epithelioid and spindle cell nevus


Summary: A benign compound nevus occurring most often in children before puberty, composed of spindle and epithelioid cells located mainly in the dermis, sometimes in association with large atypical cells and multinucleate cells, and having a close histopathological resemblance to malignant melanoma. The tumor presents as a smooth to slightly scaly, round to oval, raised, firm papule or nodule, ranging in color from pink-tan to purplish red, often with surface telangiectasia. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Stefanaki C, Stefanaki K, Antoniou C, Argyrakos T, Patereli A, Stratigos A, et al. Cell cycle and apoptosis regulators in Spitz nevi: comparison with melanomas and common nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56:815-24 pubmed
    ..Deregulated cell cycle control is one of the hallmarks of tumor development. The expression of different cell cycle regulators has been used in various neoplasms as an adjunct to diagnosis...
  2. Lambert W. The approaching quantitative revolution in diagnostic anatomic pathology. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122:491-4 pubmed
  3. Wick M. Melanocytic lesions with features of Spitz nevus. Hum Pathol. 2006;37:779-80 pubmed
  4. Tomizawa K. Desmoplastic Spitz nevus showing vascular proliferation more prominently in the deep portion. Am J Dermatopathol. 2002;24:184-5 pubmed
  5. Aida K, Monia K, Ahlem S, Dominique H, Becima F, Sylvie F, et al. Agminated Spitz nevi arising on a nevus spilus after chemotherapy. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27:411-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these criteria are related to NS but we should also take into account the chemotherapy induction and the high number of Spitz nevi. ..
  6. Argenziano G, Soyer H, Ferrara G, Piccolo D, Hofmann Wellenhof R, Peris K, et al. Superficial black network: an additional dermoscopic clue for the diagnosis of pigmented spindle and/or epithelioid cell nevus. Dermatology. 2001;203:333-5 pubmed
    ..5% of SECN. Histopathologically, this network corresponds to focal areas of pigmented parakeratosis, producing a black reticulated appearance on the horizontal plane. ..
  7. Essary L, Hoang M, Carder K. Practical review and recent developments in pediatric dermatopathology. Adv Dermatol. 2005;21:193-215 pubmed
  8. de Giorgi V, Sestini S, Massi D, Papi F, Lotti T. Atypical Spitz tumour: a 'chameleon' lesion. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008;33:309-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our case underlines the difficulties present in the controversial chapter of spitzoid melanocytic lesions. The atypical Spitz tumour is a 'chameleon' lesion that can mimic not only melanocytic, but also nonmelanocytic lesions. ..
  9. Gerami P, Jewell S, Morrison L, Blondin B, Schulz J, Ruffalo T, et al. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as an ancillary diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:1146-56 pubmed publisher
    ..As a diagnostic aid to traditional histologic evaluation, this assay can have significant clinical impact and improve classification of melanocytic neoplasms with conflicting morphologic criteria. ..

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. George E, Polissar N, Wick M. Immunohistochemical evaluation of p16INK4A, E-cadherin, and cyclin D1 expression in melanoma and Spitz tumors. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010;133:370-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, contrasting immunoreactivity patterns were helpful in determining Breslow thickness in specimens containing melanoma and contiguous dermal nevi. ..
  2. Gerami P, Barnhill R, Beilfuss B, LeBoit P, Schneider P, Guitart J. Superficial melanocytic neoplasms with pagetoid melanocytosis: a study of interobserver concordance and correlation with FISH. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:816-21 pubmed publisher
    ..There is likely a subset of such cases where FISH can play a significant role as a diagnostic aid. ..
  3. Jose R, Bennett A, Holmes J. Spitz naevi presenting as pyogenic granulomata. Br J Plast Surg. 2005;58:1037-9 pubmed
  4. Pol Rodriquez M, Lee S, Silvers D, Celebi J. Influence of age on survival in childhood spitzoid melanomas. Cancer. 2007;109:1579-83 pubmed
    ..The findings support the notion that younger age (< or =10) may be associated with longer survival in children with metastatic spitzoid melanomas. ..
  5. Pellacani G, Cesinaro A, Seidenari S. Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy of pigmented skin lesions--improvement in melanoma diagnostic specificity. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;53:979-85 pubmed
    ..Characterization of confocal microscopy features of MMs and nevi seems to improve diagnostic accuracy for melanocytic lesions that are difficult to diagnose. ..
  6. Urso C, Borgognoni L, Saieva C, Ferrara G, Tinacci G, Begliomini B, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with "atypical Spitz tumors." A report on 12 cases. Hum Pathol. 2006;37:816-23 pubmed
    ..Results suggested that all the reported cases may constitute a relatively homogeneous morphological group of lesions with a relevant metastatic potential that may be underdiagnosed. ..
  7. Indsto J, Kumar S, Wang L, Crotty K, Arbuckle S, Mann G. Low prevalence of RAS-RAF-activating mutations in Spitz melanocytic nevi compared with other melanocytic lesions. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34:448-55 pubmed
    ..Germline DNA from members of 111 multiple-case melanoma families, representing a range of known (CDKN2A) and unknown predisposing gene defects, was analyzed for germline BRAF mutations, but none was found. ..
  8. Pichardo R, Lu D, Sangueza O, Horenstein M. What is your diagnosis? Desmoplastic melanocytic nevus. Am J Dermatopathol. 2002;24:506-7 pubmed
  9. Scope A, Benvenuto Andrade C, Agero A, Halpern A, Gonzalez S, Marghoob A. Correlation of dermoscopic structures of melanocytic lesions to reflectance confocal microscopy. Arch Dermatol. 2007;143:176-85 pubmed
    ..Correlating dermoscopic structures to RCM features is possible and a necessary step toward understanding the potential benefits of RCM in the clinical setting. ..
  10. Betti R, Inselvini E, Palvarini M, Crosti C. Agminated intradermal Spitz nevi arising on an unusual speckled lentiginous nevus with localized lentiginosis: a continuum?. Am J Dermatopathol. 1997;19:524-7 pubmed
  11. Hantschke M, Bastian B, LeBoit P. Consumption of the epidermis: a diagnostic criterion for the differential diagnosis of melanoma and Spitz nevus. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:1621-5 pubmed
    ..Future studies are required to analyze the prognostic value of COE itself. ..
  12. Barnhill R. The spitzoid lesion: the importance of atypical variants and risk assessment. Am J Dermatopathol. 2006;28:75-83 pubmed
  13. Emley A, Yang S, Wajapeyee N, Green M, Mahalingam M. Oncogenic BRAF and the tumor suppressor IGFBP7 in the genesis of atypical spitzoid nevomelanocytic proliferations. J Cutan Pathol. 2010;37:344-9 pubmed publisher
    ..From an oncogenic BRAF perspective, our findings suggest that the majority of 'atypical' spitzoid nevomelanocytic proliferations are probably no different from conventional Spitz nevi. ..
  14. Clarke B, Essa A, Chetty R. Plexiform spitz nevus. Int J Surg Pathol. 2002;10:69-73 pubmed
    ..An intraepidermal component could not be assessed, since the lesion was ulcerated. The differential diagnosis includes both melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions exhibiting a plexiform pattern of growth as well as myxoid lesions. ..
  15. Dorji T, Cavazza A, Nappi O, Rosai J. Spitz nevus of the tongue with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia: report of three cases of a pseudomalignant condition. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:774-7 pubmed
    ..Spitz nevus of the tongue carries some intriguing similarities with granular cell tumor, suggesting a possible histogenetic and pathogenetic relationship. ..
  16. Durrani A, Moir G, Diaz Cano S, Cerio R. Malignant melanoma in an 8-year-old Caribbean girl: diagnostic criteria and utility of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Br J Dermatol. 2003;148:569-72 pubmed
    ..These criteria include the distinction from MM mimics, especially Spitz tumours, and an appropriate use of staging techniques such as SLN biopsy to influence management. ..
  17. Ferrara G, Argenziano G, Soyer H, Chimenti S, Di Blasi A, Pellacani G, et al. The spectrum of Spitz nevi: a clinicopathologic study of 83 cases. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141:1381-7 pubmed
    ..Asymmetry should be assessed using both dermoscopic and histopathologic analysis, and reliability in histopathologic diagnosis may be enhanced by the simultaneous evaluation of the corresponding dermoscopic images. ..
  18. Zätterström U, Thor A, Nordgren H. Cervical metastasis from Spitz nevus of the buccal mucosa. Melanoma Res. 2008;18:36-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge this is the first report of an oral Spitz melanoma with metastatic behavior. ..
  19. Ferrara G, Brasiello M, Annese P, Francione S, Giorgio C, Moscarella E, et al. Desmoplastic nevus: clinicopathologic keynotes. Am J Dermatopathol. 2009;31:718-22 pubmed publisher
  20. Budde M, Schlötzer Schrehardt U, Hofmann Rummelt C, Holbach L. [Conjunctival balloon cell nevi--light- and electronmicroscopic findings in 2 patients]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2001;218:269-72 pubmed
    ..The balloon cell nevus is a rare variant of the conjunctival nevi. The characteristic intracellular microvesicles are probably degenerative remnants of premelanosomes. ..
  21. Seehra J, Sen P, Lloyd R, Sloan P. Intraoral Spitz naevus: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;36:661-2 pubmed
    ..This lesion shares histopathological similarities with malignant melanoma. Spitz naevus is a benign lesion, but malignant transformation has been reported and close monitoring is recommended. ..
  22. Bjornhagen V, Bonfoco E, Brahme E, Lindholm J, Auer G. Morphometric, DNA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen measurements in benign melanocytic lesions and cutaneous malignant melanoma. Am J Dermatopathol. 1994;16:615-23 pubmed
    ..Morphometry, DNA content, and PCNA positivity thus seem to reflect different stages in tumor progression of malignant melanoma. ..
  23. Bergman R, Dromi R, Trau H, Cohen I, Lichtig C. The pattern of HMB-45 antibody staining in compound Spitz nevi. Am J Dermatopathol. 1995;17:542-6 pubmed
  24. Fullen D, Poynter J, Lowe L, Su L, Elder J, Nair R, et al. BRAF and NRAS mutations in spitzoid melanocytic lesions. Mod Pathol. 2006;19:1324-32 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the BRAF mutational status does not separate all Spitz nevi from spitzoid melanomas and non-Spitz types of melanocytic proliferations, contrary to previous reports. ..
  25. Parente P, Coli A, Massi G, Mangoni A, Fabrizi M, Bigotti G. Immunohistochemical expression of the glucose transporters Glut-1 and Glut-3 in human malignant melanomas and benign melanocytic lesions. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2008;27:34 pubmed publisher
  26. Aoyagi S, Sato Matsumura K, Akiyama M, Tanimura S, Shibaki H, Shimizu H. Spitz naevus of the glans penis: an unusual location. Acta Derm Venereol. 2004;84:324-5 pubmed
  27. Strojan P, Lamovec J. Prepubertal malignant melanoma: report of three cases. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2000;17:163-9 pubmed
    ..In the present report, 3 of 13 cases with histologically confirmed prepubertal MM are described. The difficulties encountered in the diagnosis and management of this rare condition are discussed. ..
  28. Busam K, Pulitzer M. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for patients with diagnostically controversial Spitzoid melanocytic tumors?. Adv Anat Pathol. 2008;15:253-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Although SLN biopsy provides prognostic information helpful for clinical trials, we caution against performing the procedure as a diagnostic adjunct. ..
  29. Dhouib R, Sassi S, Jbeli A, Driss M, Mrad K, Abbes I, et al. Desmoplastic spitz nevus: report of a case and review of the literature. Pathologica. 2008;100:181-4 pubmed
    ..The immunohistochemical profile (S100 positive, HMB-45 negative and cytokeratin negative) may be helpful to differentiate it from other lesions. ..
  30. Stănescu L, Popescu C, Georgescu I, Georgescu C, Anghelina L, Petrescu I, et al. Spitz nevus with an uncertain malignant potential. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2009;50:275-82 pubmed
    ..The clinical evolution confirmed the histopathological diagnosis by the fact that the patient did not presented clinical signs of local recurrences or metastasis at three years after the excision of the tumor. ..
  31. Da Forno P, Pringle J, Fletcher A, Bamford M, Su L, Potter L, et al. BRAF, NRAS and HRAS mutations in spitzoid tumours and their possible pathogenetic significance. Br J Dermatol. 2009;161:364-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Third, HRAS mutation may be a marker of Spitz naevus, raising the possibility that other molecular markers for discriminating Spitz naevi from spitzoid melanoma can be discovered. ..
  32. Mones J, Ackerman A. "Atypical" Spitz's nevus, "malignant" Spitz's nevus, and "metastasizing" Spitz's nevus: a critique in historical perspective of three concepts flawed fatally. Am J Dermatopathol. 2004;26:310-33 pubmed
  33. Lohmann C, Coit D, Brady M, Berwick M, Busam K. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with diagnostically controversial spitzoid melanocytic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:47-55 pubmed
  34. Erickson L, Letts G, Shah S, Shackelton J, Duncan L. TRPM1 (Melastatin-1/MLSN1) mRNA expression in Spitz nevi and nodular melanomas. Mod Pathol. 2009;22:969-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the 16 patients who experienced metastasis, 15 (94%) had primary tumors that displayed reduced MLSN mRNA expression by all or a part of the dermal tumor. ..
  35. Bullen R, Snow S, Larson P, Kircik L, Nychay S, Briggs P. Multiple agminated Spitz nevi: report of two cases and review of the literature. Pediatr Dermatol. 1995;12:156-8 pubmed
    ..Although spontaneous involution may occur, the nevi are frequently treated by surgical excision. We describe two preschool girls with multiple agminated Spitz nevi, and review the current world literature on multiple Spitz nevi...
  36. Fabrizi G, Massi G. Spitzoid malignant melanoma in teenagers: an entity with no better prognosis than that of other forms of melanoma. Histopathology. 2001;38:448-53 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to identify the clues for a confident diagnosis of this entity and to confirm the peculiarly good prognosis...
  37. Harvell J, Bastian B, LeBoit P. Persistent (recurrent) Spitz nevi: a histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular pathologic study of 22 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:654-61 pubmed
    ..Although ancillary molecular techniques such as CGH are of great help in distinguishing these from melanoma, until such techniques become widely available we advocate complete but conservative excision of any recurrent Spitz nevus...
  38. Gurbuz Y, Apaydin R, Muezzinoglu B, Buyukbabani N. A current dilemma in histopathology: atypical spitz tumor or Spitzoid melanoma?. Pediatr Dermatol. 2002;19:99-102 pubmed
    ..We present a 4-year-old girl with an atypical melanocytic neoplasm with Spitzoid features on the left subscapular region...
  39. Zaenglein A, Heintz P, Kamino H, Zisblatt M, Orlow S. Congenital Spitz nevus clinically mimicking melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;47:441-4 pubmed
    ..This case emphasizes the need for clinical and histologic correlation in determining the benign or malignant nature of atypical pigmented lesions in infants...
  40. Piccolo D, Ferrari A, Peris K. Sequential dermoscopic evolution of pigmented Spitz nevus in childhood. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:556-8 pubmed
  41. Pellacani G, Cesinaro A, Grana C, Seidenari S. In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of pigmented Spitz nevi: comparison of in vivo confocal images with dermoscopy and routine histopathology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;51:371-6 pubmed
    ..Spitz nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion sometimes mistakenly diagnosed clinically as melanoma...
  42. Isaac A, Lertsburapa T, Pathria Mundi J, Martini M, Guitart J, Gerami P. Polyploidy in spitz nevi: a not uncommon karyotypic abnormality identifiable by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Am J Dermatopathol. 2010;32:144-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The other case was from a 14-year-old man from the ankle. All 4 cases that were polyploid were confirmed using a probe for the X chromosome. This article highlights the importance of polyploidy as a feature of some benign Spitz nevi...
  43. Li L, Crotty K, Palmer A, Kril J, Stankovic R, Scolyer R, et al. Differentiating benign nevi from malignant melanoma using DNA microdensitometry and karyometry and maturation: a zonal comparison, correlation and multivariate analysis. Anal Quant Cytol Histol. 2002;24:234-43 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of cytometric features of DNA microdensitometry, karyometry (nuclear morphometry) and maturation and their combinations in separating benign nevi from malignant melanomas...
  44. Cramer S. Molecular and cellular pathogenesis of Spitz nevi. Arch Dermatol. 2002;138:1254-5; author reply 1255 pubmed
  45. Brunetti B, Nino M, Sammarco E, Scalvenzi M. Spitz naevus: a proposal for management. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19:391-3 pubmed
  46. Broganelli P, Chiaretta A, Pippione M. Congenital naevus with 'Spitzoid starting' in an 8-year-old child: dermoscopic and histological features. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19:505-6 pubmed
  47. Bron J, Jaspars E, Molenkamp B, Meijer S, Mooi W, van Leeuwen P. [Three patients with a Spitz naevus that later turned out to be a melanoma]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005;149:1852-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, a group of lesions with inconclusive histology remains and has been designated as 'atypical Spitz tumour' or 'Spitz tumour of uncertain malignant potential'. Generally, such lesions are best treated as melanomas...
  48. Murali R, Sharma R, Thompson J, Stretch J, Lee C, McCarthy S, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in histologically ambiguous melanocytic tumors with spitzoid features (so-called atypical spitzoid tumors). Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15:302-9 pubmed
    ..The current study evaluated the role of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in patients with such atypical spitzoid tumors...
  49. Clarke L, Fountaine T, Hennessy J, Bruggeman R, Clarke J, Mauger D, et al. Cdc7 expression in melanomas, Spitz tumors and melanocytic nevi. J Cutan Pathol. 2009;36:433-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdc7 is a serine-threonine kinase required for initiation of DNA replication that may play a role in the development and progression of melanoma...
  50. Hilliard N, Krahl D, Sellheyer K. p16 expression differentiates between desmoplastic Spitz nevus and desmoplastic melanoma. J Cutan Pathol. 2009;36:753-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnostic conundrum occurs with confusion of desmoplastic melanoma with scars, hyalinizing blue nevi, desmoplastic Spitz nevi and diffuse neurofibromas...
  51. Cerroni L, Barnhill R, Elder D, Gottlieb G, Heenan P, Kutzner H, et al. Melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential: results of a tutorial held at the XXIX Symposium of the International Society of Dermatopathology in Graz, October 2008. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:314-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The terminology remains highly controversial, reflecting the uncertainty in classification and interpretation of these atypical melanocytic tumors...
  52. Ghazi B, Carlson G, Murray D, Gow K, Page A, Durham M, et al. Utility of lymph node assessment for atypical spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:2471-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study attempts to characterize the significance of nodal disease in ASMN...
  53. Ali L, Helm T, Cheney R, Conroy J, Sait S, Guitart J, et al. Correlating array comparative genomic hybridization findings with histology and outcome in spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2010;3:593-9 pubmed
    ..A smaller number of chromosomal aberrations, possibly a single aberrant locus, may be present in spitz tumors, but their presence may predict more aggressive behavior...
  54. Kohler S, Rouse R, Smoller B. The differential diagnosis of pagetoid cells in the epidermis. Mod Pathol. 1998;11:79-92 pubmed
    ..A review of the entities that enter into the differential diagnosis of intraepidermal pagetoid cells is presented, emphasizing their distinguishing histologic and immunophenotypic features and differential diagnosis...
  55. Schaffer J, Bolognia J. The clinical spectrum of pigmented lesions. Clin Plast Surg. 2000;27:391-408, viii pubmed
    ..A description of atypical nevi is provided, followed by an outline of the clinical characteristics of each subtype of cutaneous melanoma. The clinical characteristics of various pigmented lesions are illustrated...
  56. Sordi E, Ferrari A, Piccolo D, Peris K. Pigmented Spitz nevi. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28:1182-3 pubmed
  57. Ruiter D, van Dijk M, Ferrier C. Current diagnostic problems in melanoma pathology. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2003;22:33-41 pubmed
    ..We also briefly discuss the contribution of additional immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology in aiding to establish a correct diagnosis...
  58. Moody B, Hruza G, Hurt M. Re: Nodal metastatic melanoma in the neck of a 4-year-old girl after diagnosis of Spitz nevus of the cheek. Ann Plast Surg. 2003;51:336-7; author reply 337 pubmed
  59. Winnepenninckx V, van den Oord J. Immunophenotype and possible origin of nevi with phenotypical heterogeneity. Arch Dermatol Res. 2004;296:49-53 pubmed
  60. Calista D. Spitz naevus arising within congenital naevus spilus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19:137-8 pubmed
  61. Vignon Pennamen M. [Spitz naevus]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2005;132:498-500 pubmed
  62. Ackerman A. Garble that derives from lack of definition. Am J Dermatopathol. 2005;27:369-70 pubmed
  63. Sulit D, Guardiano R, Krivda S. Classic and atypical Spitz nevi: review of the literature. Cutis. 2007;79:141-6 pubmed
    ..We review the literature on classic and atypical Spitz nevi, advances in differentiating both types of nevi from melanoma, and treatment options...
  64. Ludgate M, Fullen D, Lee J, Lowe L, Bradford C, Geiger J, et al. The atypical Spitz tumor of uncertain biologic potential: a series of 67 patients from a single institution. Cancer. 2009;115:631-41 pubmed publisher
  65. Ferrara G, Zalaudek I, Savarese I, Scalvenzi M, Argenziano G. Pediatric atypical spitzoid neoplasms: a review with emphasis on 'red' ('spitz') tumors and 'blue' ('blitz') tumors. Dermatology. 2010;220:306-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of pediatric atypical Spitz nevus/tumors (pASNT) is an emerging challenge in clinical dermatology and dermatopathology...
  66. van Dijk M, Rombout P, Mooi W, van de Molengraft F, van Krieken J, Ruiter D, et al. Allelic imbalance in the diagnosis of benign, atypical and malignant Spitz tumours. J Pathol. 2002;197:170-8 pubmed
    ..Further molecular studies will be required to determine whether Spitz tumours and Spitzoid melanomas are unrelated entities, or whether there is a true spectrum of tumour progression...
  67. Kapur P, Selim M, Roy L, Yegappan M, Weinberg A, Hoang M. Spitz nevi and atypical Spitz nevi/tumors: a histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:197-204 pubmed
    ..The adult lesions were significantly more likely to be intradermal and to display dermal fibroplasia, but were histologically similar to their pediatric counterparts in all other respects...
  68. Urso C. A new perspective for spitz tumors?. Am J Dermatopathol. 2005;27:364-6 pubmed
  69. Bauer J, Bastian B. Genomic analysis of melanocytic neoplasia. Adv Dermatol. 2005;21:81-99 pubmed
  70. Lee J. Spitz nevus versus melanoma: limitation of the diagnostic methodology exposed. Eur J Dermatol. 2006;16:223-4 pubmed
  71. Urso C. Melanocytic lesions, Spitz tumors, and Don Ferrante's logic. Am J Dermatopathol. 2007;29:491-4 pubmed
  72. Wilsher M, Cheerala B. WT1 as a complementary marker of malignant melanoma: an immunohistochemical study of whole sections. Histopathology. 2007;51:605-10 pubmed
    ..To test the usefulness of WT1 as a diagnostic aid in melanoma diagnosis and prognostication...
  73. Nino M, Brunetti B, Delfino S, Brunetti B, Panariello L, Russo D. Spitz nevus: follow-up study of 8 cases of childhood starburst type and proposal for management. Dermatology. 2009;218:48-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this paper is to better understand the long-term modifications of nevi with starburst pattern to avoid surgical excision of these lesions in the pediatric age group...
  74. Polat M, Topcuoglu M, Tahtaci Y, Hapa A, Yilmaz F. Spitz nevus of the genital mucosa. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2009;75:167-9 pubmed
    ..The patient was diagnosed as Spitz nevus on the basis of clinical and histopathological findings. Our case is probably the first reported case of Spitz nevus localized to the genital mucosa in the English literature...
  75. Magro C, Yaniv S, Mihm M. The superficial atypical Spitz tumor and malignant melanoma of superficial spreading type arising in association with the superficial atypical Spitz tumor: A distinct form of dysplastic Spitzoid nevomelanocytic proliferation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;60:814-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, there exists a distinct subset of Spitz tumors that we designate as the superficial atypical Spitz tumor in which there is inherent dysplasia including lesions that evolve into melanoma of superficial spreading type...
  76. Kim Y, Do J, Bang D, Cho B, Cho K, Choi J, et al. Spitz naevus is rare in Korea. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2010;35:135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Spitz naevi have not been widely studied in Asians...
  77. Gonzalez A, Kumar D, Sanchez R. AgNOR area measurements differentiate benign and malignant melanocytic lesions more accurately than simple counting. Am J Dermatopathol. 1994;16:372-6 pubmed
    ..0420). We conclude that the ratio AgNOR area/nuclear area discriminates benign from malignant melanocytic lesions better than AgNOR counts or other parameters studied...
  78. Bergman R, Shemer A, Levy R, Friedman Birnbaum R, Trau H, Lichtig C. Immunohistochemical study of p53 protein expression in Spitz nevus as compared with other melanocytic lesions. Am J Dermatopathol. 1995;17:547-50 pubmed
  79. Stas M, van den Oord J, Garmyn M, Degreef H, De Wever I, De Wolf Peeters C. Minimal deviation and/or naevoid melanoma: is recognition worthwhile? A clinicopathological study of nine cases. Melanoma Res. 2000;10:371-80 pubmed
    ..Wide excision, even of local recurrence, and therapeutic node dissection could nevertheless provide survival comparable at least to that predicted by mathematical models for patients who initially had optimal treatment...
  80. Filippov S, Kniaz kin I, Anichkov N, Zeziulin P, Shinkarenko A, Bykov N. [Spitz nevus (juvenile nevus) of the penile skin]. Arkh Patol. 2002;64:46-8 pubmed
    ..Compound spindle cell and epithelioid cell nevus (Spitz nevus) at the anterior surface of the penile skin in a 31-year-old patient is described. The histological structure of the tumor is discussed in terms of differential diagnosis...
  81. Ferrier C, van Geloof W, Straatman H, van de Molengraft F, Van Muijen G, Ruiter D. Spitz naevi may express components of the plasminogen activation system. J Pathol. 2002;198:92-9 pubmed
    ..As serine protease components are expressed, Spitz naevi may use this proteolytic machinery to accomplish matrix degradation, although in a more restricted, possibly transient manner than melanomas...
  82. Takata M, Maruo K, Kageshita T, Ikeda S, Ono T, Shirasaki F, et al. Two cases of unusual acral melanocytic tumors: illustration of molecular cytogenetics as a diagnostic tool. Hum Pathol. 2003;34:89-92 pubmed
    ..5 years of follow-up, whereas case 2 developed lymph node metastasis. We conclude that molecular techniques such as CGH can be of diagnostic help in the classification of histologically ambiguous lesions...
  83. Levy R, Ming M, Shapiro M, Tucker M, Guerry D, Cirillo Hyland V, et al. Eruptive disseminated Spitz nevi. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:519-23 pubmed
    ..We describe a unique case marked by the eruptive onset of numerous lesions posing considerable diagnostic difficulty...
  84. Pellacani G, Bassoli S, Longo C, Cesinaro A, Seidenari S. Diving into the blue: in vivo microscopic characterization of the dermoscopic blue hue. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:96-104 pubmed
    ..In dermoscopy the presence of a blue hue is a clue for malignancy, although a blue tint is sometimes observable in benign lesions...
  85. Helm T, Helm K. Classic and atypical Spitz nevi: review of the literature. Cutis. 2007;80:183; author reply 183 pubmed
  86. Ajmi S, Trimeche S, Nouira M, Sfar R, Trabelsi A, Essabbah H. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid. Clin Nucl Med. 2008;33:887-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current report, the authors describe an interesting case of SETTLE in a young woman. Double phase Tc-99m tetrofosmin scintigraphy showed accumulation of the tracer in the thyroid mass...
  87. Plótár V, Szentirmay Z, Orosz Z. [Reactivity of five different antibodies with benign and malignant melanocytic lesions]. Magy Onkol. 2008;52:363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We have concluded that the histological diagnosis of melanocytic tumors is based on the detailed examination of traditional HE slides and the immunohistochemical methods only confirm or weaken our opinion...
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    ..The conclusion is that an accurate morphological evaluation remains the most efficient approach to establish the diagnosis and predict behavior of this challenging neoplasm...
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    ..Dermatoscopic examination revealed asymmetric pigmentation of the tumor with branched streaks of variable thickness and irregular pseudopodia. Histological analysis showed it to be a severely dysplastic melanocytic nevus...
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    ..This report highlights these new data and speculates on their possible future role in the diagnosis of borderline lesions...