splenic neoplasms


Summary: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.

Top Publications

  1. Comperat E, Bardier Dupas A, Camparo P, Capron F, Charlotte F. Splenic metastases: clinicopathologic presentation, differential diagnosis, and pathogenesis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:965-9 pubmed
    ..Splenic metastases occur in a context of multivisceral disseminated cancer or as a solitary lesion...
  2. Visnyei K, Grossbard M, Shapira I. Hepatosplenic ?? T-cell lymphoma: an overview. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2013;13:360-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics of this disease, along with the challenges that are associated with its diagnosis and treatment. ..
  3. Pilz J, Sperschneider T, Lutz T, Loosli B, Maurer C. Littoral cell angioma in main and accessory intrapancreatic spleen presenting as splenic rupture. Am J Surg. 2011;201:e15-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first description of littoral cell angioma of the spleen involving both main and accessory organ presenting as splenic rupture...
  4. Ochenrider M, Patterson D, Aboulafia D. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in a young man with Crohn's disease: case report and literature review. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2010;10:144-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional research is needed to better understand the role of thiopurines and TNF-alpha inhibitors in promoting HSTCL and what can be done to prevent and treat this devastating malignancy in young patients with Crohn's disease...
  5. Traverse Glehen A, Baseggio L, Salles G, Felman P, Berger F. Splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma: a distinct clinicopathological and molecular entity. Recent advances in ontogeny and classification. Curr Opin Oncol. 2011;23:441-8 pubmed publisher
  6. Salido M, Baro C, Oscier D, Stamatopoulos K, Dierlamm J, Matutes E, et al. Cytogenetic aberrations and their prognostic value in a series of 330 splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphomas: a multicenter study of the Splenic B-Cell Lymphoma Group. Blood. 2010;116:1479-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Complexity of the karyotype, 14q aberrations, and TP53 deletions are poor prognostic indicators and may be considered together with other clinicobiologic parameters to ascertain the prognosis of SMZL...
  7. Kotlyar D, Osterman M, Diamond R, Porter D, Blonski W, Wasik M, et al. A systematic review of factors that contribute to hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:36-41.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the medications, duration of therapy, and ages of patients associated with HSTCL...
  8. Rinaldi A, Mian M, Chigrinova E, Arcaini L, Bhagat G, Novak U, et al. Genome-wide DNA profiling of marginal zone lymphomas identifies subtype-specific lesions with an impact on the clinical outcome. Blood. 2011;117:1595-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Although del(17p) did not determine a worse outcome and del(8p) was only of borderline significance, the presence of both deletions had a highly significant negative impact on the outcome of splenic MZLs...
  9. Rossi D, Deaglio S, Dominguez Sola D, Rasi S, Vaisitti T, Agostinelli C, et al. Alteration of BIRC3 and multiple other NF-?B pathway genes in splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Blood. 2011;118:4930-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic lesions of NF-?B provide a molecular basis for the pathogenesis of more than 30% of SMZLs and offer a suitable target for NF-?B therapeutic approaches in this lymphoma...

More Information


  1. Yan Q, Huang Y, Watkins A, Kocialkowski S, Zeng N, Hamoudi R, et al. BCR and TLR signaling pathways are recurrently targeted by genetic changes in splenic marginal zone lymphomas. Haematologica. 2012;97:595-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that deregulation of the TLR (toll like receptor) and BCR (B-cell receptor) signaling pathway may play an important role in the pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma...
  2. Bikos V, Darzentas N, Hadzidimitriou A, Davis Z, Hockley S, Traverse Glehen A, et al. Over 30% of patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma express the same immunoglobulin heavy variable gene: ontogenetic implications. Leukemia. 2012;26:1638-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they raise the possibility that certain SMZL subtypes could derive from progenitor populations adapted to particular antigenic challenges through selection of VH domain specificities, in particular the IGHV1-2(*)04 allele...
  3. Drini M, Prichard P, Brown G, Macrae F. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma following infliximab therapy for Crohn's disease. Med J Aust. 2008;189:464-5 pubmed
    ..We describe the first case in Australia of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in a patient who had been treated with infliximab and immunomodulators for Crohn's disease...
  4. Van Hul I, Cools P, Rutsaert R. Solitary splenic metastasis of an adenocarcinoma of the lung 2 years postoperatively. Acta Chir Belg. 2008;108:462-3 pubmed
    ..Most patients with splenic metastases have widely disseminated metastatic disease. We report a case of an asymptomatic, isolated splenic metastasis in a 67-year-old man diagnosed 2 years after resection of an adenocarcinoma of the lung...
  5. Koutelidakis I, Tsiaousis P, Papaziogas B, Patsas A, Atmatzidis S, Atmatzidis K. Spleen rupture due to primary angiosarcoma: a case report. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2007;38:74-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Splenectomy prior to rupture seems to have a positive impact on long-term survival...
  6. Sileri P, D Ugo S, Benavoli D, Stolfi V, Palmieri G, Mele A, et al. Metachronous splenic metastasis from colonic carcinoma five years after surgery: a case report and literature review. South Med J. 2009;102:733-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We also review the scant literature experience discussing clinical diagnosis and approaches to this uncommon event...
  7. Tang H, Huang H, Xiu Q, Shi Z. Isolated splenic metastasis from lung cancer: ringleader of continuous fever. Eur Respir Rev. 2010;19:253-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We also reviewed all 11 reported previously cases and summarised the characteristics and appropriate management of isolated splenic metastasis from lung cancer...
  8. Kanellis G, Mollejo M, Montes Moreno S, Rodriguez Pinilla S, Cigudosa J, Algara P, et al. Splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma: revision of a series of cases reveals characteristic clinico-pathological features. Haematologica. 2010;95:1122-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional work is required to review this entity and establish its diagnostic features...
  9. Beigel F, Jürgens M, Tillack C, Subklewe M, Mayr D, Goke B, et al. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in a patient with Crohn's disease. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;6:433-6 pubmed publisher
    ..He had been taking azathioprine therapy for approximately 5.5 years and had received high-dose steroids. He had also previously taken metronidazole and antihypertensive medications...
  10. Hansen T, Habekost M, Flieger D, Kirkpatrick C. [Littoral cell angioma of the spleen. Association with colon and hepatocellular carcinoma]. Pathologe. 2010;31:290-2 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition a hepatocellular carcinoma was found. Due to the relationship with malignant tumors littoral cell angioma should be considered in every case of a splenic tumoral space-occupying mass, particularly in carcinoma patients...
  11. Nagai Y, Ikegame K, Mori M, Inoue D, Kimura T, Shimoji S, et al. Hepatosplenic alphabeta T cell lymphoma. Int J Clin Oncol. 2010;15:215-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Since hepatosplenic alphabeta T cell lymphoma is very rare with only 23 reported cases to date, herein we report this case and discuss the therapeutic strategy...
  12. Watkins A, Huang Y, Ye H, Chanudet E, Johnson N, Hamoudi R, et al. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma: characterization of 7q deletion and its value in diagnosis. J Pathol. 2010;220:461-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, 7q32 deletion is a characteristic feature of SMZL, albeit seen in isolated cases of splenic B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia unclassifiable, and its detection may help the differential diagnosis of splenic B-cell lymphomas...
  13. Ando K, Kaneko N, Yi L, Sato C, Yasui D, Inoue K, et al. [Splenic metastasis of lung cancer]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2009;47:581-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we considered that splenectomy could possibly improve the prognosis of this patient with isolated splenic metastasis. We report a case with a brief review of the literature and summarize the 13 reported cases...
  14. Thai A, Prindiville T. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma and inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2010;4:511-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we explore the history of reported cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in relation to the possible existence of a causal relationship between infliximab use and HSTCL. The treatments for HSTCL will be briefly addressed...
  15. Warsame A, Aasheim H, Nustad K, Trøen G, Tierens A, Wang V, et al. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma with VH1-02 gene rearrangement expresses poly- and self-reactive antibodies with similar reactivity. Blood. 2011;118:3331-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that a common subset of SMZL arises from polyreactive B cells, a subset of marginal zone B cells that are important in the immunologic defense against infection...
  16. Shimizu Kohno K, Kimura Y, Kiyasu J, Miyoshi H, Yoshida M, Ichikawa R, et al. Malignant lymphoma of the spleen in Japan: a clinicopathological analysis of 115 cases. Pathol Int. 2012;62:577-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the patients with SBL-U presented with thrombocytopenia, bone marrow involvement, and advanced stage. Our study revealed the frequency and clinical features of splenic malignant lymphoma in Japan...
  17. Robledo C, Garcia J, Benito R, Flores T, Mollejo M, Martinez Climent J, et al. Molecular characterization of the region 7q22.1 in splenic marginal zone lymphomas. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24939 pubmed publisher
    ..A loss of 7q22.1 at 99925039-101348479 bp was observed in half of the cases. The region of 7q22.1 has not previously been characterised in SMZL. Our results confirmed the presence of a new region of loss on chromosome 7 in these NHL...
  18. Andersen C, Gruszka Westwood A, Østergaard M, Koch J, Jacobsen E, Kjeldsen E, et al. A narrow deletion of 7q is common to HCL, and SMZL, but not CLL. Eur J Haematol. 2004;72:390-402 pubmed
    ..We hypothesise that this region may contain (a) gene(s) important for the pathology of HCL and SMZL. ..
  19. Kim H, Park I, Lee J, Jeong S, Lee J, Kwon K, et al. Littoral cell angioma (LCA) associated with liver cirrhosis. Yonsei Med J. 2005;46:184-8 pubmed
    ..There has been no previous report of a LCA combined with liver cirrhosis. Herein, the first case of a LCA in Korea, diagnosed and treated by a splenectomy, is reported. ..
  20. Fadare O, Hileeto D, Mariappan M. Pathologic quiz case: multiple splenic lesions in a bacteremic patient. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004;128:1183-5 pubmed
  21. Collins G, Morgan M, Taylor F. Littoral cell angiomatosis with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2003;7:54-9 pubmed
    ..Herein we include our findings at autopsy, pertinent immunohistochemical studies, and a review of the literature pertaining to littoral cell angiomatosis with comment on its association with visceral malignancies. ..
  22. Levy A, Abbott R, Abbondanzo S. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: CT features with clinicopathologic comparison. Radiology. 2004;230:485-90 pubmed
    ..Littoral cell angioma is a primary splenic neoplasm that most commonly manifests at CT as multiple hypoattenuating masses in an enlarged spleen. Histopathologically, these masses represent blood-filled vascular channels. ..
  23. Paydas S, Yavuz S, Disel U, SAhin B, Ergin M. Successful rituximab therapy for hemolytic anemia associated with relapsed splenic marginal zone lymphoma with leukemic phase. Leuk Lymphoma. 2003;44:2165-6 pubmed
  24. Li S, Mann K, Holden J. T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma presenting in the spleen: a clinicopathologic analysis of 3 cases. Int J Surg Pathol. 2004;12:31-7 pubmed
    ..The combined morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic data are essential for a correct diagnosis of splenic T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma. ..
  25. Bhatt S, Huang J, Dogra V. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188:1365-6 pubmed
  26. Schön C, Gorg C, Ramaswamy A, Barth P. Splenic metastases in a large unselected autopsy series. Pathol Res Pract. 2006;202:351-6 pubmed
    ..The present study underlines the importance of spleen metastasis as an indicator of poor prognosis. There are, however, various aspects as to the detection and morphology of spleen metastasism, which merit further scrutiny. ..
  27. Maier A, Bataille F, Krenz D, Anthuber M. [Angiosarcoma as a rare differential diagnosis in spontaneous rupture of the spleen]. Chirurg. 2004;75:70-4 pubmed
    ..Due to the small number of reported cases, there are no guidelines for adjuvant or palliative therapy, and up to today all adjuvant means of radiotherapy and chemotherapy have not improved the prognosis of the patients...
  28. Ruiz Ballesteros E, Mollejo M, Rodriguez A, Camacho F, Algara P, Martinez N, et al. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma: proposal of new diagnostic and prognostic markers identified after tissue and cDNA microarray analysis. Blood. 2005;106:1831-8 pubmed
    ..Shorter survival was associated with CD38 expression, naive IgV(H) genes, and the expression of a set of NF-kappaB pathway genes, including TRAF5, REL, and PKCA. ..
  29. Lachachi F, Abita T, Durand Fontanier S, Maisonnette F, Descottes B. [Spontaneous splenic rupture due to splenic metastasis of lung cancer]. Ann Chir. 2004;129:521-2 pubmed
    ..Chest X-ray revealed a right lung superior lobe tumor, related to poorly differentiated carcinoma. Total splenectomy is a good option for diagnosis and treatment of splenic metastases. ..
  30. Valbuena J, Levenback C, Mansfield P, Liu J. Angiosarcoma of the spleen clinically presenting as metastatic ovarian cancer. A case report and review of the literature. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2005;9:289-92 pubmed
    ..However, histopathologic examination of the specimen showed the tumor to be of a primary angiosarcoma. We believe that the lengthy exposure to radiation may have played a role in the histopathogenesis of this neoplasm in this patient. ..
  31. Wang S, Olson N, Zukerberg L, Harris N. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma with micronodular T-cell rich B-cell lymphoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:128-32 pubmed
    ..We describe a unique case of splenic marginal zone lymphoma associated with micronodular T cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma in the red pulp, a combination that has not previously reported in the literature. ..
  32. Warshauer D, Hall H. Solitary splenic lesions. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2006;27:370-88 pubmed
    ..Percutaneous biopsy may be used for histologic diagnosis when required. ..
  33. Bhatia K, Sahdev A, Reznek R. Lymphoma of the spleen. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2007;28:12-20 pubmed
    ..The importance of accurate splenic imaging in lymphoma assessment is also discussed, which has changed in recent years due to advances in therapy resulting in improvements in overall prognosis for both advanced and relapsed disease. ..
  34. Schmidt B, Smith S. Isolated splenic metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma. South Med J. 2004;97:298-300 pubmed
    ..We report a rare case of an asymptomatic, isolated splenic metastasis in a 72-year-old man diagnosed 25 months after resection of an adenocarcinoma of the lung. ..
  35. Navarro J, Ribera J, Mate J, Granada I, Junca J, Batlle M, et al. Hepatosplenic T-gammadelta lymphoma in a patient with Crohn's disease treated with azathioprine. Leuk Lymphoma. 2003;44:531-3 pubmed
    ..The patient did not respond to intensive chemotherapy. This case shows the importance of ruling out HSgammadeltaTCL in patients with hepatosplenomegaly, B-symptoms and any immunosuppressive condition. ..
  36. Wijaya J, Kapoor R, Roach P. Tc-99m-labeled RBC scintigraphy and splenic hemangioma. Clin Nucl Med. 2001;26:1022-3 pubmed
    ..Delayed images revealed blood pooling of the splenic mass. This finding is similar to the characteristics seen in RBC scintigraphy for hepatic hemangioma. RBC scintigraphy may be useful in the evaluation of possible splenic hemangioma. ..
  37. Rosso R, Paulli M. Littoral cell angiosarcoma: a truly malignant tumor. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:1255 pubmed
  38. Algara P, Mateo M, Sanchez Beato M, Mollejo M, Navas I, Romero L, et al. Analysis of the IgV(H) somatic mutations in splenic marginal zone lymphoma defines a group of unmutated cases with frequent 7q deletion and adverse clinical course. Blood. 2002;99:1299-304 pubmed
  39. Johnson C, Goyal M, Kim B, Wasdahl D, Nazinitsky K. Littoral cell angioma. Clin Imaging. 2007;31:27-31 pubmed
    ..LCA was diagnosed by ultrasound (US)-guided biopsy. She was successfully treated with laparoscopic splenectomy. The CT, MRI, US, and Tc99m-RBC scan characteristics are described along with histologic and immunohistochemical correlation. ..
  40. Kimura Y, Miyazaki M, Saeki H, Ohga T, Nozoe T, Sugimachi K. Solitary splenic metastasis derived from esophageal cancer. Hepatogastroenterology. 2003;50:1336-7 pubmed
    ..Transarterial embolization of the splenic artery was without effect. A splenectomy was then done and histological examination of the resected specimen revealed squamous cell carcinoma derived from the esophageal carcinoma. ..
  41. Rosh J, Gross T, Mamula P, Griffiths A, Hyams J. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in adolescents and young adults with Crohn's disease: a cautionary tale?. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007;13:1024-30 pubmed
    ..Additionally, a description of HSTCL and a summary of the known cases of this apparent therapeutic complication are presented. Clinical options in light of this new information are explored. ..
  42. Kan E, Levy I, Benharroch D. Splenic micronodular T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2008;12:290-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Our case presents minor variations on the recorded features. Possible reasons for the scarcity of reports and for the confirmation of this lymphoma as a variant of T-cell-rich large B-cell lymphoma are discussed. ..
  43. Kobayashi S, Kimura F, Hama Y, Ogura K, Torikai H, Kobayashi A, et al. Histiocytic sarcoma of the spleen: case report of asymptomatic onset of thrombocytopenia and complex imaging features. Int J Hematol. 2008;87:83-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Histiocytic sarcoma of the spleen should be considered as a differential diagnosis in therapeutically unresponsive patients with chronic thrombocytopenia. ..
  44. Suvajdzic N, Cemerikic Martinovic V, Saranovic D, Petrovic M, Popovic M, Artiko V, et al. Littoral-cell angioma as a rare cause of splenomegaly. Clin Lab Haematol. 2006;28:317-20 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis was made after elective splenectomy. The CT images, scintigraphy and histological specimens are presented, and differential diagnoses discussed. ..
  45. Pramesh C, Prabhudesai -, Parasnis -, Mistry -, Sharma -. Isolated splenic metastasis from non small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;10:247-8 pubmed
    ..We report a middle-aged man who presented to us with locoregionally advanced non small cell lung cancer, progressed on neoadjuvant chemotherapy and developed isolated splenic metastasis. ..
  46. Tee M, Vos P, Zetler P, Wiseman S. Incidental littoral cell angioma of the spleen. World J Surg Oncol. 2008;6:87 pubmed publisher
    ..Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a recently described primary vascular neoplasm of the spleen that may be associated with other malignancies and may itself also have malignant potential...
  47. Martel M, Cheuk W, Lombardi L, Lifschitz Mercer B, Chan J, Rosai J. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT): report of 25 cases of a distinctive benign splenic lesion. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:1268-79 pubmed
  48. Audouin J, Vercelli Retta J, Le Tourneau A, Adida C, Camilleri Broet S, Molina T, et al. Primary histiocytic sarcoma of the spleen associated with erythrophagocytic histiocytosis. Pathol Res Pract. 2003;199:107-12 pubmed
    ..The association with a reactive histiocytosis with erythrophagocytosis corresponds to "histiocytic medullary reticulosis", as previously described by Scott and Robb-Smith. ..
  49. Cavanna L, Lazzaro A, Trabacchi E, Anselmi E, Vallisa D, Foroni R. Presentation of esophageal cancer with solitary splenic metastasis. Am J Clin Oncol. 2005;28:636-7 pubmed
  50. Hernandez J, Garcia J, Gutierrez N, Mollejo M, Martinez Climent J, Flores T, et al. Novel genomic imbalances in B-cell splenic marginal zone lymphomas revealed by comparative genomic hybridization and cytogenetics. Am J Pathol. 2001;158:1843-50 pubmed
    ..05). In summary, chromosomal imbalances in regions 3q, 4q, 5q, 7q, 9q, 12q, and 20q have been detected by CGH in SMZL. Patients with SMZL displaying genetic losses by CGH had a short survival. ..
  51. Matutes E, Oscier D, Montalban C, Berger F, Callet Bauchu E, Dogan A, et al. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma proposals for a revision of diagnostic, staging and therapeutic criteria. Leukemia. 2008;22:487-95 pubmed
  52. Zeidan A, Sham R, Shapiro J, Baratta A, Kouides P. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in a patient with Crohn's disease who received infliximab therapy. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48:1410-3 pubmed
  53. Gruszka Westwood A, Hamoudi R, Matutes E, Tuset E, Catovsky D. p53 abnormalities in splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes. Blood. 2001;97:3552-8 pubmed
    ..Although p53 abnormalities are infrequent in SLVL, they underlie a more aggressive disease course and poor prognosis. (Blood. 2001;97:3552-3558) ..
  54. Hsu J, Ueng S, Hwang T, Chen H, Jan Y, Chen M. Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen in a child with long-term survival. Pediatr Surg Int. 2007;23:807-10 pubmed
    ..The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient was disease free at 16 years after surgery. This is the longest reported duration of survival in a patient with splenic angiosarcoma. ..
  55. Mollejo M, Algara P, Mateo M, Menarguez J, Pascual E, Fresno M, et al. Large B-cell lymphoma presenting in the spleen: identification of different clinicopathologic conditions. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003;27:895-902 pubmed
    ..Additionally, they provide evidence that clinical presentation as a tumor confined to the spleen and the hilar lymph nodes is associated with lower aggressivity. ..
  56. Sanyal S, Kaman L, Sinha S. Splenic metastasis from esophageal cancer: report of a case. Surg Today. 2005;35:988-90 pubmed
    ..A splenectomy, distal pancreatectomy, and resection of the splenic flexure with colocolic anastomosis were performed. A histological examination of the resected specimen showed squamous cell carcinoma...
  57. Avesani E, Cioffi U, De Simone M, Botti F, Carrara A, Ferrero S. Synchronous isolated splenic metastasis from colon carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 2001;24:311-2 pubmed
    ..Splenectomy for isolated splenic metastasis from colon carcinoma is justified, and serum tumor markers are useful to detect metastases early during the follow-up, as in our report...
  58. Tomaszewski D, Bereza S, Sternau A. [Solitary splenic metastases from lung cancer--one-time surgical procedure]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2003;71:533-7 pubmed
    ..Upper left lobectomy and splenectomy were done by the left postero-lateral thoracotomy with phrenotomy. The rarity of solitary spleen metastasis from lung cancer and the treatment are discussed...
  59. Chen L, Chien R, Yen C, Chang L. Splenic tumour: a clinicopathological study. Int J Clin Pract. 2004;58:924-7 pubmed
    ..Splenectomy is recommended only for patients with malignancies or complications such as intractable abdominal pain, coagulopathy or tumour rupture with an unstable haemodynamic state...
  60. Ziske C, Meybehm M, Sauerbruch T, Schmidt Wolf I. Littoral cell angioma as a rare cause of splenomegaly. Ann Hematol. 2001;80:45-8 pubmed
  61. Camacho F, Mollejo M, Mateo M, Algara P, Navas C, Hernandez J, et al. Progression to large B-cell lymphoma in splenic marginal zone lymphoma: a description of a series of 12 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001;25:1268-76 pubmed
    ..The frequency of the 7q deletion in this series was 3 of 7 (42%). 7q loss may play an alternative role in the inactivation of the p53 and p16INK4a pathway, thereby favoring tumoral progression...
  62. Thayu M, Markowitz J, Mamula P, Russo P, Muinos W, Baldassano R. Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in an adolescent patient after immunomodulator and biologic therapy for Crohn disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;40:220-2 pubmed
  63. Civardi G, Vallisa D, Berte R, Giorgio A, Filice C, Caremani M, et al. Ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy of the spleen: high clinical efficacy and low risk in a multicenter Italian study. Am J Hematol. 2001;67:93-9 pubmed
    ..Aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy showed similar diagnostic yields, except for the diagnosis of splenic lymphoma, in which core needle biopsy obtained better results...
  64. Harmon R, Cerruto C, Scheckner A. Littoral cell angioma: a case report and review. Curr Surg. 2006;63:345-50 pubmed
  65. Elsayes K, Narra V, Mukundan G, Lewis J, Menias C, Heiken J. MR imaging of the spleen: spectrum of abnormalities. Radiographics. 2005;25:967-82 pubmed
    ..MR imaging is an excellent tool for diagnosis and evaluation of focal lesions and pathologic conditions of the spleen...
  66. Ben Izhak O, Bejar J, Ben Eliezer S, Vlodavsky E. Splenic littoral cell haemangioendothelioma: a new low-grade variant of malignant littoral cell tumour. Histopathology. 2001;39:469-75 pubmed
    ..Littoral cell angioma is a recently described splenic vascular tumour of splenic sinus lining cells. Almost all cases of splenic littoral cell tumours hitherto described were benign...
  67. Cheng S, Yang T, Chen B, Liu C. Image of the month. Littoral cell angioma. Arch Surg. 2005;140:1127-8 pubmed
  68. Collins P, Ettler H, Amann J, Rajgopal C. Soft-tissue images. Splenic littoral cell angioma. Can J Surg. 2003;46:204-5 pubmed
  69. Boonstra R, Bosga Bouwer A, van Imhoff G, Krause V, Palmer M, Coupland R, et al. Splenic marginal zone lymphomas presenting with splenomegaly and typical immunophenotype are characterized by allelic loss in 7q31-32. Mod Pathol. 2003;16:1210-7 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate that SMZL with primary splenic presentation and the typical IgM+, IgDdim, CD5-, CD10-, CD23- immunophenotype is characterized by the presence of deletions in chromosome 7q31-32...
  70. Gruszka Westwood A, Hamoudi R, Osborne L, Matutes E, Catovsky D. Deletion mapping on the long arm of chromosome 7 in splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2003;36:57-69 pubmed
    ..The presence of a high incidence of abnormalities in the established hotspot areas and in particular the finding of biallelic deletions is indicative of the existence of genes important for the pathogenesis of SLVL in these areas...
  71. Vyas S, Chitale A, Deshpande R. Late splenic metastasis after curative resection for oesophageal carcinoma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;22:1011-3 pubmed
    ..We report herewith one such instance of metastatic involvement of the spleen in an operated case of carcinoma oesophagus...
  72. Li L, Fisher D, Stanek A. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen: addition of a case with focal CD68 staining and distinctive CT features. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29:839-41 pubmed
  73. Andersen C, Gruszka Westwood A, Atkinson S, Matutes E, Catovsky D, Pedersen R, et al. Recurrent genomic imbalances in B-cell splenic marginal-zone lymphoma revealed by comparative genomic hybridization. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2005;156:122-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that SMZL constitute a genetically heterogeneous disease where gain of 3q25 and loss of 7q31 are the most likely imbalances to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease...
  74. Dogan A, Burke J, Goteri G, Stitson R, Wotherspoon A, Isaacson P. Micronodular T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma of the spleen: histology, immunophenotype, and differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003;27:903-11 pubmed
    ..The main differential diagnoses include granulomatous inflammation, Hodgkin's lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and peripheral T-cell lymphomas...
  75. Iannitto E, Minardi V, Callea V, Stelitano C, Calvaruso G, Tripodo C, et al. Assessment of the frequency of additional cancers in patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Eur J Haematol. 2006;76:134-40 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to estimate the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) and the absolute excess risk (AER) of SPC in patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL)...
  76. He S, Roberts A, Ritchie D, Grigg A. Graft-versus-lymphoma effect in progressive hepatosplenic gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48:1448-50 pubmed
  77. Goldfeld M, Cohen I, Loberant N, Mugrabi A, Katz I, Papura S, et al. Littoral cell angioma of the spleen: appearance on sonography and CT. J Clin Ultrasound. 2002;30:510-3 pubmed
    ..The patient's recovery was uneventful. LCA should be considered when making a differential diagnosis of splenic lesions, and sonography may be more helpful than CT in reaching a diagnosis of LCA...
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    ..These data confirm the relative indolence of this disease, indicating the existence of a subset of more aggressive cases, which should stimulate the search for predictive biologic factors and alternative therapies...
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    ..It is important to perform a splenectomy before splenic rupture owing to its negative impact on long-term survival...
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    ..In conclusion, SMZL, but not NMZL, demonstrates large genomic imbalances and frequent loss of the 7q31.32 and 7q36.2 regions involving POT1 and SHH, respectively. In NMZL, loss of FADD and gain of GLI1 are frequent events...
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    ..We hypothesized that patients with metastatic disease to intra-abdominal solid organs might also benefit from complete surgical resection...
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    ..CD163 expression by neoplastic cells could be confirmed only after careful observation, because the molecule may only be seen in some of the neoplastic cells...
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    ..Splenectomy is considered the first-line treatment of choice for splenic MZL; it results in only partial remission, but responses are generally sufficient for correcting cytopenia, improving quality of life, and increasing survival...
  84. Arcaini L, Orlandi E, Scotti M, Brusamolino E, Passamonti F, Burcheri S, et al. Combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine induces complete hematologic remission of splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma. 2004;4:250-2 pubmed
    ..The immunochemotherapy regimen was well tolerated and all patients exhibited complete remission. To our knowledge, this is the first report of splenic MZL showing response to a combination of rituximab with chemotherapy...
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    ..To retrospectively review clinical, pathologic, and imaging features of angiosarcoma of the spleen in 12 patients...
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    ..Solitary splenic lesion is a rare presentation of a previous or current malignancy. We describe a case of an isolated splenic lesion caused by endometrial carcinoma and summarize all the published reports on solitary splenic metastasis...
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    ..Splenectomy may be required for definitive evaluation of a splenic mass with atypical features...
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    ..To date, no definitive therapy has been established. Therapeutic options include treatment abstention, splenectomy, splenic irradiation, and chemotherapy...
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    ..This group, along with the previously recognized gammadelta group, should be recognized as phenotypically heterogeneous subtypes of the same disease entity...
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