capillary hemangioma


Summary: A dull red, firm, dome-shaped hemangioma, sharply demarcated from surrounding skin, usually located on the head and neck, which grows rapidly and generally undergoes regression and involution without scarring. It is caused by proliferation of immature capillary vessels in active stroma, and is usually present at birth or occurs within the first two or three months of life. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Garg R, Gupta N, Sharma A, Jain R, Beri S, D Souza P. Acquired capillary hemangioma of the eyelid in a child. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2009;46:118-9 pubmed
    Acquired capillary hemangioma of the eyelid in adults is uncommon. The authors report an unusual case of acquired capillary hemangioma in a 12-year-old pubertal girl...
  2. Mochizuki Y, Noda Y, Enaida H, Hata Y, Ueno A, Yoshikawa H, et al. Retinal capillary hemangioma managed by transpupillary thermotherapy. Retina. 2004;24:981-4 pubmed
  3. Hiraumi H, Miura M, Hirose T. Capillary hemangioma of the tympanic membrane. Am J Otolaryngol. 2005;26:351-2 pubmed
    We report a case of capillary hemangioma of the tympanic membrane in a 51-year-old man with conductive hearing loss, otalgia, and otorrhea...
  4. Johnson C, Reid Nicholson M, Deligdisch L, Grinblat S, Natarajan S. Capillary hemangioma of the endometrium: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005;129:1326-9 pubmed
    A 39-year-old woman with menorrhagia of 7 years' duration was found to have a capillary hemangioma of the endometrium. Initial diagnosis by curettage was considered questionable but was later confirmed at hysterectomy...
  5. Kavin H, Berman J, Martin T, Feldman A, Forsey Koukol K. Successful wireless capsule endoscopy for a 2.5-year-old child: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding from mixed, juvenile, capillary hemangioma-angiomatosis of the jejunum. Pediatrics. 2006;117:539-43 pubmed
    ..Pathologically, the dilated blood vessels were consistent with mixed, juvenile, capillary hemangioma-angiomatosis of developmental or congenital origin...
  6. Wilson M, Hoehn M, Haik B, Rieman M, Reiss U. Low-dose cyclophosphamide and interferon alfa 2a for the treatment of capillary hemangioma of the orbit. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:1007-11 pubmed
    To report the use of a combination of low-dose cyclophosphamide and interferon alfa 2a (IFNalpha2a) for the treatment of orbital juvenile capillary hemangioma.
  7. Atebara N. Retinal capillary hemangioma treated with verteporfin photodynamic therapy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:788-90 pubmed
    To describe a case of exudative retinal capillary hemangioma treated with photodynamic therapy that resulted in an improvement in clinical appearance and visual acuity.
  8. Singh A, Nouri M, Shields C, Shields J, Smith A. Retinal capillary hemangioma: a comparison of sporadic cases and cases associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:1907-11 pubmed
    ..To report observations regarding the onset of tumors in patients with retinal capillary hemangiomas (RCH) and comparing sporadic cases with those associated with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease...
  9. Choi B, Chang K, Choe G, Han M, Park S, Yu I, et al. Spinal intradural extramedullary capillary hemangioma: MR imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22:799-802 pubmed
    ..In two patients, the dural tail sign was observed. Capillary hemangioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a spinal intradural extramedullary tumor.

More Information


  1. Singh A, Shields C, Shields J. von Hippel-Lindau disease. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001;46:117-42 pubmed
    ..Retinal capillary hemangioma is the most common manifestation of VHL disease and, therefore, ophthalmologists are frequently involved in ..
  2. Ozdal P, Kargi S, Göka S, Callejo S, Hucumenoglu S, Burnier M. Capillary hemangioma of the caruncle. Can J Ophthalmol. 2004;39:560-2 pubmed
  3. Abdullah D, Raghuram K, Phillips C, Jane J, Miller B. Thoracic intradural extramedullary capillary hemangioma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25:1294-6 pubmed
    We report a case of a thoracic intradural extramedullary capillary hemangioma. The MR imaging appearance was nonspecific for this lesion, and it could not be distinguished from more common spinal intradural extramedullary lesions...
  4. Abe M, Tabuchi K, Tanaka S, Hodozuka A, Kunishio K, Kubo N, et al. Capillary hemangioma of the central nervous system. J Neurosurg. 2004;101:73-81 pubmed
    ..The authors summarize the clinical and histological features of capillary hemangiomas of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  5. Bakri S, Sears J, Singh A. Transient closure of a retinal capillary hemangioma with verteporfin photodynamic therapy. Retina. 2005;25:1103-4 pubmed
  6. Fugo K, Matsuno Y, Okamoto K, Kusumoto M, Maeshima A, Kaji M, et al. Solitary capillary hemangioma of the lung: report of 2 resected cases detected by high-resolution CT. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:750-3 pubmed
    We report 2 cases of capillary hemangioma, each presenting as a solitary nodule in the peripheral lung. Both of the patients were asymptomatic with a small solitary nodule that had revealed by computed tomography...
  7. Leroux K, Den Bakker M, Paridaens D. Acquired capillary hemangioma in the lacrimal sac region. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;142:873-5 pubmed
    ..To describe two cases of acquired capillary hemangiomas in adults, in the lacrimal sac region...
  8. North P, Waner M, Buckmiller L, James C, Mihm M. Vascular tumors of infancy and childhood: beyond capillary hemangioma. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2006;15:303-17 pubmed lump these tumors, in addition to small vessel vascular malformations, under overly generic terms like capillary hemangioma that do little, if anything, to guide proper clinical management...
  9. Hsueh P, Chen W, Chiang Y, Lee F. Capillary hemangioma of the middle ear. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;136:666-7 pubmed
  10. Singh A, Nouri M, Shields C, Shields J, Perez N. Treatment of retinal capillary hemangioma. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:1799-806 pubmed
    To report on the methods of treatment and the visual outcome of eyes with retinal capillary hemangioma (RCH).
  11. Tsunemi Y, Matsushita T, Takahashi T, Tamaki T. Childhood capillary hemangioma presenting as infantile perianal protrusion. Dermatology. 2003;207:408-9 pubmed
  12. Porfyridis I, Zisis C, Glinos K, Stavrakaki K, Rontogianni D, Zakynthinos S, et al. Recurrent cough and hemoptysis associated with tracheal capillary hemangioma in an adolescent boy: a case report. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;134:1366-7 pubmed
  13. Suh S, Jin S, Bae S, Kim C, Kim J. Retinal capillary hemangioma treated with verteporfin photodynamic therapy and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2007;21:178-84 pubmed
    To report a case of retinal capillary hemangioma treated with verteporfin photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide.
  14. Yoon R, Chussid S, Sinnarajah N. Characteristics of a pediatric patient with a capillary hemangioma of the palatal mucosa: a case report. Pediatr Dent. 2007;29:239-42 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to report the case of a capillary hemangioma in a 12-month-old female...
  15. Kavanagh E, Heran M, Peleg A, Rootman J. Imaging of the natural history of an orbital capillary hemangioma. Orbit. 2006;25:69-72 pubmed
    To describe the natural history of capillary hemangioma.
  16. Ghazi N, Jane J, Lopes M, Newman S. Capillary hemangioma of the cauda equina presenting with radiculopathy and papilledema. J Neuroophthalmol. 2006;26:98-102 pubmed
    ..Histologic and immunohistochemical features of the lesion were compatible with a capillary hemangioma. Although spinal cord tumors have been associated with papilledema, this is the first report of a capillary ..
  17. Davids T, Reid D. Capillary hemangioma of the middle ear. J Otolaryngol. 2006;35:196-9 pubmed
  18. Singh A, Shields J, Shields C. Solitary retinal capillary hemangioma: hereditary (von Hippel-Lindau disease) or nonhereditary?. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:232-4 pubmed
    To estimate the probability of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease in patients with solitary retinal capillary hemangioma.
  19. Costa R, Meirelles R, Cardillo J, Abrantes M, Farah M. Retinal capillary hemangioma treatment by indocyanine green-mediated photothrombosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:395-8 pubmed
    To describe the clinical, angiographic and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings of a patient with a large retinal capillary hemangioma who was treated by indocyanine green-mediated photothrombosis. Interventional case report.
  20. Kammoun H, Jallouli M, Gouiaa N, Boudauara T, Mhiri R. Unusual location of a capillary hemangioma: inguinal location. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2007;31:593-5 pubmed
    ..Pathologic examination of the resected tissue confirmed the diagnosis of capillary hemangioma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of a capillary hemangioma occurring in this ..
  21. Weiss A, Kelly J. Reappraisal of astigmatism induced by periocular capillary hemangioma and treatment with intralesional corticosteroid injection. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:390-397.e1 pubmed
    To document refractive status and visual acuity before and after intralesional corticosteroid injection in children with astigmatism induced by periocular capillary hemangioma (PCH).
  22. Reynolds S, Shechtman D, Falco L. Complex juxtapapillary capillary hemangioma: a case report. Optometry. 2008;79:512-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report reviews this condition while highlighting the treatment and potential complications associated with juxtapapillary capillary hemangioma.
  23. Bornfeld N, Kreusel K. [Capillary hemangioma of the retina in cases of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. New therapeutic directions]. Ophthalmologe. 2007;104:114-8 pubmed
    ..The treatment of juxtapapillary angiomas is still a therapeutic dilemma. Vitreoretinal surgery should be confined to advanced stages with tractional detachment or when no other treatment option is available to salvage the eye...
  24. Garcia Arumi J, Ramsay L, Guraya B. Transpupillary thermotherapy for circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:351-6; discussion 357 pubmed
    ..TTT can be considered an acceptable therapeutic option for choroidal hemangiomas and serous retinal detachment, and we believe that the role of this therapy will expand in the management of these patients. ..
  25. Veriasova N, Polysalov V, Tarazov P. [Long-term results of local ethanol injection therapy in the treatment of hemangiomatosis of the liver]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 2003;162:22-6 pubmed
    ..It gives good long-term results including a combination with the endovascular treatment and resection of the liver. ..
  26. Kreusel K, Bechrakis N, Neumann H, Foerster M. [Juxtapapillary capillary retinal angioma with epiretinal membrane of the macula in familial Von-Hippel-Lindau-Syndrome]. Ophthalmologe. 2007;104:317-20 pubmed
    ..The retinal angioma embedded in an epiretinal membrane was removed completely with the membrane by pars plana vitrectomy with a good functional result. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of capillary angioma. ..
  27. Moskowitz C, Edelstein C, Oh M, Burnier M. Retinal capillary hemangioma in von Hippel-Lindau disease. Can J Ophthalmol. 2005;40:192-4 pubmed
  28. Coats D, Paysse E. Orbital hemangioma. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:2369 pubmed
  29. Copeland J, Muller K, Muller A. Pulmonary haemangiolymphangioma--a new entity of pulmonary vascular tumours?. Histopathology. 2008;52:527-9 pubmed publisher
  30. Koka K, Mukherjee B, Agarkar S. Effect of oral propranolol on periocular Capillary Hemangiomas of Infancy. Pediatr neonatol. 2018;59:390-396 pubmed publisher
    ..Medical records of 21 infants diagnosed with periocular capillary hemangioma during a period of 5 years from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
  31. Piatt J. Skin hemangiomas and occult dysraphism. J Neurosurg. 2004;100:81-2; discussion 82 pubmed
  32. Komiyama M, Nakajima H, Kitano S, Sakamoto H, Kurimasa H, Ozaki H. Endovascular treatment of huge cervicofacial hemangioma complicated by Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2000;33:26-30 pubmed
    ..Endovascular treatment should be considered as an important therapeutic option for hemangioma complicated by Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. ..
  33. Javellana J, Drouilhet J, Kokame G, Chee P, Wong B. Retinal capillary angioma in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy treated with photodynamic therapy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:780-2 pubmed
    ..Retinal capillary angioma may be present in association with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, and photodynamic therapy may provide a good alternative treatment to decrease exudation. ..
  34. Kiratli H, Bilgic S, Caglar M, Soylemezoglu F. Intramuscular hemangiomas of extraocular muscles. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:564-8 pubmed
    ..To report two patients, 3 and 40 years of age, respectively, each of whom had an isolated intramuscular hemangioma of an extraocular muscle...
  35. Andronikou S, McHugh K, Jadwat S, Linward J. MRI features of bilateral parotid haemangiomas of infancy. Eur Radiol. 2003;13:711-6 pubmed
    ..Bilateral parotid haemangiomas are rare, but when present may have deep extensions, which can result in respiratory compromise requiring tracheostomy. ..
  36. Fischer U, Kurrer M, Holzmann D. [Recurrent bloody nasal secretion]. HNO. 2003;51:324-5 pubmed
  37. Daenekindt T, Weyns F, Kho K, Peuskens D, Engelborghs K, Wuyts J. Giant intracranial capillary hemangioma associated with enlarged head circumference in a newborn. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008;1:488-92 pubmed publisher
    The authors describe the case of a patient with an intracranial capillary hemangioma, and they review the recent literature on intracranial capillary hemangiomas with special attention to their differential diagnosis and management...
  38. Kim J, Kwon S. Sinonasal Hemangioma: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Follow-Up of 37 Patients at a Single Center. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;75:1775-1783 pubmed publisher
    ..A retrospective chart review was conducted of a histologic diagnosis of lobular capillary hemangioma or cavernous hemangioma of the sinonasal mucous membranes treated at the Chonbuk National University ..
  39. Benevento A, Boni L, Dionigi G, Besana Ciani I, Danese E, Dionigi R. Multiple hemangiomas of the appendix and liver. J Am Coll Surg. 2003;197:860-1 pubmed
  40. Slaughter K, Sullivan T, Boulton J, O Reagan P, Gole G. Early surgical intervention as definitive treatment for ocular adnexal capillary haemangioma. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;31:418-23 pubmed
    ..Surgery is a safe, effective treatment for selected lesions, provides a definitive early treatment, and prevents astigmatism and occlusion-related amblyopia. ..
  41. Bakhach S, Grenier N, Berge J, Leaute Labreze C, Chateil J, Douws C, et al. [Color Doppler sonography of superficial capillary hemangiomas]. J Radiol. 2001;82:1613-9 pubmed
    ..Increase of resistive index with age was noted in 9/11 cases. Superficial hemangiomas have typical but variable gray-scale, spectral and color flow sonographic patterns. These fluctuations are probably related to phases of evolution. ..
  42. Bourguignont A, Blaise P, Janin N, Rakic J. [Clinical case of the month. A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease]. Rev Med Liege. 2010;65:62-6 pubmed
    ..A systematic approach must be followed for repeated screening in patients at risk, since many lesions in VHL disease are treatable. ..
  43. Goggin M. Astigmatism and periocular hemangioma. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1854-5; author reply 1855 pubmed publisher
  44. Schwartz S, Kodsi S, Blei F, Ceisler E, Steele M, Furlan L. Treatment of capillary hemangiomas causing refractive and occlusional amblyopia. J AAPOS. 2007;11:577-83 pubmed
    ..The records of 54 patients who underwent treatment for reduction in the size of a capillary hemangioma causing amblyopia or threatened amblyopia in two pediatric ophthalmology practices were reviewed...
  45. Koh L, Sun Y, Koh P, Chiu H, Chen S, Huang M. Ovarian capillary hemangioma presenting as pseudo-Meigs' syndrome: a case report. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2007;14:367-9 pubmed
    ..We report a case of pseudo-Meigs' syndrome, consisting of bilateral ovarian hemangiomas, hydrothorax, ascites, and an elevated CA 125 level, which was resolved after laparoscopic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy...
  46. Porrini G, Giovannini A, Amato G, Ioni A, Pantanetti M. Photodynamic therapy of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:674-80 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangiomas (CCH) of the posterior pole...
  47. Lang E, Atug F, Thomas R. Selective embolization of capillary hemangioma of the renal papilla. J Urol. 2007;177:1146 pubmed
  48. Juern A, Glick Z, Drolet B, Frieden I. Nevus simplex: a reconsideration of nomenclature, sites of involvement, and disease associations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63:805-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevus simplex (NS) is a common birthmark on the forehead, glabella, upper eyelids, and nape. More widespread involvement can be confused with port-wine stains (nevus flammeus) and other vascular birthmarks...
  49. Mastronardi L, Guiducci A, Frondizi D, Carletti S, Spera C, Maira G. Intraneural capillary hemangioma of the cauda equina. Eur Spine J. 1997;6:278-80 pubmed
    A case of intraneural capillary hemangioma involving the dorsal root of a spinal nerve of the cauda equina is reported. The patient was a 41-year-old man with a 3-month history of intermittent left lumbosciatalgia...
  50. Kim Y, Park H, Cinn Y. Microvenular hemangioma. Dermatology. 2003;206:161-4 pubmed
    ..In the context of the histological similarity to a low-grade malignant tumor, Kaposi's sarcoma, the awareness of microvenular hemangioma, a benign vascular tumor, is important...
  51. Watanabe M, Kubo N, Hakozaki S, Kuwata N, Monma N, Ogawa A. [Intracranial capillary hemangioma: a case report]. No Shinkei Geka. 2001;29:1049-54 pubmed
    Capillary hemangiomas are the most common tumor of the neck and head in children. Intracranial capillary hemangioma without generalized neuro-cutaneous hemangiomatosis is extremely rare, with only one report in the literature...
  52. Verity D, Rose G, Restori M. The effect of intralesional steroid injections on the volume and blood flow in periocular capillary haemangiomas. Orbit. 2008;27:41-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effect of steroid therapy on the volume estimates and blood flow characteristics of childhood periorbital capillary haemangiomas...
  53. Thorp J, Geidt A, Gelatt M, Gowdamarajan R. Decompression of fetal cardiac tamponade caused by congenital capillary hemangioma of the pericardium. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96:816-7 pubmed
    ..Isolated fetal pericardial effusion is rare but has been associated with various cardiac masses. Decompression in utero might prolong the pregnancy...
  54. Ray W, Lee A, Blackburn S, Lueder G, Leonard J. Pseudotumor cerebri following tapered corticosteroid treatment in an 8-month-old infant. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008;1:88-90 pubmed publisher
    The authors report on an 8-month-old infant with an orbital capillary hemangioma. The patient had been treated with high-dose corticosteroid therapy and had had a recent decrease in dose...
  55. Dahr S, Cusick M, Rodriguez Coleman H, Srivastava S, Thompson D, Linehan W, et al. Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy with pegaptanib for advanced von Hippel-Lindau disease of the retina. Retina. 2007;27:150-8 pubmed
  56. Allen R, Sandquist M, Piatt J, Selden N. Ultrasonographic screening in infants with isolated spinal strawberry nevi. J Neurosurg. 2003;98:247-50 pubmed
    ..The authors performed spinal ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 20 consecutive newborns with spinal strawberry nevi...
  57. Assaad A, Kawut S, Arcasoy S, Rosenzweig E, Wilt J, Sonett J, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor is increased in pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis. Chest. 2007;131:850-855 pubmed publisher
    ..Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension with no effective medical therapy and a high risk of mortality. The pathogenesis of PCH is unknown...
  58. Silva C, Massie J, Mandelstam S. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis in a premature infant. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35:635-40 pubmed
    ..We present the HRCT features of PCH in a surviving ex-premature infant. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of the radiological features of PCH in a young living infant...
  59. Giatromanolaki A, Arvanitidou V, Hatzimichael A, Simopoulos C, Sivridis E. The HIF-2alpha/VEGF pathway activation in cutaneous capillary haemangiomas. Pathology. 2005;37:149-51 pubmed
    ..To investigate the pathogenesis of capillary haemangiomas, a common form of vascular malformation...
  60. Odemis E, Cakir M, Aynaci F. Rhombencephalosynapsis associated with cutaneous pretibial hemangioma in an infant. J Child Neurol. 2003;18:225-8 pubmed
    ..We also discuss cerebellar embryogenesis to differentiate this condition from other posterior fossa malformations such as Dandy-Walker malformation and Joubert's syndrome...
  61. Gunduz K. Transpupillary thermotherapy in the management of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma. Surv Ophthalmol. 2004;49:316-27 pubmed
    ..Although the follow-up in many studies is limited, transpupillary thermotherapy has not been associated with any significant complications...
  62. Egeli E, Oghan F, Alper M, Ozturk O. Unusual case of laryngeal tumor (capillary hemangioma) obturating the larynx. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac. 2005;122:154-6 pubmed
    b>Capillary hemangioma isolated to the free edge of the vocal fold is a rare clinical finding. We see many young patients, mostly infants under a year, who are having surgical intervention for laryngeal hemangiomas...
  63. Goyal R, Watts P, Lane C, Beck L, Gregory J. Adrenal suppression and failure to thrive after steroid injections for periocular hemangioma. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:389-95 pubmed
    To evaluate the effects of steroid injections for periocular capillary hemangioma on adrenal function and body composition.
  64. Gesslein M, Koscheck T, Kusch B. [Capillary hemangioma of the colon as a rare cause of intussusception in adults]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2004;129:1970-2 pubmed
    ..A 39-year-old patient presented with a history of constipation, abdominal pain and nausea. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a colonic tumour. Biopsy of the tumour did not reveal the diagnosis...
  65. Zanfir D, Zurac S, Staniceanu F, Andreescu B, Reboşapcă A. Incidental findings during ENT routine examination for head and neck trauma. Rom J Intern Med. 2009;47:301-5 pubmed
    ..cell carcinomas (3 cases), lentiginous malignant melanoma, keratoacantoma, branchial cyst, nasal lobular capillary hemangioma, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (one case each)...
  66. Kempf W, Cathomas G, Burg G, Trueb R. Micronodular Kaposi's sarcoma - a new variant of classic-sporadic Kaposi's sarcoma. Dermatology. 2004;208:255-8 pubmed
    ..We propose the term 'micronodular KS' for this unusual clinical variant of KS mimicking capillary hemangioma.
  67. Cholewa D, Waldschmidt J. Laser treatment of hemangiomas of the larynx and trachea. Lasers Surg Med. 1998;23:221-32 pubmed
    ..Hemangiomas have a typical clinical course and may lead to life-threatening obstruction if the central respiratory tract is involved...
  68. Naggara O, Koskas P, Lafitte F, Heran F, Piekarski J, Meder J, et al. [Vascular tumours and malformation of the orbit]. J Radiol. 2006;87:17-27 pubmed
    ..The objective of this work is, using the current classification, to illustrate the different imaging aspects of the most frequent vascular diseases of the orbit...
  69. Tubbs R, Wellons J, Iskandar B, Oakes W. Isolated flat capillary midline lumbosacral hemangiomas as indicators of occult spinal dysraphism. J Neurosurg. 2004;100:86-9 pubmed
    ..Debate has recently surrounded the question of whether these skin changes in isolation might indicate underlying spinal disease. The authors reviewed their experience in their most recent 120 cases in which OSD was diagnosed...
  70. Ritland J, Eide N, Tausjø J. External beam irradiation therapy for choroidal haemangiomas. Visual and anatomical results after a dose of 20 to 25 Gy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2001;79:184-6 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the visual and anatomic results of radiation therapy in ten patients with choroidal haemangiomas...
  71. Charrier J, Leboulanger N, Roger G, Denoyelle F, Garabedian E, Monteil J. [Nasal glial heterotopia: embryological and clinical approaches]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2006;107:44-9 pubmed
    ..The differential diagnosis includes prenasal space developmental impairment, which are nasoethmoidal meningoencephaloceles, nasal dermoid and epidermoid cysts...
  72. Rossi A, Bava G, Biancheri R, Tortori Donati P. Posterior fossa and arterial abnormalities in patients with facial capillary haemangioma: presumed incomplete phenotypic expression of PHACES syndrome. Neuroradiology. 2001;43:934-40 pubmed
    ..A causal teratogenic influence, possibly related to anomalous expression of vascular growth factors and their modulators, is suggested to occur between gestational weeks 3 and 5.5..
  73. Enjolras O, Picard A, Soupre V. [Congenital haemangiomas and other rare infantile vascular tumours]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2006;51:339-46 pubmed
    ..However they may occur as isolated tumours, without thrombocytopenia but with cosmetic, and sometimes function-impairing, consequences...
  74. Milewski S. Spontaneous regression of a capillary hemangioma of the optic disc. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:1100-1 pubmed
  75. Scalvenzi M, De Natale F, Francia M, Balato A. Dermoscopy of microvenular hemangioma: report of a case. Dermatology. 2007;215:69-71 pubmed
    ..Microvenular hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor with distinct dermoscopic and histopathological features which enable it to be distinguished from other vascular neoplasms...
  76. Tsao M, Schwartz M, Bernstein M, Halliday W, Lightstone A, Hamilton M, et al. Capillary hemangioma of the cavernous sinus. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 2003;98:169-74 pubmed
  77. Kawut S, Assaad A, Arcasoy S, Rosenzweig E, Sonett J, Borczuk A. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis: results of gene expression analysis. Chest. 2005;128:575S-5766S pubmed