leukemic infiltration


Summary: A pathologic change in leukemia in which leukemic cells permeate various organs at any stage of the disease. All types of leukemia show various degrees of infiltration, depending upon the type of leukemia. The degree of infiltration may vary from site to site. The liver and spleen are common sites of infiltration, the greatest appearing in myelocytic leukemia, but infiltration is seen also in the granulocytic and lymphocytic types. The kidney is also a common site and of the gastrointestinal system, the stomach and ileum are commonly involved. In lymphocytic leukemia the skin is often infiltrated. The central nervous system too is a common site.

Top Publications

  1. Gordon K, Rugo H, Duncan J, Irvine A, Howes E, O Brien J, et al. Ocular manifestations of leukemia: leukemic infiltration versus infectious process. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:2293-300 pubmed
    ..To determine whether specific guidelines can be developed to distinguish whether retinal infiltration in leukemia patients represents infection or neoplasia...
  2. Chang C, Chiou T, Hsieh Y, Cheng S. Leukemic infiltration of the urinary bladder presenting as uncontrollable gross hematuria in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2003;25:735-9 pubmed
    Acute leukemia can result in leukemic infiltration of many organs, but leukemic infiltration of the bladder is rare...
  3. Watson K, Mufti G, Salisbury J, Du Vivier A, Creamer D. Spectrum of clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis in a series of eight patients with leukaemia cutis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2006;31:218-21 pubmed
    ..The exception was a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, who survived 3 years after developing LC...
  4. Cho Vega J, Medeiros L, Prieto V, Vega F. Leukemia cutis. Am J Clin Pathol. 2008;129:130-42 pubmed
    ..We review the literature and recent advances pertaining to LC, with special emphasis on the immunohistochemical assessment and possible mechanisms involved in skin tropism by leukemic cells...
  5. Martín Hernández M, Alonso y Gregorio S, Cansino Alcaide R, Pérez Utrilla M, Aguilera Bazan A, Regojo Zapata R, et al. [Leukemic infiltration of the urinary bladder. A new case and literature review]. Actas Urol Esp. 2008;32:563-6 pubmed
    We expose you one case of leukemic infiltration of the urinary bladder. This kind of infiltration is rare so we reviewed the literature finding 14 cases since 1932...
  6. Ferreira A, Brum S, Carvalho D, Pataca I, Carvalho F, Santos M, et al. Renal dysfunction due to leukemic infiltration of kidneys in a case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Hemodial Int. 2010;14:87-90 pubmed publisher
    Renal failure due to leukemic infiltration of kidney in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an extremely rare condition...
  7. Bakst R, Tallman M, Douer D, Yahalom J. How I treat extramedullary acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2011;118:3785-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The timing of EM development at presentation versus relapse, involvement of the marrow, and AML risk classification help to determine our approach to treatment of EM disease...
  8. Chen W, Zhang W, Xu Y, Liu J, Fan L. [Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of extramedullary leukemic infiltration]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2004;33:527-31 pubmed
    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in extramedullary leukemic infiltration.
  9. Wu Y, Huang Y, Huang S, Huang C, Tsai Y. Acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by leukemic infiltration of the lung. J Formos Med Assoc. 2008;107:419-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Leukemic pulmonary involvement should be considered in acute leukemia patients with non-infectious diffusive lung infiltration, especially in acute leukemia with a high blast count...

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Paydas S, Zorludemir S. Leukaemia cutis and leukaemic vasculitis. Br J Dermatol. 2000;143:773-9 pubmed
    ..Leukaemia cutis (LC) and leukaemic vasculitis (LV) are uncommon but important features of haematological malignancy...
  2. Jing J, Li L, He W, Sun G. Prognostic predictors of squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with negative surgical margins. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:896-901 pubmed
    ..17 mm. T classification and recurrence are predictive factors for survival. ..
  3. Plantin P, Firmin D, Kupfer Bessaguet I, Staroz F, Blondin G, Le Moigne P, et al. [Leukaemia cutis during acute aleukaemic myeloid leukaemia in a two-month-old infant]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2008;135:304-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The existence of multiple cutaneous tumours in newborn infants raises the possibility of TORCH infection and of other malignant tumours such as nephroblastoma or neuroblastoma. ..
  4. Cunningham I. A basis for updating our approach to resistant acute leukemia. Am J Hematol. 2012;87:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This could yield an accurate incidence of extramedullary tumors and a means to identify occult residual disease which could lead to marrow relapse. This approach could potentially result in greater success in curing acute leukemias. ..
  5. Méndez Cepeda P, Millán Rodríguez A, Dios E, Alvarez C, Sevillano C. [Conjunctival myeloid sarcoma in acute myeloblastic leukemia-M1]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2012;87:79-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient died due to multiorgan failure three months later. Extramedullary recurrence of leukemia can appear as an ocular manifestation that brings about a recurrence of the leukemia, leading to a poor prognosis. ..
  6. Wilkins R, Janes S. Aleukaemic leukaemia cutis: case report and review of the literature. Clin Lab Haematol. 2004;26:73-5 pubmed
    ..These patients probably require therapy directed specifically to the skin, as well as to other extramedullary sites, such as the central nervous system, to prevent early relapse. ..
  7. Nouette Gaulain K, Rossi H, Neau Cransac M, Quinart A, Revel P, Sztark F. [Severe acute hepatic failure and haemophagocytic syndrome: cause or consequence?]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2004;23:349-52 pubmed
    ..This syndrome is probably underestimated in ICU patients. Haemophagocytic syndrome should be suspected in patients with fever and jaundice without infection. ..
  8. Abla O, Naqvi A, Ye C, Bhattacharjee R, Shago M, Abdelhaleem M, et al. Leptomeningeal precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in a child with minimal bone marrow involvement. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004;26:469-72 pubmed
    ..This patient was treated on a high-risk ALL protocol with intensive systemic/intrathecal chemotherapy plus cranial irradiation, and he remained in complete remission 6 months after his initial diagnosis. ..
  9. Kakagia D, Tamiolakis D, Lambropoulou M, Kakagia A, Grekou A, Papadopoulos N. Systemic B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia first presenting as a cutaneous infiltrate arising at the site of a herpes simplex scar. Minerva Stomatol. 2005;54:161-3 pubmed
    ..A case of a 63-year-old male patient with cutaneous B-CLL infiltrate of the right oral commissure at the site of herpes simplex scar as first sign of the disease is herein reported. ..
  10. Nagpal M, Mehrotra N, Mehta R, Shukla C. LEUKEMIC OPTIC NERVE INFILTRATION IN A PATIENT WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA. Retin Cases Brief Rep. 2016;10:127-30 pubmed publisher
    ..and imaging features of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia that was complicated by optic nerve leukemic infiltration. A 36-year-old man with history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia on treatment presented with decreased ..
  11. Firas A, Demeckova E, Bojtarova E, Czako B, Hrubisko M, Mistrik M. Isolated extra-medullary relapse of acute leukemia following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2008;109:358-61 pubmed
    ..The results indicate a stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect in the marrow than in the peripheral tissues (Fig. 4, Ref. 13). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. ..
  12. Ponzoni M, Kanellis G, Pouliou E, Baliakas P, Scarfo L, Ferreri A, et al. Bone marrow histopathology in the diagnostic evaluation of splenic marginal-zone and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma: a reliable substitute for spleen histopathology?. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:1609-18 pubmed publisher
    ..However, presently it is not possible to distinguish SMZL from SDRL on the basis of BMB evaluation alone; hence, histopathologic examination of the spleen remains the "gold standard" approach. ..
  13. Hussein M. Cutaneous pseudolymphomas: inflammatory reactive proliferations. Expert Rev Hematol. 2013;6:713-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Rare cases harbor clonal lymphoid populations and can progress to low-grade lymphomas. Herein, the author reviews the etiology, clinicopathologic features and diagnosis of the cutaneous pseudolymphomas. ..
  14. Liu D, Seiter K, Mathews T, Madahar C, Ahmed T. Sweet's syndrome with CML cell infiltration of the skin in a patient with chronic-phase CML while taking Imatinib Mesylate. Leuk Res. 2004;28 Suppl 1:S61-3 pubmed
  15. Wu L, Calderón M, Hernandez G, Marbis J, Ramirez V. Bilateral exudative retinal detachment as the first sign of relapsing acute myelogenous leukaemia. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34:623-5 pubmed
    ..Herein, a case is described where a trans-scleral choroidal biopsy was used to diagnose relapsing acute myelogenous leukaemia when the rest of her systemic work-up was negative. ..
  16. Gonçalves P, Almeida M, Andrade M, de Gouveia R, Gouveia R, Ferreira J, et al. Cardiac mass in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Rev Port Cardiol. 2002;21:1371-3 pubmed
  17. Yang L, Dong Z, Wen S, Pan L, Zhang X, Luo J, et al. [Relationship between VEGF and MMP-2, MMP-9 in 82 patients with acute myeloid leukemia]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2006;14:15-20 pubmed
    ..VEGF can upregulate the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 in HL-60 and a part of the primary leukemic cells. VEGF and MMP-2, MMP-9 may participate in the extramedullary leukemic invasion of AML patients. ..
  18. Hewamana S, Pepper C, Jenkins C, Rowntree C. Acute renal failure as the presenting feature of leukaemic infiltration in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2009;13:179-181 pubmed publisher
    ..Leukaemic infiltration of kidney should always be considered when a patient with CLL presents with renal impairment, regardless of the clinical stage, as the renal failure often responds well to chemotherapy. ..
  19. Kreiniz N, Beyar Katz O, Polliack A, Tadmor T. The Clinical Spectrum of Hepatic Manifestations in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2017;17:863-869 pubmed publisher
    ..This review contains sections on liver enlargement because of leukemic infiltration, autoimmune-induced hepatic dysfunction, acute liver failure, drug-induced liver toxicity, and associated ..
  20. Otahal P, Schell T, Hutchinson S, Knowles B, Tevethia S. Early immunization induces persistent tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells against an immunodominant epitope and promotes lifelong control of pancreatic tumor progression in SV40 tumor antigen transgenic mice. J Immunol. 2006;177:3089-99 pubmed
    ..This study indicates that an equilibrium is reached in which immune surveillance for spontaneous cancer can be achieved for the lifespan of the host while maintaining normal organ function. ..
  21. Samara M, Brennan J, Van Besien K, Larson R. Cardiac tamponade in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48:829-32 pubmed
  22. Platten M, Opitz C, Kohlhof P, Hegenbart U, Ho A, Wick W. Painful neuropathy due to intraneural leukemic spread in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. Neurology. 2007;69:707 pubmed
  23. Aregawi D, Sherman J, Douvas M, Burns T, Schiff D. Neuroleukemiosis: case report of leukemic nerve infiltration in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Muscle Nerve. 2008;38:1196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In selected patients presenting with peripheral neuropathy, MRI and PET scan can be helpful in the diagnosis of peripheral nerve infiltration. ..
  24. Corbacioglu S, Eber S, Gungor T, Hummerjohann J, Niggli F. Induction of long-term remission of a relapsed childhood B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia with rituximab chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and autologous stem cell transplantation. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2003;25:327-9 pubmed
    ..CNS remission was reinduced with chemotherapy and the patient received an autologous transplant with rituximab for in vivo purging. He is currently in complete clinical and molecular remission for more than 1 year. ..
  25. Alexandrescu D, Koulova L, Wiernik P. Unusual cutaneous involvement during plasma cell leukaemia phase in a multiple myeloma patient after treatment with thalidomide: a case report and review of the literature. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2005;30:391-4 pubmed
    ..The significance of the changes in adhesion molecules, especially CD138 and CD56, relevant to the development of cutaneous plasmacytomas is discussed. ..
  26. Hill B, Weil A, Kalaycio M, Cook J. Pulmonary involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma is a specific pathologic finding independent of inflammatory infiltration. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012;53:589-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, LPI by CLL is not a bystander effect secondary to acute inflammation, but instead represents a distinct pathologic process in a subset of patients. ..
  27. Furuya M, Ramírez Figueroa J, Vargas M, Bernaldez Rios R, Vázquez Rosales J, Rodríguez Velasco A. Diagnoses unveiled by early bronchoscopy in children with leukemia and pulmonary infiltrates. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2012;34:596-600 pubmed publisher
    ..0%) patients, and leukemic infiltration was demonstrated in 2 patients (6.1%), among other conditions visualized by FOB...
  28. Aust G, Sittig D, Becherer L, Anderegg U, Schutz A, Lamesch P, et al. The role of CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13 in the compartmentalization of lymphocytes in thyroids affected by autoimmune thyroid diseases. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;150:225-34 pubmed
    ..CXCR5 and CXCL13 play an essential role in maintaining B- and T-cells in lymphocytic infiltrates and ectopic follicles in thyroid tissue from patients affected by autoimmunity. ..
  29. Borazan A, Ustun H, Ecirli S. Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of skeletal muscle coexistence with cutaneous infiltration. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2003;46:213-4 pubmed
    ..Primary extranodal lymphoma arising from skeletal muscle and concomitant skin infiltration of other body localization is not common. So this case was represented and relevant literature was reviewed. ..
  30. Watanabe N, Takahashi T, Sakamoto Y, Tanaka Y, Kurata M, Matsushita A, et al. [Pleural involvement in the course of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and the development of multiple colonic perforation due to leukemic infiltration in the acute leukemia phase]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2004;45:546-50 pubmed
    ..This patient may be the first reported case of CMML complicated by colonic perforation due to leukemic infiltration.
  31. Kalac M, Suvic Krizanic V, Ostojic S, Kardum Skelin I, Barsic B, Jaksica B. Central nervous system involvement of previously undiagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a patient with neuroborreliosis. Int J Hematol. 2007;85:323-5 pubmed
    ..We presumed that the neuroborreliosis enabled the transmigration of leukocytes, including B-CLL cells, across the blood-brain barrier via activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9, an enzyme known to open the blood-brain barrier. ..
  32. Gallipoli P, Leach M. Gingival infiltration in acute monoblastic leukaemia. Br Dent J. 2007;203:507-9 pubmed
    ..We report a case of a patient who presented with gingival enlargement secondary to leukaemic infiltration. This case shows the importance of awareness of leukaemic infiltration as a cause for gingival enlargement. ..
  33. Shimizu T, Tajiri T, Akimaru K, Arima Y, Yokomuro S, Yoshida H, et al. Cholecystitis caused by infiltration of immature myeloid cells: a case report. J Nippon Med Sch. 2006;73:97-100 pubmed
    ..An acute abdomen complicating hematologic disorders is life-threatening and requires prompt and appropriate treatment. ..
  34. Kesselring R, Thiel A, Pries R, Trenkle T, Wollenberg B. Human Th17 cells can be induced through head and neck cancer and have a functional impact on HNSCC development. Br J Cancer. 2010;103:1245-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Th17 cells have a substantial impact on the carcinogenesis of HNSCCs and on their metastasis and could serve as a potential therapeutic target to modulate anti-tumour response in HNSCC. ..
  35. Jeha S, Pei D, Raimondi S, Onciu M, Campana D, Cheng C, et al. Increased risk for CNS relapse in pre-B cell leukemia with the t(1;19)/TCF3-PBX1. Leukemia. 2009;23:1406-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that with contemporary treatment, patients with the t(1;19) and TCF3/PBX1 fusion have a favorable overall outcome but increased risk of CNS relapse. ..
  36. Macdonald D, Clark I, Naresh K. The Hammersmith Hospital hematopathology case of the month: paraspinal B lymphoblastic lymphoma – problems in diagnosis and initial indolent behavior. Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51:1913-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The first biopsy was revisited to demonstrate the lymphoblastic immunophenotype of the lesional cells. The 'indolent' appearance of the cells in the first biopsy was attributable to treatment with dexamethasone prior to the biopsy. ..
  37. Herrler T, Wang H, Tischer A, Schupp N, Lehner S, Meyer A, et al. Decompression of inflammatory edema along with endothelial cell therapy expedites regeneration after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cell Transplant. 2013;22:2091-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Microcapsulotomy may create a permissive environment for cell therapy to work. ..
  38. Mitchell C, Richards S, Kinsey S, Lilleyman J, Vora A, Eden T. Benefit of dexamethasone compared with prednisolone for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of the UK Medical Research Council ALL97 randomized trial. Br J Haematol. 2005;129:734-45 pubmed
  39. Olgar S, Yetgin S, Cetin M, Aras T. Can renal leukemic infiltration cause hypertension in children?. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;28:579-84 pubmed
    ..05). We found that renal leukemic infiltration is a risk factor in hypertension development (P = 0...
  40. Giuşcă S, Zugun F, Tarcoveanu E, Carasevici E, Amalinei C, Caruntu I. Immunohistochemical study of colorectal cancer liver metastases: the immune/inflammatory infiltrate. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2010;51:73-9 pubmed
    ..On the contrary, the quantitative evaluation of the macrophage population indicates a functional association rather with the primary metastasis process than with the recurrent metastatic disorder. ..
  41. Chang H, Brandwein J, Yi Q, Chun K, Patterson B, Brien B. Extramedullary infiltrates of AML are associated with CD56 expression, 11q23 abnormalities and inferior clinical outcome. Leuk Res. 2004;28:1007-11 pubmed
    ..0016). Our study of adult AML patients demonstrates that EMI at diagnosis is associated with CD56 expression by leukemic blasts, 11q23 karyotypic abnormalities, low complete remission rate and poor overall survival. ..
  42. Iversen P, Sørensen D, Tronstad K, Gudbrandsen O, Rustan A, Berge R, et al. A bioactively modified fatty acid improves survival and impairs metastasis in preclinical models of acute leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:3525-31 pubmed
    ..Only TTA inhibited (P < 0.05) leukemic infiltration in the bone marrow and spleen, probably due to apoptosis of the leukemic cells...
  43. Provinciali M, Papalini F, Orlando F, Pierpaoli S, Donnini A, Morazzoni P, et al. Effect of the silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex (IdB 1016) on the development of mammary tumors in HER-2/neu transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2007;67:2022-9 pubmed
    ..The effect of IdB 1016 might be related to the down-regulation of HER-2/neu expression and the induction of senescent-like growth arrest and apoptosis through a p53-mediated pathway in tumor cells. ..
  44. Sureda N, Bosch M, Kurpis M, Ruiz Lascano A. [Leukaemia cutis: clinical manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia relapse]. Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba. 2007;64:42-4 pubmed
    ..The patient underwent treatment with clorambucile and systemic steroids with remision of both haemathological and skin manifestation. The patient is still under close clinical follow up and remission continues eight months so far. ..
  45. Estella Hermoso de Mendoza A, Campanero M, Lana H, Villa Pulgarin J, de la Iglesia Vicente J, Mollinedo F, et al. Complete inhibition of extranodal dissemination of lymphoma by edelfosine-loaded lipid nanoparticles. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2012;7:679-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, edelfosine-loaded LNs showed a high accumulation of the drug in lymph nodes and resulted in slower tumor growth than the free drug in a murine lymphoma xenograft model, as well as potent extranodal dissemination inhibition. ..
  46. Gutjahr J, Szenes E, Tschech L, Asslaber D, Schlederer M, Roos S, et al. Microenvironment-induced CD44v6 promotes early disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..In these mice, leukemia onset was delayed and leukemic infiltration of spleen, liver, and lungs, but not of bone marrow was decreased...
  47. Berthold S, Kottler U, Frisch L, Radner H, Pfeiffer N. [Secondary glaucoma in hyphema, hypopyon, iris prominence and iris hyperemia]. Ophthalmologe. 2005;102:290-2 pubmed
  48. Alvarez M. Intracerebral granulocytic sarcoma. J Neurosci Nurs. 2007;39:297-304 pubmed
  49. Mulabecirovic A, Gaulhofer P, Auner H, Popper H, Krause R, Hesse C, et al. Pulmonary infiltrates in patients with haematologic malignancies: transbronchial lung biopsy increases the diagnostic yield with respect to neoplastic infiltrates and toxic pneumonitis. Ann Hematol. 2004;83:420-2 pubmed
    ..008) and toxic pneumonitis (p<0.001) and should therefore be included in the diagnostic work-up of this patient cohort...
  50. Yoshie O. Expression of CCR4 in adult T-cell leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2005;46:185-90 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, CCR4 is known to be selectively expressed by Th2 and regulatory T cells. Thus, the majority of ATL may predominantly originate from either Th2 or regulatory T cells...
  51. Yamada Y. [Progress of the ATLL study: an overview]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2005;46:339-49 pubmed
  52. Kako S, Kanda Y, Sato T, Goyama S, Noda N, Shoda E, et al. Early relapse of JAK2 V617F-positive chronic neutrophilic leukemia with central nervous system infiltration after unrelated bone marrow transplantation. Am J Hematol. 2007;82:386-90 pubmed
    ..Accumulation of experiences is required to establish a definite role of HSCT in the treatment of CNL and a prognostic significance of JAK2 mutation in CNL...
  53. Kakihana K, Ohashi K, Sakai F, Kamata N, Hosomi Y, Nishiwaki M, et al. Leukemic infiltration of the lung following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Int J Hematol. 2009;89:118-122 pubmed publisher
    Pulmonary leukemic infiltration (PLI) is more common than generally recognized, but accurate antemortem diagnosis with pathological proof is rarely achieved...
  54. Norén Nyström U, Eriksson M, Eriksson B, Roos G, Bergh A, Holmberg D. Antitumor activity of the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470 on murine lymphoma/leukemia cells in vivo and in vitro. Exp Hematol. 2003;31:143-9 pubmed
    ..We used a novel animal model for T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (TLL) to test the antitumor effect of TNP-470, a well-established angiogenesis inhibitor...
  55. Khan M, Hussein K, Walter M, Hasan M, Kern W, Kharfan Dabaja M. Granulocytic sarcoma presenting with malignant anasarca in a patient with secondary acute myeloid leukemia. Int J Hematol. 2004;79:250-2 pubmed
    ..We present an unusual case of a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome whose disease progressed into a secondary AML and developed GS in the ascitic and pleural effusions as the predominant manifestation of disease progression...
  56. Rakha E, Puls F, Saidul I, Furness P. Torsion of the testicular appendix: importance of associated acute inflammation. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59:831-4 pubmed
    ..The clinical implications and consequences of this associated inflammation are not clear...
  57. LoSavio A, Bunnag A, Rubin D. Colonic infiltration with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;4:229-33 pubmed
    ..Over several months, the patient's symptoms progressed, which resulted in significant weight loss. The patient's course of disease was ultimately complicated by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and death...
  58. Ohtani T, Deguchi M, Aiba S. Erythema multiforme-like lesions associated with lesional infiltration of tumor cells occurring with adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:390-2 pubmed publisher
  59. Kitamura H, Kaneko T, Nakano H, Terui K, Ito E, Sawamura D. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presenting multiple painful erythematous lesions diagnosed as Sweet's syndrome. J Dermatol. 2008;35:368-70 pubmed publisher
  60. Parasole R, Petruzziello F, Menna G, Mangione A, Cianciulli E, Buffardi S, et al. Central nervous system complications during treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a single pediatric institution. Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51:1063-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Exclusion criteria included CNS leukemic infiltration at diagnosis, therapy-related peripheral neuropathy, late-onset encephalopathy, or long-term ..
  61. Arora S, Gupta N, Srinivasan R, Das A, Nijhawan R, Rajwanshi A, et al. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as breast masses: a series of 10 cases diagnosed on FNAC. Diagn Cytopathol. 2013;41:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One case was a low-grade NHL and another case was a young male, a known case of acute leukemia and had leukemic infiltration in the breast lump...
  62. Snorek M, Bulava A, Vonke I. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia skin infiltration mimicking an ICD pocket infection: a case report. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2017;17:89 pubmed publisher
    ..1). Complete removal of an ICD system carries considerable risk. In patients with a history of hematological disease, it is crucial to exclude cutaneous manifestations of the disease prior to device removal. ..
  63. Schocket L, Massaro Giordano M, Volpe N, Galetta S. Bilateral optic nerve infiltration in central nervous system leukemia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:94-6 pubmed
    To report the case of a 58-year-old man with sequential bilateral retrolaminar leukemic infiltration of the optic nerves who presented with normal-appearing optic nerves and no optic nerve enhancement.
  64. Satter E, Maari C, Morel K, Eichenfield L, Cunningham B, Friedlander S, et al. Disseminated linear calcinosis cutis associated with the Koebner phenomenon in an infant with congenital acute monocytic leukaemia. Br J Dermatol. 2004;150:753-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that these lesions represent a form of dystrophic calcinosis cutis that occurred secondary to koebnerization in an infant with congenital leukaemia cutis...
  65. Au W, Hon C, Cheng V, Ma E. Concomitant zoster myelitis and cerebral leukemia relapse after stem cell transplantation. Ann Hematol. 2005;84:59-60 pubmed
  66. de Ridder L, Bosman D, Benninga M, ten Kate F, de Haas V, Taminiau J. Endoscopic diagnosis of leukemia in a child with acute abdominal pain. Endoscopy. 2004;36:933-4 pubmed
  67. Böhm J, Immonen A, Riikonen P, Vanninen R, Alafuzoff I. Case report: central neurocytoma with concomitant cerebral involvement by acute lymphatic leukemia. Hum Pathol. 2006;37:488-92 pubmed
    ..These two entities might be problematic to differentiate from each other without proper histopathological examination...
  68. Liu Z, Sun H, Zou P. [Expression of SDF-1alpha and its receptor CXCR4 in acute leukemias and their relationship with extramedullary infiltration]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2006;14:1-5 pubmed
    ..The average plasma levels of SDF-1alpha decreased in leukemia patients and this decrease not related to the extramedullar infiltration, which may be due to the SDF-1alpha local expression in the organ infiltrated...
  69. Mehta V, Balachandran C, Lonikar V. Blueberry muffin baby: a pictoral differential diagnosis. Dermatol Online J. 2008;14:8 pubmed
    ..Since then, congenital infections comprising the TORCH syndrome (toxoplasmosis, other, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes) and hematologic dyscrasias have classically been associated with blueberry muffin-like lesion...
  70. Allen S, Mott K, Ljubimov A, Ghiasi H. Exacerbation of corneal scarring in HSV-1 gK-immunized mice correlates with elevation of CD8+CD25+ T cells in corneas of ocularly infected mice. Virology. 2010;399:11-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated for the first time that the presence of CD8+CD25+ T cells in the cornea is correlated with exacerbation of CS in the gK-immunized group. ..
  71. Gupta N, Gupta S, Rathi S, Sharma S, Mahapatra M, Seth T, et al. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as non-oliguric renal failure and hypertension. Leuk Res. 2010;34:e150-1 pubmed publisher
  72. Yamashita Y, Tomimoto H, Matsui M, Mesaki T, Imada K, Uchiyama T, et al. Pure pandysautonomia as a complication of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Neurology. 2004;62:1903-4 pubmed
  73. Hon C, Ma E, Yau K, Au W. CNS manifestations of malignancies: case 3. Leukemic optic neuropathy complicating leukemia cutis. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:4229-30 pubmed
  74. Christopeit M, Mueller L, Hainz M, Holzhausen H, Behre G. Cytogenetics detects infiltrations of a primary cutaneous acute myeloid leukemia to the kidney. Ann Hematol. 2007;86:291-3 pubmed
    ..Closer histomorphologic workup revealed an infiltration of the kidney with leukemia. This case report illustrates how modern diagnostic procedures can help to reveal rare sites of disease...
  75. Murthy R, Vemuganti G, Honavar S, Naik M, Reddy V. Extramedullary leukemia in children presenting with proptosis. J Hematol Oncol. 2009;2:4 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 12 patients who presented with proptosis and were subsequently diagnosed to have acute myeloid leukemia based on incision biopsy or peripheral blood smear were included in the study...
  76. Rubin J, Vettenranta K, Vettenranta J, Bierings M, Abrahamsson J, Bekassy A, et al. Use of intrathecal chemoprophylaxis in children after SCT and the risk of central nervous system relapse. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011;46:372-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of isolated or mixed CNS relapses between the two groups, suggesting little or no benefit from i.t. therapy post-HSCT in children...
  77. Amer R, David R, Dotan S. [Bilateral leukemic optic nerve infiltration as the first manifestation of extramedullary relapse in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia]. Harefuah. 2013;152:112-4, 121 pubmed
    ..Ophthalmic assessment is essential in patients with hematological malignancies in order to diagnose ocular involvement as a result of malignant infiltration, hematological disturbances or as a complication of systemic therapy...
  78. Coelho H, Guerra M, Teixeira M, Canelhas A, Pinto Ribeiro A, Lima M. Bilateral orbital masses in a patient with B-cell chronic lymph. Haematologica. 2003;88:ECR12 pubmed
  79. Brunner A, Kantner J, Tzankov A. Granulomatous reactions cause symptoms or clinically imitate treatment resistance in small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukaemia more frequently than in other non-Hodgkin lymphomas. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:815-9 pubmed
    ..Five cases of small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) associated with granulomatous reactions in lymph nodes and bone marrow were identified, all clinically associated with signs of progressive disease...
  80. Ural A, Kubar A, Avcu F, Tastan H, Safali M, Nevruz O, et al. Oral fludarabine treatment of cutaneous infiltration in a patient with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007;32:151-4 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first case of B-CLL leukaemia cutis treated with oral fludarabine. The introduction of fludarabine may contribute to a better outlook for these patients in the future...
  81. Tsopra O, Ziros P, Lagadinou E, Symeonidis A, Kouraklis Symeonidis A, Thanopoulou E, et al. Disease-related anemia in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is not due to intrinsic defects of erythroid precursors: a possible pathogenetic role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Acta Haematol. 2009;121:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Disease-related anemia in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) occurs when the obvious causes are excluded while its pathogenesis is still obscure. We investigated its underlying mechanisms in 56 untreated patients with CLL...
  82. Pastor Navarro T, Planelles Gómez J, Beamud Cortés M, Martí Ibor E, Gil Salom M, Osca García J. [Assymptomatic prostatic infiltration by chronic lymphocytic leukemia]. Actas Urol Esp. 2009;33:450-2 pubmed
    Report of a case of leukemic infiltration of the prostate as an incidental CT finding.
  83. Mbekeani J, Abdel Fattah M, Al Nounou R, Chebbo W, Dogar M. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Relapse Presenting With Central Nervous System Blast Crisis and Bilateral Optic Nerve Infiltration. J Neuroophthalmol. 2016;36:73-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our report underscores the importance of timely and aggressive intervention of blast crisis of the CNS and the need for CNS penetrating induction and maintenance therapy. ..
  84. Prenner S, Franken A, Murphy I, Mikati I. Rapid Reversal of Focal Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Systolic Dysfunction Resulting From Myocardial Infiltration by Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Circulation. 2016;133:678-9 pubmed publisher
  85. Robak T, Urbanska Rys H, Gora Tybor J, Wawrzyniak E, Korycka A, Bartkowiak J, et al. Coexistence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and essential thrombocythemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2003;44:1425-31 pubmed
    ..Possible etiopathogenic relationships between both disorders and differential diagnosis of ET and reactive thrombocytosis (RT) are discussed...
  86. Tsimberidou A, Estey E, Whitman G, Dryden M, Ratnam S, Pierce S, et al. Extramedullary relapse in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia: successful treatment with arsenic trioxide, all-trans retinoic acid and gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapies. Leuk Res. 2004;28:991-4 pubmed
    ..5 years after lipo-ATRA therapy and was successfully treated with the sequence of A2O3, ATRA, and GO and we summarize our experience with patients with isolated extramedullary relapse in APL...
  87. Romagnani P, Lazzeri E, Mazzinghi B, Lasagni L, Guidi S, Bosi A, et al. Nephrotic syndrome and renal failure after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: novel molecular diagnostic tools for a challenging differential diagnosis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;46:550-6 pubmed
  88. Jasim Z, Cooke N, Somerville J, Hay R. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia skin infiltrates affecting prominent parts of the face and the scalp. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154:981-2 pubmed
    ..Histopathology showed dense sheets of lymphoid infiltrate of the dermis which stained positive with B-cell markers CD20 and CD5 in keeping with the infiltrate of CLL...
  89. Liu H, Hung G, Yen H, Hsieh M, Chiou T. Acute sciatica: an unusual presentation of extramedullary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Int J Hematol. 2007;86:163-5 pubmed
    ..This case represents a rare neurologic complication of what is currently an uncommon presentation for relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with acute sciatica and without coexisting epidural or leptomeningeal leukemia...
  90. Plaza J, Morrison C, Magro C. Assessment of TCR-beta clonality in a diverse group of cutaneous T-Cell infiltrates. J Cutan Pathol. 2008;35:358-65 pubmed
    ..e. PLC, PPD and atypical lymphocytic lobular panniculitis) could manifest restricted molecular profiles in the context of an oligoclonal process or frank monoclonality...
  91. Ramkissoon Y, Lee R, Malik R, Hsuan J, Potts M. Bilateral infiltrative disease of the extraocular muscles: a rare clinical presentation of early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Orbit. 2008;27:293-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we demonstrate clinico-pathological correlation with an identical chronic B-cell lymphocytic infiltrate in both orbit and bone marrow, with good response of the orbital disease to local radiotherapy...
  92. Jeong K, Lew B, Sim W. Generalized leukaemia cutis from a small cell variant of T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia presenting with exfoliative dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2009;89:509-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first case of generalized leukaemia cutis from small cell variant of T-PLL presenting with exfoliative dermatitis over the whole body...