Summary: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.

Top Publications

  1. Altomare D, Vaslet C, Skele K, De Rienzo A, Devarajan K, Jhanwar S, et al. A mouse model recapitulating molecular features of human mesothelioma. Cancer Res. 2005;65:8090-5 pubmed
  2. Dogan A, Baris Y, Dogan M, Emri S, Steele I, Elmishad A, et al. Genetic predisposition to fiber carcinogenesis causes a mesothelioma epidemic in Turkey. Cancer Res. 2006;66:5063-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first time that genetics is shown to influence mineral fiber carcinogenesis...
  3. Bauer A, Dwyer Nield L, Keil K, Koski K, Malkinson A. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) induction of pulmonary inflammation: a role in tumor promotion. Exp Lung Res. 2001;27:197-216 pubmed
    ..Inflammatory mediators may provide targets for early diagnosis and chemoprevention...
  4. Nelson H, Kelsey K, Mott L, Karagas M. The XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism, sunburn, and non-melanoma skin cancer: evidence of gene-environment interaction. Cancer Res. 2002;62:152-5 pubmed
    ..These data, using the classic skin carcinogenesis model, provide new insight on the role of the XRCC1 399 polymorphism in neoplasia and may help explain the conflicting results relating this polymorphism to cancer risk at various sites...
  5. Salnikow K, Zhitkovich A. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in metal carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis: nickel, arsenic, and chromium. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:28-44 pubmed
    ..Overall, metal carcinogenesis appears to require the formation of specific metal complexes, chromosomal damage, and activation of signal transduction pathways promoting survival and expansion of genetically/epigenetically altered cells...
  6. Steevens J, Schouten L, Goldbohm R, van den Brandt P. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of subtypes of oesophageal and gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study. Gut. 2010;59:39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..However, because this was based on retrospective studies, these hypotheses were examined in a prospective cohort...
  7. Rivera Z, Strianese O, Bertino P, Yang H, Pass H, Carbone M. The relationship between simian virus 40 and mesothelioma. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2008;14:316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Simian virus 40 is present in some human malignant mesotheliomas. The evidence in favor and against a pathogenic role of simian virus 40 in malignant mesothelioma is discussed in this review...
  8. Lee P. Relation between exposure to asbestos and smoking jointly and the risk of lung cancer. Occup Environ Med. 2001;58:145-53 pubmed asbestos and smoking on the risk of lung cancer to answer three questions: (1) does asbestos increase risk in non-smokers; (2) are the data consistent with an additive model; and (3) are the data consistent with a multiplicative model?..
  9. Rangel López A, Pina Sanchez P, Salcedo M. [Genetic variations of the tumor suppressor TP53: outstanding and strategies of analysis]. Rev Invest Clin. 2006;58:254-64 pubmed

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Paulsen J, Steffensen I, Løberg E, Husøy T, Namork E, Alexander J. Qualitative and quantitative relationship between dysplastic aberrant crypt foci and tumorigenesis in the Min/+ mouse colon. Cancer Res. 2001;61:5010-5 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the classical ACF, which resemble the hyperplastic ACF described previously, were characterized by slow-growing crypts with normal beta-catenin expression, and they were probably not related to tumorigenesis. ..
  2. Liu L, Gong L, Qi X, Cai Y, Wang H, Wu X, et al. Altered expression of cytochrome P450 and possible correlation with preneoplastic changes in early stage of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005;26:737-44 pubmed
    ..CYP altered their expression levels and these alterations can play important roles in the alteration of cell redox status of preneoplastic tissue in the early stage of hepatocarcinogenesis. ..
  3. Jacob V, Jacob P, Meckbach R, Romanov S, Vasilenko E. Lung cancer in Mayak workers: interaction of smoking and plutonium exposure. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2005;44:119-29 pubmed
    ..This model version agrees with conventional epidemiological risk models, because it also suggests a higher risk estimate than the preferred TSCE model. However, it fits the data less well than the preferred model. ..
  4. Slattery M, Samowtiz W, Ma K, Murtaugh M, Sweeney C, Levin T, et al. CYP1A1, cigarette smoking, and colon and rectal cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160:842-52 pubmed
    ..These data support the association between smoking and colon and rectal cancer. Smoking may have a greater impact on colorectal cancer risk based on CYP1A1 genotype; this might further be modified by GSTM1 for rectal cancer risk. ..
  5. Vineis P, Berwick M. The population dynamics of cancer: a Darwinian perspective. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:1151-9 pubmed
  6. Degg N, Weil M, Edwards A, Haines J, Coster M, Moody J, et al. Adenoma multiplicity in irradiated Apc(Min) mice is modified by chromosome 16 segments from BALB/c. Cancer Res. 2003;63:2361-3 pubmed
    ..Here, we provide evidence that chromosome 16 segments from BALB/c interact with Apc(Min) (multiple intestinal neoplasia) and specifically enhance IR-induced adenoma development in the upper part of the small intestine. ..
  7. Yagura T, Motomiya T, Ito M, Honda G, Iida A, Kiuchi F, et al. Anticarcinogenic compounds in the Uzbek medicinal plant, Helichrysum maracandicum. J Nat Med. 2008;62:174-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis showed that the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase was suppressed by the administration of naringenin chalcone or isosalipurposide, which might be related to the anticarcinogenic activity...
  8. Said R, Grassi T, Scolastici C, Alves de Lima R, Darros B, Barbisan L, et al. Absence of chemopreventive influence of propolis on the rat liver altered foci development. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2010;62:405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that an aqueous extract of Brazilian propolis did not exert chemoprevention on the hepatocarcinogenesis process chemically induced in the rat. ..
  9. Kaur Knudsen D, Nordestgaard B, Bojesen S. CYP2C9 genotype does not affect risk of tobacco-related cancer in the general population. Cancer Epidemiol. 2010;34:178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..8/1.3 and 0.9/1.1 in the Copenhagen General Population Study for tobacco-related cancer and all cancer, respectively. Genetic variations in CYP2C9 do not affect risk of tobacco-related cancers. ..
  10. Cui L, Shi Y, Dai G, Pan H, Chen J, Song L, et al. Modification of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea initiated bladder carcinogenesis in Wistar rats by terephthalic acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;210:24-31 pubmed
  11. Hormi Carver K, Souza R. Molecular markers and genetics in cancer development. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2009;18:453-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the role of stem cells and stem cell markers in Barrett's carcinogenesis is addressed. ..
  12. Zhang Z, Li J, Lantry L, Wang Y, Wiseman R, Lubet R, et al. p53 transgenic mice are highly susceptible to 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced uterine sarcomas. Cancer Res. 2002;62:3024-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a tissue-specific enhancement of tumorigenesis in multiple organs by the mutant p53 transgene and additionally support the utility of (C57BL/6J x UL53-3) F(1) mice for chemoprevention studies. ..
  13. Cleaver A, Bhamidipaty K, Wylie B, Connor T, Robinson C, Robinson B, et al. Long-term exposure of mesothelial cells to SV40 and asbestos leads to malignant transformation and chemotherapy resistance. Carcinogenesis. 2014;35:407-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, these cells demonstrate resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. This finding has implications for the development of effective treatment options for patients with mesothelioma. ..
  14. Hafkamp H, Manni J, Speel E. Role of human papillomavirus in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Acta Otolaryngol. 2004;124:520-6 pubmed
    ..To review the literature on the role of oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in the carcinogenesis of the head and neck mucosa...
  15. Møllersen L, Paulsen J, Alexander J. Loss of heterozygosity and nonsense mutation in Apc in azoxymethane-induced colonic tumours in min mice. Anticancer Res. 2004;24:2595-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the main mechanism for colonic tumour induction in AOM-induced Min mice is LOH in Apc, but Apc nonsense mutations may also occur. ..
  16. Hauptmann S. A thermodynamic interpretation of malignancy: do the genes come later?. Med Hypotheses. 2002;58:144-7 pubmed
    ..Cancer could be seen as a reaction of a cell to entrap energy which reduces entropy, or, in other words, cancer may best be regarded as entropic devolution. ..
  17. Cheo D, Friedberg E. Use of nucleotide excision repair-deficient mice as a model for chemically induced lung cancer. Methods Mol Med. 2003;74:481-91 pubmed
  18. Wada T, Ishimoto T, Seishima R, Tsuchihashi K, Yoshikawa M, Oshima H, et al. Functional role of CD44v-xCT system in the development of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia. Cancer Sci. 2013;104:1323-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapy targeted to CD44v-xCT could thus prove effective for prevention or attenuation of the CD44v-dependent development of preneoplastic lesions and cancer. ..
  19. Roca Ferrer J, Pujols L, Agustí C, Xaubet A, Mullol J, Gimferrer J, et al. [Cyclooxigenase-2 levels are increased in the lung tissue and bronchial tumors of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2011;47:584-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that COX-2 is possibly involved in the association between COPD and cancer. ..
  20. Feng Z, Liu L, Zhang C, Zheng T, Wang J, Lin M, et al. Chronic restraint stress attenuates p53 function and promotes tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7013-8 pubmed publisher
  21. Margotta V, Capogreco M. [Soft tissue pathologies of the oral cavity]. Minerva Stomatol. 2003;52:47-51 pubmed
    ..Recently, thanks to new molecular biology techniques, several authors are studying potentially neoplastic lesions, in order to better understand the association with HPV. ..
  22. Hamed S, LaRue H, Hovington H, Girard J, Jeannotte L, Latulippe E, et al. Accelerated induction of bladder cancer in patched heterozygous mutant mice. Cancer Res. 2004;64:1938-42 pubmed
    ..Preneoplastic and neoplastic changes were observed significantly earlier in the Ptc(+/-) than in the wild-type mice. Our data support the hypothesis of Ptc acting as a tumor suppressor gene in bladder cancer. ..
  23. Rossman T, Uddin A, Burns F. Evidence that arsenite acts as a cocarcinogen in skin cancer. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;198:394-404 pubmed
  24. Hassan M, Spitz M, Thomas M, El Deeb A, Glover K, Nguyen N, et al. Effect of different types of smoking and synergism with hepatitis C virus on risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in American men and women: case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:1883-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Controlling for smoking exposure might be a prudent approach to the prevention of HCC, especially in patients with chronic viral hepatitis infections. ..
  25. Valavanidis A, Vlachogianni T, Fiotakis C. 8-hydroxy-2' -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG): A critical biomarker of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2009;27:120-39 pubmed publisher
    ..In recent years, 8-OHdG has been used widely in many studies not only as a biomarker for the measurement of endogenous oxidative DNA damage but also as a risk factor for many diseases including cancer. ..
  26. van der Linde A, Osius G. Estimation of non-parametric multivariate risk functions in matched case-control studies with application to the assessment of interactions of risk factors in the study of cancer. Stat Med. 2001;20:1639-62 pubmed
    ..In the special case of one-to-one matched studies, however, there is an appropriate likelihood again within the range of generalized models. Inferences will be illustrated using simulated and real data. ..
  27. Itoh S, Nakano A, Araki T. Reevaluation of the toxicity of chlorinated water and the usefulness of MX as an index. J Water Health. 2006;4:523-31 pubmed
    ..Findings of this study suggest that MX is appropriate as an index for comparing the carcinogenicity of tap water near and far from a water purification plant. ..
  28. Perez Carreon J, Dargent C, Merhi M, Fattel Fazenda S, Arce Popoca E, Villa Treviño S, et al. Tumor promoting and co-carcinogenic effects in medium-term rat hepatocarcinogenesis are not modified by co-administration of 12 pesticides in mixture at acceptable daily intake. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:540-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether these data contribute to the confidence that the ADI represents a safe intake level to mixture of pesticides at dietary exposure. ..
  29. Liu W, Liu J, Ao L, Zhou Z, Zhou Y, Cui Z, et al. Dynamic changes in DNA methylation during multistep rat lung carcinogenesis induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and diethylnitrosamine. Toxicol Lett. 2009;189:5-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that DNA methylation alterations are an early event in tumorigenesis and play an important role during MCA/DEN-induced multistep rat lung carcinogenesis. ..
  30. Fox J, Rogers A, Ihrig M, Taylor N, Whary M, Dockray G, et al. Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer in INS-GAS mice is gender specific. Cancer Res. 2003;63:942-50 pubmed
    ..This study highlights the importance of using both genders to investigate the pathogenesis of H. pylori. ..
  31. Schiffman M, Herrero R, DeSalle R, Hildesheim A, Wacholder S, Rodriguez A, et al. The carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types reflects viral evolution. Virology. 2005;337:76-84 pubmed
    ..These results present several clear clues and research directions in our ongoing efforts to understand HPV carcinogenesis. ..
  32. Peng X, Griffith J, Lang C. Reinitiated expression of EJras transgene in targeted epidermal cells of transgenic rabbits by cottontail rabbit papillomavirus infection. Cancer Lett. 2001;171:193-200 pubmed
  33. Mason P, Walters T, DiGiovanni J, Beason C, Jauchem J, Dick E, et al. Lack of effect of 94 GHz radio frequency radiation exposure in an animal model of skin carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:1701-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that exposure to 94 GHz RFR under these conditions does not promote or co-promote papilloma development in this animal model of skin carcinogenesis...
  34. Devilee P, Cleton Jansen A, Cornelisse C. Ever since Knudson. Trends Genet. 2001;17:569-73 pubmed
    ..Finding the TSGs in chromosomal regions of frequent LOH might require 'brute-force' genomic approaches. ..
  35. Martin J, Mousa S, Shaker O, Mousa S. The multiple faces of nicotine and its implications in tissue and wound repair. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18:497-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the good and bad sides of nicotine, it is recommended to restrict its utility to local applications. ..
  36. Tomita L, Longatto Filho A, Costa M, Andreoli M, Villa L, Franco E, et al. Diet and serum micronutrients in relation to cervical neoplasia and cancer among low-income Brazilian women. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:703-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the evidence that a healthy and balanced diet leading to provide high serum levels of antioxidants may reduce cervical neoplasia risk in low-income women. ..
  37. Gao P, Wong C, Tung E, Lee J, Wong C, Ng I. Deregulation of microRNA expression occurs early and accumulates in early stages of HBV-associated multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. J Hepatol. 2011;54:1177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also suggest that miR-145 is a candidate tumor suppressive miRNA and may play an important role in HCC development. ..
  38. Matsubara S, Takasu S, Tsukamoto T, Mutoh M, Masuda S, Sugimura T, et al. Induction of glandular stomach cancers in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils by 1-nitrosoindole-3-acetonitrile. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori alone. Thus, endogenous carcinogens formed from nitrosation of indole compounds could be critical risk factors for human gastric cancer development under the influence of H. pylori infection. ..
  39. Jovanovic M, Karadaglić D. [Epidermodysplasia verruciformis--a model of virus induced oncogenesis in the skin]. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2003;60:581-8 pubmed
  40. Teng Y, Shen Z, Kao C, Tsai T. Hepatocellular carcinoma mouse models: Hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocarcinogenesis and haploinsufficient tumor suppressor genes. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:300-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Discoveries obtained using mouse models will have a great impact on HCC translational medicine. ..
  41. Kunisada M, Sakumi K, Tominaga Y, Budiyanto A, Ueda M, Ichihashi M, et al. 8-Oxoguanine formation induced by chronic UVB exposure makes Ogg1 knockout mice susceptible to skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6006-10 pubmed
    ..These results clearly indicate that oxidative DNA damage induced by sunlight plays an important role in the development of skin cancers. ..
  42. Ring J, Barker J, Behrendt H, Braathen L, Darsow U, Dubertret L, et al. Review of the potential photo-cocarcinogenicity of topical calcineurin inhibitors: position statement of the European Dermatology Forum. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19:663-71 pubmed
    ..Available data suggest that long-term application of TCIs is safe, that there is no evidence of increased skin cancer risk and that it is ethical to treat patients with TCIs when indicated. ..
  43. Rossini A, Rumio C, Sfondrini L, Tagliabue E, Morelli D, Miceli R, et al. Influence of antibiotic treatment on breast carcinoma development in proto-neu transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2006;66:6219-24 pubmed
  44. Dasenbrock C, Tillmann T, Ernst H, Behnke W, Kellner R, Hagemann G, et al. Maternal effects and cancer risk in the progeny of mice exposed to X-rays before conception. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2005;56:351-60 pubmed
    ..A higher incidence of lung and liver tumors in the sham-treated male progeny of irradiated mothers was detected, pointing to a possible germ cell-transmitted alteration initiated by the preconceptual maternal X-ray exposure. ..
  45. Dietz A, Logothetis C, Helbig M, Flechtenmacher C, Rudat V, Dollner R, et al. Prognostic impact of EBV-related LMP-1, histologic type, and environmental factors in nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a German population. Onkologie. 2004;27:345-50 pubmed
    ..e. tobacco, alcohol and occupational hazardous substances, in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in a German population...
  46. Lee C, Lee J, Wu D, Hsu H, Kao E, Huang H, et al. Independent and combined effects of alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and betel quid chewing on the risk of esophageal cancer in Taiwan. Int J Cancer. 2005;113:475-82 pubmed
    ..Alcohol separately interacts with tobacco and betel quid in a differently synergistic way in determining the development of this site of cancer...
  47. Uddin A, Burns F, Rossman T. Vitamin E and organoselenium prevent the cocarcinogenic activity of arsenite with solar UVR in mouse skin. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:2179-86 pubmed
    ..These results show that vitamin E and p-XSC protect strongly against arsenite-induced enhancement of UVR carcinogenesis...
  48. Formisano P, Perruolo G, Libertini S, Santopietro S, Troncone G, Raciti G, et al. Raised expression of the antiapoptotic protein ped/pea-15 increases susceptibility to chemically induced skin tumor development. Oncogene. 2005;24:7012-21 pubmed
    ..001) and increased by three-fold tumor latency time (P<0.01). Thus, the expression levels of ped/pea-15 control Caspase-3 function and epidermal cell apoptosis in vivo and determine susceptibility to skin tumor development...
  49. Rossman T. Letter to the editor. Cancer Lett. 2006;231:339-40; author reply 341 pubmed
  50. Ferreccio C, Sancha A. Arsenic exposure and its impact on health in Chile. J Health Popul Nutr. 2006;24:164-75 pubmed
    ..The Chilean experience in removal of arsenic suggests that it is feasible to reach this level using the conventional coagulation process...
  51. Hashibe M, Boffetta P, Janout V, Zaridze D, Shangina O, Mates D, et al. Esophageal cancer in Central and Eastern Europe: tobacco and alcohol. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:1518-22 pubmed
    ..A synergistic interaction between tobacco and alcohol was observed for the risk of esophageal SCC, highlighting the importance of both factors for esophageal cancers in Central and Eastern Europe...
  52. Gómez Raposo C, de Castro Carpeno J, Gonzalez Baron M. [Causes of lung cancer: smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational and environmental exposures and genetic predisposition]. Med Clin (Barc). 2007;128:390-6 pubmed
  53. Bersch V, Osvaldt A, Edelweiss M, Schumacher R, Wendt L, Abreu L, et al. Effect of nicotine and cigarette smoke on an experimental model of intraepithelial lesions and pancreatic adenocarcinoma induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene in mice. Pancreas. 2009;38:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effects of nicotine and cigarette smoke exposure on mice submitted to 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) model of pancreatic carcinogenesis...
  54. Umemura T, Kodama Y, Kanki K, Iatropoulos M, Nishikawa A, Hirose M, et al. Pentachlorophenol (but not phenobarbital) promotes intrahepatic biliary cysts induced by diethylnitrosamine to cholangio cystic neoplasms in B6C3F1 mice possibly due to oxidative stress. Toxicol Pathol. 2003;31:10-3 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that oxidative stress due to PCP might exert a promoting action on the biliary cystic lesions produced by DEN...
  55. Rudi J. [Salt and stomach cancer: chances for healthy nutrition. Stomach cancer--what is really reliable?]. Krankenpfl J. 2003;41:220-1 pubmed
  56. Son H, Nishikawa A, Okazaki K, Kitamura Y, Kanki K, Lee K, et al. Specificity of co-promoting effects of caffeine on thyroid carcinogenesis in rats pretreated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine. Toxicol Pathol. 2004;32:338-44 pubmed
  57. Guo Y, Cleveland J, O Brien T. Haploinsufficiency for odc modifies mouse skin tumor susceptibility. Cancer Res. 2005;65:1146-9 pubmed
    ..These results support the concept that differences in tissue polyamine levels, resulting from either overexpression or reductions in ODC, are important modifiers of tumor susceptibility...
  58. Pelucchi C, Gallus S, Garavello W, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C. Cancer risk associated with alcohol and tobacco use: focus on upper aero-digestive tract and liver. Alcohol Res Health. 2006;29:193-8 pubmed
    ..For squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, alcohol and tobacco also appear to increase risk synergistically. With liver cancer, in contrast, alcohol consumption and tobaacco use appear to be independent risk factors...
  59. Marx Stoelting P, Mahr J, Knorpp T, Schreiber S, Templin M, Ott T, et al. Tumor promotion in liver of mice with a conditional Cx26 knockout. Toxicol Sci. 2008;103:260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether our present data show that elimination of Cx26 has only minor effects on chemically induced mouse hepatocarcinogenesis, in striking contrast to the effects seen in Cx32 KO mice...
  60. Weng C, Hsieh Y, Chen M, Tsai C, Lin C, Yang S. Survivin SNP-carcinogen interactions in oral cancer. J Dent Res. 2012;91:358-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that survivin gene polymorphisms and their interactions with environmental carcinogens may increase susceptibility to oral cancer in Taiwanese men...
  61. Mayer D, Forstner K, Kopplow K. Induction and modulation of hepatic preneoplasia and neoplasia in the rat by dehydroepiandrosterone. Toxicol Pathol. 2003;31:103-12 pubmed
    ..This might be explained by a DHEA related cellular metabolism, which results in significant energy consumption. Additionally, a DHEA-induced alteration of cytokine levels might contribute to this growth inhibition as well...
  62. Zanesi N, Mancini R, Sevignani C, Vecchione A, Kaou M, Valtieri M, et al. Lung cancer susceptibility in Fhit-deficient mice is increased by Vhl haploinsufficiency. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6576-82 pubmed
  63. Zhang Z, Yao R, Li J, Wang Y, Boone C, Lubet R, et al. Induction of invasive mouse skin carcinomas in transgenic mice with mutations in both H-ras and p53. Mol Cancer Res. 2005;3:563-74 pubmed
    ..The present study provides the first in vivo evidence that a germ line p53 mutation and activated H-ras act synergistically to profoundly enhance tumor progression...
  64. Silva B, Silva I, Pereira D, Aydos R, Carvalho P, Facco G. Experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Acta Cir Bras. 2007;22 Suppl 1:16-20 pubmed
    ..To elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in Wistar rats...
  65. Kuroiwa Y, Okamura T, Ishii Y, Umemura T, Tasaki M, Kanki K, et al. Enhancement of esophageal carcinogenesis in acid reflux model rats treated with ascorbic acid and sodium nitrite in combination with or without initiation. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:7-13 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the risk of excessive intake of a combination of nitrite and antioxidants for esophageal carcinogenesis is appreciable, particularly in patients with reflux esophagitis...
  66. Tsai C, Tsai M, Tsou Y, Shih L, Tseng H, Chang W, et al. The joint effect of smoking and hOGG1 genotype on oral cancer in Taiwan. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:3799-803 pubmed
    ..0198), but not in the non-chewer group (p=0.8357). Our results provide evidence that the C allele of hOGG1 codon 326 may have a joint effect with smoking on the development of oral cancer...
  67. Wyde M, Wong V, Kim A, Lucier G, Walker N. Induction of hepatic 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine adducts by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Sprague-Dawley rats is female-specific and estrogen-dependent. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001;14:849-55 pubmed
    ..These studies provide strong evidence that the induction of 8-oxo-dG by TCDD occurs via a chronic, sex-specific, estrogen-dependent mechanism...
  68. Toyooka S, Carbone M, Toyooka K, Bocchetta M, Shivapurkar N, Minna J, et al. Progressive aberrant methylation of the RASSF1A gene in simian virus 40 infected human mesothelial cells. Oncogene. 2002;21:4340-4 pubmed
    ..These data, together with our previous findings, support a causal relationship between SV40 infection, progressive RASSF1A methylation and its silencing, and the pathogenesis of mesothelioma...
  69. Sand L, Hilliges M, Larsson P, Wallstrom M, Hirsch J. Effects of long-term administration of cancer-promoting substances on oral subepithelial mast cells in the rat. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:2623-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that mast cells play a role in immunological cell defence against chemical carcinogens. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms...
  70. Su J, Li Y, Ban K, Qin L, Wang H, Yang C, et al. [Alteration of p53 gene during tree shrews' hepatocarcinogenesis]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2003;11:159-61 pubmed
    ..To detect the expression and variation of p53 gene during tree shrews' hepatocarcinogenesis induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)...
  71. Zumtobel U, Schwarze H, Favre M, Taieb A, Delaunay M. Widespread cutaneous carcinomas associated with human papillomaviruses 5, 14 and 20 after introduction of methotrexate in two long-term PUVA-treated patients. Dermatology. 2001;202:127-30 pubmed
    ..The role of methotrexate (MTX) and infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses which may act as cocarcinogens is poorly documented...
  72. McPherson J, Lemmers B, Hirao A, Hakem A, Abraham J, Migon E, et al. Collaboration of Brca1 and Chk2 in tumorigenesis. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1144-53 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, inactivation of Chk2 and Brca1 was cooperative in breast cancer. Our findings identify a critical role for Chk2 as a component of the DNA damage-signaling pathway activated in response to Brca1 deficiency...
  73. Curtin G, Hanausek M, Walaszek Z, Zoltaszek R, Swauger J, Mosberg A, et al. Short-term biomarkers of cigarette smoke condensate tumor promoting potential in mouse skin. Toxicol Sci. 2006;89:66-74 pubmed
    ..These findings are particularly intriguing based on reports suggesting that ODC expression may be necessary for tumor promotion and that mouse skin tumors originate primarily within the perifollicular epidermis...
  74. Williams D, Massey G, Russell E, Riley R, Ben Ezra J. Translocation-positive acute myeloid leukemia associated with valproic acid therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;50:641-3 pubmed
    ..Here, we report a case of valproic acid-related leukemia-like syndrome with a t(8;16) chromosomal translocation. After discontinuing valproic acid, the hematological findings completely resolved...
  75. Hahn F, Gigliotti A, Hutt J. Comparative oncology of lung tumors. Toxicol Pathol. 2007;35:130-5 pubmed
    ..For example, the molecular changes in lung tumors of mice and humans have a number of similarities that may be important in evaluating the significance of compound-induced lung tumors in mice...
  76. Saladi R, Nektalova T, Fox J. Induction of skin carcinogenicity by alcohol and ultraviolet light. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2010;35:7-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the preceding epidemiological data and clinical studies recognize this matter, making the further testing of this hypothesis necessary...
  77. Schwarz M, Wanke I, Wulbrand U, Moennikes O, Buchmann A. Role of connexin32 and beta-catenin in tumor promotion in mouse liver. Toxicol Pathol. 2003;31:99-102 pubmed
    ..The link between beta-catenin-signaling and Cx32-dependent gap junctional intercellular communication, if existent, remains obscure...
  78. Son H, Nishikawa A, Kanki K, Okazaki K, Kitamura Y, Lee K, et al. Synergistic interaction between excess caffeine and deficient iodine on the promotion of thyroid carcinogenesis in rats pretreated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine. Cancer Sci. 2003;94:334-7 pubmed
  79. Logothetis C. The case for a biologically based classification of prostate cancer. Semin Oncol. 2003;30:562-6 pubmed
    ..The understanding of the clinical biology and the development of a classification based on relevant clinical and biological features is central to therapy development...
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