    ..Bazex syndrome can appear before the diagnosis of internal malignancies, and thus is important for dermatologists to recognize it in favor of early diagnosis of specific malignant process. ..
  16. Pipkin C, Lio P. Cutaneous manifestations of internal malignancies: an overview. Dermatol Clin. 2008;26:1-15, vii pubmed
    ..A heightened awareness of these conditions may facilitate the diagnosis of malignancy. ..
  17. Sator P, Breier F, Gschnait F. Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica (Bazex's syndrome): association with liposarcoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:1103-5 pubmed
    ..We, therefore, add liposarcoma to the growing list of malignant neoplasms associated with acrokeratosis paraneoplastica...
  18. Wu S, Slakter J, Shields J, Spaide R. Cancer-associated nummular loss of the pigment epithelium. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139:933-5 pubmed
    ..To report a case of bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP) that had areas of retinal pigment epithelial loss...
  19. Ohguro H, Yokoi Y, Ohguro I, Mamiya K, Ishikawa F, Yamazaki H, et al. Clinical and immunologic aspects of cancer-associated retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:1117-9 pubmed
    ..For diagnosis of cancer-associated retinopathy, the presence of serum autoantibody toward recoverin is essentially required in addition to the characteristic clinical aspects noted above. ..
  20. Thomas I, Schwartz R. Cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes: uncommon presentations. Clin Dermatol. 2005;23:593-600 pubmed
    b>Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of clinical manifestations associated with a malignancy, but not directly related to the primary tumor itself or to its metastases...
  21. Ferlito A, Rinaldo A. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with cancer of the larynx and hypopharynx. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007;116:502-13 pubmed
    b>Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first sign of a malignancy. They are systemic, nonmetastatic manifestations associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms and occurring in a minority of cancer patients...
  22. Edgin W, Pratt T, Grimwood R. Pemphigus vulgaris and paraneoplastic pemphigus. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2008;20:577-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Great diagnostic and management strides have been made, but morbidity and life quality issues remain a reality for these chronically ill patients. ..
  23. Hartmann T, Bazhin A, Schadendorf D, Eichmüller S. SEREX identification of new tumor antigens linked to melanoma-associated retinopathy. Int J Cancer. 2005;114:88-93 pubmed
    ..Supplementary material for this article can be found on the International Journal of Cancer website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0020-7136/suppmat/index.html.) ..
  24. Ohguro H, Maruyama I, Nakazawa M, Oohira A. Antirecoverin antibody in the aqueous humor of a patient with cancer-associated retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:605-7 pubmed
    ..To describe a patient with cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) in whom antirecoverin antibody was found in the aqueous humor...
  25. Rees J. Paraneoplastic syndromes: when to suspect, how to confirm, and how to manage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75 Suppl 2:ii43-50 pubmed
  26. Lu Y, Jia L, He S, Hurley M, Leys M, Jayasundera T, et al. Melanoma-associated retinopathy: a paraneoplastic autoimmune complication. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:1572-80 pubmed publisher
  27. Río Ramírez M, Casado López M, Peirón Puyal M, Peñas Herrero J. [Pulmonary adenocarcinoma and Bazex syndrome (paraneoplastic acrokeratosis)]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2007;43:46-8 pubmed
    ..We present a case in which both pulmonary adenocarcinoma and Bazex syndrome were present...
  28. Sacco E, Pinto F, Sasso F, Racioppi M, Gulino G, Volpe A, et al. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with urological malignancies. Urol Int. 2009;83:1-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) may represent the main clinical problem in cancer patients; however, the knowledge of their clinical aspect remains quite poor among urologists.
  29. Pink D, Schoeler D, Lindner T, Thuss Patience P, Kretzschmar A, Knipp H, et al. Severe hypoglycemia caused by paraneoplastic production of IGF-II in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a report of two cases. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:6809-11 pubmed
  30. Wang J, Zhu X, Li R, Tu P, Wang R, Zhang L, et al. Paraneoplastic pemphigus associated with Castleman tumor: a commonly reported subtype of paraneoplastic pemphigus in China. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141:1285-93 pubmed
    ..We analyzed the characteristics of a group of patients with Castleman tumor to clearly understand and to improve the prognosis of the disease...
  31. Ling C, Pavesio C. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with visual loss. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2003;14:426-32 pubmed
    The recent literature was reviewed to analyze the developments in the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and immunology of this group of paraneoplastic syndromes. Clinical features and pathologic findings are summarized.
  32. Tey H, Tang M. A case of paraneoplastic pemphigus associated with Castleman's disease presenting as erosive lichen planus. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34:e754-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This case highlights the importance of repeated investigations to exclude PNP in patients with recalcitrant mucosal erosions, especially if atypical features are present...
  33. Meager A, Peterson P, Willcox N. Hypothetical review: thymic aberrations and type-I interferons; attempts to deduce autoimmunizing mechanisms from unexpected clues in monogenic and paraneoplastic syndromes. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;154:141-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These ideas raise numerous questions that others may already have the materials to address...
  34. Tormoehlen L, Pascuzzi R. Thymoma, myasthenia gravis, and other paraneoplastic syndromes. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2008;22:509-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Myasthenia gravis may be considered as the most common of the paraneoplastic syndromes in patients who have thymoma...
  35. Adamus G. Autoantibody targets and their cancer relationship in the pathogenicity of paraneoplastic retinopathy. Autoimmun Rev. 2009;8:410-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of autoantibodies involved in autoimmune-mediated PR will help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the PR syndromes and develop targeted therapies for these sight-threatening disorders...
  36. des Guetz G, Mariani P, Freneaux P, Pouillart P. Paraneoplastic syndromes in cancer: Case 2. Leucocytosis associated with liposarcoma recurrence: original presentation of liposarcoma recurrence. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:2242-3 pubmed
  37. Yu S, Ikeda T, Ikeda N, Mimura O, Sato K. Coloration of fundus lesions in bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2003;47:612-5 pubmed
    ..To report differences in the coloration of fundus lesions between Asian and Caucasian patients with bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP)...
  38. Spiro S, Gould M, Colice G. Initial evaluation of the patient with lung cancer: symptoms, signs, laboratory tests, and paraneoplastic syndromes: ACCP evidenced-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest. 2007;132:149S-160S pubmed
    This chapter of the guidelines is intended to provide an evidence-based assessment of the initial evaluation of patients recognized as having lung cancer and the recognition of paraneoplastic syndromes.
  39. Thiers B, Sahn R, Callen J. Cutaneous manifestations of internal malignancy. CA Cancer J Clin. 2009;59:73-98 pubmed publisher
  40. Finora K. Common paraneoplastic syndromes. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 2003;18:123-6 pubmed
    ..These are a group of changes that occur in the body at sites distant from the actual tumor. Paraneoplastic syndromes can affect many different body systems...
  41. Chan J. Paraneoplastic retinopathies and optic neuropathies. Surv Ophthalmol. 2003;48:12-38 pubmed
    ..neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs that go unexplained should warrant a thorough investigation for paraneoplastic syndromes. Although these syndromes are rare, these clinical manifestations can herald an unsuspected, underlying ..
  42. Shibuya Y, Matuo K, Kawada T, Kosugi T, Gomi T. [Adult onset Still's disease associated esophageal cancer: a case report]. Ryumachi. 2003;43:577-82 pubmed
    ..This case is considered as a paraneoplastic syndrome of the esophageal cancer. Patients with adult onset Still's disease should be followed as a paraneoplastic syndrome...
  43. Dourmishev L, Draganov P. Paraneoplastic dermatological manifestation of gastrointestinal malignancies. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:4372-9 pubmed
    ..We also outline a comprehensive practical approach for the evaluation for occult malignancy in patients presenting with cutaneous findings potentially associated with GI cancers...
  44. Suhler E, Chan C, Caruso R, Schrump D, Thirkill C, Smith J, et al. Presumed teratoma-associated paraneoplastic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:133-7 pubmed
  45. Thomas L, Kwok Y, Edelman M. Management of paraneoplastic syndromes in lung cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2004;5:51-62 pubmed
    b>Paraneoplastic syndromes are common complications of lung cancer. Although most frequently associated with advanced disease, paraneoplastic syndromes may also occur at early stages...
  46. Scheuermann K, Delank K. [Paraneoplastic syndromes in ENT surgery]. HNO. 2003;51:332-6 pubmed
    b>Paraneoplastic syndromes are extremely rare in otolaryngology.However, they can significantly influence both the therapy and outcome of patients with oncologic disease...
  47. Mar W, Glaesser R, Struble K, Stephens Groff S, Bangert J, Hansen R. Paraneoplastic pemphigus with bronchiolitis obliterans in a child. Pediatr Dermatol. 2003;20:238-42 pubmed
    ..This patient had an underlying inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and subsequently developed fatal progressive bronchiolitis obliterans...
  48. Mohammed Ilyas M, Turner G, Cranston D. Human chorionic gonadotropin-secreting clear cell renal cell carcinoma with paraneoplastic gynaecomastia. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2008;42:555-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nine months after his nephrectomy, he developed a paratesticular lesion involving scrotal skin, for which he underwent a right radical orchidectomy. Histopathology of the paratesticular lesion showed metastatic renal cell carcinoma...
  49. Woo V, Abdelsayed R. Oral manifestations of internal malignancy and paraneoplastic syndromes. Dent Clin North Am. 2008;52:203-30, x pubmed
    Malignant tumors of visceral organs are a fundamental feature of familial cancer and paraneoplastic syndromes. In many instances, the presence of an internal and often occult malignancy may be forewarned by various external manifestations...
  50. Demirtas E, Krishnamurthy S, Tulandi T. Elevated serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in nonpregnant conditions. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2007;62:675-9; quiz 691 pubmed
    ..This is illustrated by our case report of a 26-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a spindle cell osteosarcoma of the shoulder. The serum beta-hCG became undetectable after chemotherapy...
  51. Posner J. Immunology of paraneoplastic syndromes: overview. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;998:178-86 pubmed
    ..cause disturbances of organs or tissues remote from the site of the tumor or its metastases are called paraneoplastic syndromes. The nervous system can be affected at virtually any site, including the neuromuscular junction (e.g...
  52. Chapireau D, Adlam D, Cameron M, Thompson M. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with primary oral cancers: a systematic review. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;48:338-44 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to review all the paraneoplastic syndromes of primary tumours of the oral cavity. Metastatic tumours of the mouth and primary tumours of the oropharynx (including tonsils), and major salivary glands were excluded...
  53. Alabduljalil T, Behbehani R. Paraneoplastic syndromes in neuro-ophthalmology. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2007;18:463-9 pubmed
    The aim of this review is to discuss and highlight the recent advances in our understanding of paraneoplastic syndromes in neuro-ophthalmology and their significance.
  54. Krzystek Korpacka M, Boehm D, Matusiewicz M, Diakowska D, Grabowski K, Gamian A. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) status in gastroesophageal malignancies and associated paraneoplastic syndromes - connection with inflammation. Clin Biochem. 2008;41:804-11 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the status and diagnostic utility of antioxidant paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in gastroesophageal cancers...
  55. van der Marel J, Pahlplatz P, Steup W, Hendriks E. Thymoma with paraneoplastic syndromes, Good's syndrome, and pure red cell aplasia. J Thorac Oncol. 2007;2:325-6 pubmed
  56. Darnell R, Posner J. Paraneoplastic syndromes affecting the nervous system. Semin Oncol. 2006;33:270-98 pubmed
    ..We review the currently known PND and their pathogenesis...
  57. Slee P, van der Waal R, Schagen van Leeuwen J, Tupker R, Timmer R, Seldenrijk C, et al. Paraneoplastic hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita: uncommon or overlooked?. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:1087-92 pubmed
    ..It is stressed that the appearance of lanugo-type hypertrichosis in body areas previously perceived by patients as 'hairless' is highly indicative of internal malignancy...
  58. Goetgebuer G, Kestelyn Stevens A, De Laey J, Kestelyn P, Leroy B. Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) with electronegative ERG: a case report. Doc Ophthalmol. 2008;116:49-55 pubmed
    ..Melanoma-associated retinopathy was suspected. Extensive dermatological and internal evaluation eventually revealed an oat-cell carcinoma in the right lung. The patient died of pneumonia 2 years after presentation...
  59. Meyer S, Kroiss M, Landthaler M, Vogt T. Thymoma, myasthenia gravis, eruptions of pemphigus vulgaris and a favourable course of relapsing melanoma: an immunological puzzle. Br J Dermatol. 2006;155:638-40 pubmed
  60. Rojas G, Castro D, Vigo Guevara G, Ferrua M, Barriga Maldonado V, Rotta Escalante R. [Hypereosinophilic encephalopathy with multiple cerebral infarctions in neighbouring vascular territories associated with prostate cancer]. Rev Neurol. 2006;43:762-4 pubmed
  61. Wieland C, Kumar N. Sign of Leser-Trélat. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:643-4 pubmed publisher
  62. Serrão V, Martins A, Ponte P, Baptista J, Apetato M, Feio A. Erythema gyratum repens as the initial manifestation of lung cancer. Eur J Dermatol. 2008;18:197-8 pubmed publisher
  63. Baijens L, Manni J. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with primary malignancies of the head and neck. Four cases and a review of the literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;263:32-6 pubmed
    b>Paraneoplastic syndromes rarely affect patients with head and neck cancer...
  64. Gandhi L, Johnson B. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with small cell lung cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2006;4:631-8 pubmed
    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most frequent cancer histology associated with paraneoplastic syndromes. These syndromes are typically caused by ectopic hormone production or immune-mediated tissue destruction caused by neural ..
  65. Toro C, Rinaldo A, Silver C, Politi M, Ferlito A. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with oral cancer. Oral Oncol. 2010;46:14-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Dermatologic PNS are less common, but when they occur, they may precede the diagnosis of the oral tumor. Awareness of these conditions is important for clinicians who deal with cancer...
  66. Bedke J, Buse S, Kurosch M, Haferkamp A, Jager D, Hohenfellner M. [Paraneoplastic syndrome in renal cell carcinoma]. Urologe A. 2007;46:45-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of paraneoplastic manifestations does not necessarily imply a poor prognosis or metastatic disease...
  67. Fasanmade A, Farrell K, Perkins C. Bazex syndrome (acrokeratosis paraneoplastica): persistence of cutaneous lesions after successful treatment of an associated oropharyngeal neoplasm. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;47:138-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case associated with SCC of the right tonsil with persistent paraneoplastic cutaneous lesions 2 years after successful treatment of the underlying neoplasm...
  68. Ferlito A, Elsheikh M, Manni J, Rinaldo A. Paraneoplastic syndromes in patients with primary head and neck cancer. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;264:211-22 pubmed
    b>Paraneoplastic syndromes represent the clinical manifestations of the indirect and remote effects produced by tumor metabolites or other products...
  69. To K, Thirkill C, Jakobiec F, Lessell S, Berson E. Lymphoma-associated retinopathy. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:2149-53 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical, electrophysiologic, and serologic findings in a patient with retinal degeneration associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma...