blue nevus


Summary: Usually a benign tumor, that commonly presents as a solitary blue nodule with spindled MELANOCYTES covered by smooth SKIN. Several variants have been identified, one variant being malignant. The blue color is caused by large, densely packed melanocytes deep in the DERMIS of the nevus. In CHILDREN, they usually occur on the BUTTOCKS and LUMBOSACRAL REGION and are referred to as cellular blue nevi. Malignant blue nevi are more commonly found on the SCALP.

Top Publications

  1. Ferrara G, Soyer H, Malvehy J, Piccolo D, Puig S, Sopena J, et al. The many faces of blue nevus: a clinicopathologic study. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34:543-51 pubmed
    In recent years, several histopathologic variants of blue nevus have been identified, whose clinical and dermoscopic correlates need further clarification.
  2. Zyrek Betts J, Micale M, Lineen A, Chaudhuri P, Keil S, Xue J, et al. Malignant blue nevus with lymph node metastases. J Cutan Pathol. 2008;35:651-7 pubmed
    ..Malignant blue nevus has been described as a distinct identity, a rare form of malignant melanoma, and a misdiagnosed melanoma.
  3. Causeret A, Skowron F, Viallard A, Balme B, Thomas L. Subungual blue nevus. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:310-2 pubmed
    ..b>Blue nevus has been very rarely reported in this location...
  4. De Bona M, Bellumat A, De Boni M. Capsule endoscopy for the diagnosis and follow-up of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. Dig Liver Dis. 2005;37:451-3 pubmed
    ..Then repeat capsule endoscopy showed that the small bowel vascular lesions were unchanged. Capsule endoscopy may be a useful tool for diagnosing and monitoring the effects of therapy in patients with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome...
  5. Urso C, Tinacci G. Angiomatoid cellular blue nevus: a variant of blue nevus with an angioma-like appearance. J Cutan Pathol. 2005;32:385-7 pubmed
  6. Fishman S, Smithers C, Folkman J, Lund D, Burrows P, Mulliken J, et al. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: surgical eradication of gastrointestinal bleeding. Ann Surg. 2005;241:523-8 pubmed
    ..We report the largest clinical experience to date of surgically treated patients with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS)...
  7. Vig E, Brodkin K, Raugi G, Gladstone H. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in a patient with ataxia and dementia. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2002;15:7-11 pubmed
    ..Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is an uncommon cause of a relatively common geriatric syndrome presentation...
  8. Bevona C, Tannous Z, Tsao H. Dermal melanocytic proliferation with features of a plaque-type blue nevus and neurocristic hamartoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:924-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, BN and NCH might differ in their potential to develop into a malignancy. We describe a patient with a lesion showing features of both a plaque-type BN and NCH...
  9. Granter S, McKee P, Calonje E, Mihm M, Busam K. Melanoma associated with blue nevus and melanoma mimicking cellular blue nevus: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases on the spectrum of so-called 'malignant blue nevus'. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001;25:316-23 pubmed
    The term "malignant blue nevus" refers to a rare and heterogeneous group of melanomas that arise in several clinical settings...

More Information


  1. Giordano C, Battagliese A, di Gioia C, Campagna D, Benedetti F, Travaglini C, et al. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome and pulmonary hypertension: an unusual association. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2004;13:317-22 pubmed
    ..Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare congenital systemic angiodysplasia with multiple vascular malformations in the skin, gastrointestinal tract and, less often, in other internal organs and the brain...
  2. Beluffi G, Romano P, Matteotti C, Minniti S, Ceffa F, Morbini P. Jejunal intussusception in a 10-year-old boy with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34:742-5 pubmed
    ..The age of the patient and the jejunal intussusception precipitated by a vascular malformation containing calcifications (which were also found in different gut segments) make this case remarkable...
  3. Pouryazdanparast P, Newman M, Mafee M, Haghighat Z, Guitart J, Gerami P. Distinguishing epithelioid blue nevus from blue nevus-like cutaneous melanoma metastasis using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:1396-400 pubmed publisher
    b>Blue nevus (BN)-like cutaneous melanoma metastasis is a well-recognized variant of melanoma metastasis. These lesions may clinically and histologically simulate benign blue nevi...
  4. Piana S, Asioli S. Blue nevus of the nasal mucosa. Virchows Arch. 2005;446:342-3 pubmed
  5. Busam K, Lohmann C. Congenital pauci-melanotic cellular blue nevus. J Cutan Pathol. 2004;31:312-7 pubmed
    ..We regard these lesions as congenital monophasic and pauci-melanotic variants of cellular blue nevus. The nevi are presented here to enhance our knowledge of the morphologic spectrum of melanocytic tumors and to ..
  6. Pinto A, Raghavendra S, Lee R, Derossi S, Alawi F. Epithelioid blue nevus of the oral mucosa: a rare histologic variant. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003;96:429-36 pubmed
    Epithelioid blue nevus (EBN) is an extremely rare histologic variant of blue nevus that has only recently been identified...
  7. Zembowicz A, Mihm M. Dermal dendritic melanocytic proliferations: an update. Histopathology. 2004;45:433-51 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent developments in the field with emphasis on new entities and their differential diagnosis...
  8. Dwivedi M, Misra S. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome causing upper GI hemorrhage: a novel management approach and review. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;55:943-6 pubmed
  9. Shannon J, Auld J. Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome associated with cortical blindness. Australas J Dermatol. 2005;46:192-5 pubmed
    ..These most likely represent bleeding in relation to cavernomas believed to be the cause of decreased vision, predominantly in the left eye...
  10. Ariyanayagam Baksh S, Baksh F, Finkelstein S, Swalsky P, Abernethy J, Barnes E. Malignant blue nevus: a case report and molecular analysis. Am J Dermatopathol. 2003;25:21-7 pubmed
    Malignant blue nevus is a rare melanocytic tumor that is described by some authors as a variant of malignant melanoma, whereas others regard it as a distinct entity...
  11. Domini M, Aquino A, Fakhro A, Tursini S, Marino N, Di Matteo S, et al. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome and gastrointestinal haemorrhage: which treatment?. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2002;12:129-33 pubmed
  12. Hagiwara T, Kaku T, Kobayashi H, Hirakawa T, Nakano H. Coexisting vulvar malignant melanoma and blue nevus of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;99:519-20 pubmed
  13. Flaitz C, McCandless G. Palatal blue nevus in a child. Pediatr Dent. 2001;23:354-5 pubmed
    The intraoral blue nevus occurs infrequently in children. This case report describes the clinical features of an acquired blue nevus in a 7 year-old girl that involved the palatal mucosa...
  14. Fistarol S, Itin P. Plaque-type blue nevus of the oral cavity. Dermatology. 2005;211:224-33 pubmed
    The blue nevus of the oral cavity is a rare lesion with important differential diagnoses. The plaque-type blue nevus is an uncommon variant of the blue nevus...
  15. Barnhill R, Argenyi Z, Berwick M, Duray P, Erickson L, Guitart J, et al. Atypical cellular blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with atypical features): lack of consensus for diagnosis and distinction from cellular blue nevi and malignant melanoma ("malignant blue nevus"). Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:36-44 pubmed
  16. Boente M, Cordisco M, Frontini M, Asial R. Blue rubber bleb nevus (Bean syndrome): evolution of four cases and clinical response to pharmacologic agents. Pediatr Dermatol. 1999;16:222-7 pubmed
    ..We followed four affected children for at least 5 years. The evolution of their disease and the value of pharmacologic agents (steroids, interferon) in the management of some of these patients are discussed...
  17. Zembowicz A, Carney J, Mihm M. Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: a low-grade melanocytic tumor with metastatic potential indistinguishable from animal-type melanoma and epithelioid blue nevus. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:31-40 pubmed
    ..very similar to those previously described in the literature as "animal-type melanoma" and epithelioid blue nevus of Carney complex. We have designated these lesions as pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM)...
  18. Hu W, Nelson J, Mohney C, Willen M. Malignant melanoma arising in a pregnant African American woman with a congenital blue nevus. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30:1530-2 pubmed
    ..was to describe and an unusual case of melanoma arising in a congenital nevus with combined features of a blue nevus on the scalp of a pregnant African-American woman...
  19. Bleasel N, Stapleton K. Carney complex: in a patient with multiple blue naevi and lentigines, suspect cardiac myxoma. Australas J Dermatol. 1999;40:158-60 pubmed
    ..The myxomas caused two cerebrovascular accidents and a myocardial infarction. All patients with multiple blue naevi or lentigines should be investigated for the life-threatening association of cardiac myxomas. ..
  20. Bean G, Joseph N, Gill R, Folpe A, Horvai A, Umetsu S. Recurrent GNAQ mutations in anastomosing hemangiomas. Mod Pathol. 2017;30:722-727 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding of a recurrent driver mutation in the G-protein signal transduction pathway provides strong evidence that anastomosing hemangiomas are indeed clonal vascular neoplasms. ..
  21. Chitsazan A, Ferguson B, Villani R, Handoko H, Mukhopadhyay P, Gabrielli B, et al. Keratinocyte Sonic Hedgehog Upregulation Drives the Development of Giant Congenital Nevi via Paracrine Endothelin-1 Secretion. J Invest Dermatol. 2018;138:893-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, it highlights the notion that germline genetic variation, in addition to somatic melanocyte mutation, can strongly influence the histopathological features of melanocytic nevi. ..
  22. Castelli E, Morello V, Tomasino R. Perineural pattern of aggregation of cellular blue nevus: probable histoarchitectural reminiscence of histogenesis. Am J Dermatopathol. 2008;30:625-8 pubmed publisher
    A striking feature of cellular blue nevus consists in the presence, in its histologic picture, of numerous hypertrophic nerves and nerve-like figures, positive for histochemical and immunohistochemical methods for nerve fibers and myelin ..
  23. Tomelleri G, Cappellari M, Di Matteo A, Zanoni T, Colato C, Bovi P, et al. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome with late onset of central nervous system symptomatic involvement. Neurol Sci. 2010;31:501-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a case of 82-year-old patient presenting multiple skin haemangiomas for some years, who was admitted for a brain hemorrhage. The MRI demonstrated the presence of multiple cavernous angiomas within the cerebral tissue. ..
  24. Gallego Peinado M, de Arcocha Torres M, López Casado M, Custosio Rebollo Aguirre A, Santiago Chinchilla A, Llamas Elvira J. [Usefulness of labelled red-cell scintigraphy in Blue Rubber-Bleb Nevus syndrome]. Rev Esp Med Nucl. 2009;28:18-21 pubmed
  25. Yang C, Yeh J, Shen S, Lo Y, Kuo T, Chang J. Regressed subungual melanoma simulating cellular blue nevus: managed with sentinel lymph node biopsy. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:577-80; discussion 580-1 pubmed
    ..Regression phenomena are not uncommon for subungual melanoma. An extention biopsy techniques are useful for determining nodal basin status in regressed subungual melanoma. ..
  26. Karamitopoulou Diamantis E, Paredes B, Vajtai I. Cutaneous neurocristic hamartoma with blue naevus-like features and plexiform dermal hyperneury. Histopathology. 2006;49:326-8 pubmed
  27. Kazakov D, Michal M. Melanocytic "ball-in-mitts" and "microalveolar structures" and their role in the development of cellular blue nevi. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2007;11:160-75 pubmed
    ..These nevi often show a morphological overlap, and ball-in-mitts and microalveolar structures found in various stages of their development seem to greatly account for this overlap. ..
  28. Nanayakkara P, Samarasekera D. Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome. Ceylon Med J. 2007;52:143-4 pubmed
  29. Okabayashi K, Hasegawa H, Nishibori H, Ishii Y, Kitajima M. A case of laparoscopic surgery for blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. Hepatogastroenterology. 2007;54:451-3 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome with small and large intestinal lesions that were treated with laparoscopic surgery. ..
  30. Battistella M, Prochazkova Carlotti M, Berrebi D, Bennaceur S, Edan C, Riffaud L, et al. Two congenital cases of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization for melanocytic tumors: case reports and review of these recent topics. Dermatology. 2010;221:97-106 pubmed publisher
    ..The published data about FISH for melanocytic tumors, and especially PEM, are reviewed. Four-color FISH may be a useful tool to assess more accurately the prognosis of these tumors. ..
  31. de Giorgi V, Massi D, Sestini S, Alfaioli B, Carli P. Elderly woman with rapidly growing, ulcerated pigmented lesion. CMAJ. 2003;169:1054 pubmed
  32. Murali R, McCarthy S, Scolyer R. Blue nevi and related lesions: a review highlighting atypical and newly described variants, distinguishing features and diagnostic pitfalls. Adv Anat Pathol. 2009;16:365-82 pubmed publisher
    ..and acquired melanocytic tumors that includes established entities such as dendritic ("common") blue nevus and cellular blue nevus, and their numerous clinical and pathologic variants, such as deep penetrating nevus...
  33. Oosterheert J, Bousema M, Lagendijk J, Kramer M. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome co-existing with celiac disease. Neth J Med. 2006;64:431-4 pubmed
    ..Patients can recover completely with iron suppletion and a gluten-free diet. Recognising typical BRBNS skin lesions would provide a potential diagnosis and could prevent unnecessary procedures or invasive surgery. ..
  34. Buchner A, Merrell P, Carpenter W. Relative frequency of solitary melanocytic lesions of the oral mucosa. J Oral Pathol Med. 2004;33:550-7 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the study was twofold: to report a large series of solitary melanocytic lesions from one source, and to determine the relative frequency of these lesions...
  35. Schaffer J. Pigmented lesions in children: when to worry. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2007;19:430-40 pubmed
    ..Clinical and molecular investigations have helped to better understand the characteristics of melanocytic nevi and define pathways of melanocytic tumorigenesis. ..
  36. Akkash L, Nilles M, Mayser P. [Solitary blue nodule on the ear helix]. Hautarzt. 2008;59:54-7 pubmed
  37. Tokumaru A, Sakata I, Terada H, Kosuda S, Yoshimitsu S, Nagao S, et al. Hyperammonemic encephalopathy with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. J Neuroradiol. 2005;32:285-6 pubmed
  38. Benelli C, Roscetti E, Dal Pozzo V. Reproducibility of a dermoscopic method (7FFM) for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Eur J Dermatol. 2000;10:110-4 pubmed
    ..The method showed a mean percentage of concordance of 85.7%, median 88%, a mean K value of 0.699, median 0.684. These data point to a good agreement level. Our method shows good reproducibility after a short training program. ..
  39. Bogart M, Bivens M, Patterson J, Russell M. Blue nevi: a case report and review of the literature. Cutis. 2007;80:42-4 pubmed
    ..We present a case of a cellular blue nevus in a 55-year-old white man that presented as an enlarging blue-gray nodule on the right dorsal foot...
  40. Batolo D, Lentini M. [Human equine type melanoma: clinicopathologic study of 4 cases]. Pathologica. 2004;96:18-22 pubmed
    ..With regards to the histogenesis of human "equine" melanoma we found no elements to support a follicular sheath origin and we propose a possible perineurial origin. ..
  41. Walter C, Mbebe T, Caragounis E, Thirsk I. Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome: a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in an African child. Afr J Paediatr Surg. 2010;7:206-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the rare case of BRBNS in an African child. She presented with large-volume gastrointestinal bleeding and was managed by on-table colonoscopic identification and surgical excision, of all her enteric, vascular malformations. ..
  42. Scolyer R, Thompson J, Warnke K, McCarthy S. Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:1114-5; author reply 1115-6 pubmed
  43. Algermissen B, Toppe F, Henz B, Berlien H, Haas N. Hypertrichotic plaque-type blue naevus--a novel type of dermal melanocytosis: report of an unusual case. Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82:61-2 pubmed
  44. Möller I, Murali R, Muller H, Wiesner T, Jackett L, Scholz S, et al. Activating cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (CYSLTR2) mutations in blue nevi. Mod Pathol. 2017;30:350-356 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to GNAQ and GNA11 mutations, CYSLTR2 mutations, when present, are likely defining pathogenetic events in blue nevi. ..
  45. Micali G, Innocenzi D, Nasca M. Cellular blue nevus of the scalp infiltrating the underlying bone: case report and review. Pediatr Dermatol. 1997;14:199-203 pubmed
    ..Surgical resection of the entire lesion was planned. There were no other anomalies or malignancies. The patient is currently being followed in our clinic. ..
  46. Argenziano G, Zalaudek I, Ferrara G, Hofmann Wellenhof R, Soyer H. Proposal of a new classification system for melanocytic naevi. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:217-27 pubmed
  47. Hansen L, Wewer V, Pedersen S, Matzen P, Paerregaard A. Severe blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in a neonate. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2009;19:47-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of electrocoagulation appears to have been effective and ablation of the stomach could be avoided until now. ..
  48. Lobo A, Martin R, Belda W, Michi M, Arnone M, Festa Neo C, et al. Disseminated blue naevus and malignant blue naevus associated with excessive aromatase syndrome. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2008;33:591-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies should be performed to investigate this unusual combination, which may have a genetic, endocrine or local cutaneous link leading to its occurrence. ..
  49. Nirmal D, Rhodes S, Hassanaien M. Pregnancy in blue rubber bleb syndrome: a case report. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:e14-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Only 3 reports of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in pregnant women can be found by a Medline search. We present our experience in the management of this rare condition in pregnancy. ..
  50. Misago N, Nagase K, Toda S, Shinoda Y, Koba S, Narisawa Y. Cellular blue nevus with nevus cells in a sentinel lymph node. Eur J Dermatol. 2008;18:586-9 pubmed publisher
    Regional lymph node involvement by a cellular blue nevus has been reported. However, it has recently been suggested that specific cases with "benign metastasizing" cellular blue nevi are actually rare...
  51. De Palma G, Rega M, Ciamarra P, Ciamrarra P, Masone S, Persico G. An unusual cause of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Gut. 2005;54:343, 373 pubmed
  52. Tuncer S, Findikcioglu K, Ozmen S, Cenetoglu S. Malignant blue nevus: a confusing diagnosis for the surgeon. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116:1580-1 pubmed
  53. Patel R, Zynger D, Laskin W. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: novel lymphangiomatosis-like growth pattern within the uterus and immunohistochemical analysis. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:413-7 pubmed publisher
  54. Ruiter D, van Dijk M, Ferrier C. Current diagnostic problems in melanoma pathology. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2003;22:33-41 pubmed
    ..encountered diagnostic challenges are discussed: 1) Deep penetrating nevus or nodular melanoma?; and 2) Cellular blue nevus or melanoma metastasis? In this contribution, these problems are discussed after a systematic approach involving ..
  55. Fish L, Fireman Z, Kopelman Y, Sternberg A. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: small-bowel lesions diagnosed by capsule endoscopy. Endoscopy. 2004;36:836 pubmed
  56. Berman E, Shields C, Sagoo M, Eagle R, Shields J. Multifocal blue nevus of the conjunctiva. Surv Ophthalmol. 2008;53:41-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Blue nevus is a congenital benign melanocytic tumor that classically occurs in the skin and carries low potential for malignant transformation...
  57. Jakobiec F, Colby K, Bajart A, Saragas S, Moulin A. Immunohistochemical studies of atypical conjunctival melanocytic nevi. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:970-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate with immunohistochemical methods 5 atypical melanocytic conjunctival lesions...
  58. Schaffer J, Bolognia J. The clinical spectrum of pigmented lesions. Clin Plast Surg. 2000;27:391-408, viii pubmed
    ..A description of atypical nevi is provided, followed by an outline of the clinical characteristics of each subtype of cutaneous melanoma. The clinical characteristics of various pigmented lesions are illustrated...
  59. Munoz C, Quintero A, Sanchez J, Ruiz Santiago H. Persistent blue nevus simulating melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50:S118-20 pubmed
    We report a case of a persistent blue nevus that significantly extended beyond the scar of the original excision mimicking those clinical changes usually seen in melanoma. The histopathologic evaluation revealed a common blue nevus...
  60. Zevallos Giampietri E, Barrionuevo C. Common blue nevus of the uterine cervix: case report and review. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2004;12:79-82 pubmed
    A case of common blue nevus of the uterine cervix in a 32-year-old woman is reported. This lesion was incidentally discovered in a hysterectomy performed for leiomyomas; in addition, a right ovarian benign serous cyst was found...
  61. Gilbey L, Girod C. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: endobronchial involvement presenting as chronic cough. Chest. 2003;124:760-3 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of endobronchial involvement with BRBNS...
  62. Matas J, Asteinza M, Loscos J, Fernandez S, Ramirez Armengol J, Diaz Rubio M. [Blue rubber bled nevus syndrome diagnosed bu capsule endoscopy]. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2006;98:555-6 pubmed
  63. Bittencourt A, Monteiro D, De Pretto O. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus. J Clin Pathol. 2007;60:82-4 pubmed
    ..The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported...
  64. Certo M, Lopes L, Ramada J. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: manifestations at computed tomography. Acta Radiol. 2007;48:962-6 pubmed
    ..Less than 250 cases have been reported in the literature. The authors describe the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic imaging characteristics at computed tomography (CT) in a 50-year-old man with BRBNS...
  65. Alés Fernández M, Rios Martin J, Camacho Martínez F. Localized argyria secondary to acupuncture mimicking blue nevus. J Drugs Dermatol. 2010;9:1019-20 pubmed
  66. Suma G, Ravi Prakash S, Rao D, Goel S. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: prominent oral findings. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2010;76:168-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Associated cardiac abnormalities were also observed. An early diagnosis of this syndrome is required as it gets complicated with bleeding, anemia and other systemic complications...
  67. Carvalho S, Barbosa V, Santos N, Machado E. Blue rubber-bleb nevus syndrome: report of a familial case with a dural arteriovenous fistula. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:1916-8 pubmed
    ..Cerebral angiography showed a large dural arteriovenous fistula in the torcular region. Central nervous system involvement in BRBNS is not often reported, and most cases of BRBNS are sporadic...
  68. Plótár V, Szentirmay Z, Orosz Z. [Reactivity of five different antibodies with benign and malignant melanocytic lesions]. Magy Onkol. 2008;52:363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We have concluded that the histological diagnosis of melanocytic tumors is based on the detailed examination of traditional HE slides and the immunohistochemical methods only confirm or weaken our opinion...
  69. Yen H, Chen Y, Soon M. Electronic clinical challenges and images in GI. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:e3-4 pubmed publisher
  70. den Heijer T, Boon A. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. Neurology. 2007;68:1075 pubmed
  71. Tanaka N, Tsuda M, Samura O, Miyoshi H, Hara T, Kudo Y. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: Report of a patient with hemangiomas of the vaginal portion of the cervix appearing during pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2007;33:546-8 pubmed
    ..To avoid unexpected bleeding from hemangiomas, patients with BRBNS should be examined repeatedly for hemangiomas of the birth canal, and special care should be taken in deciding the mode of delivery...
  72. Egawa K, Honda Y, Kuroki M, Ono T. The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family (CD66) expressed in melanocytic naevi is not expressed in blue naevuscell naevi in dendritic type. J Cutan Pathol. 2000;27:351-8 pubmed
    ..Although sporadic reports have regarded the expression of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family in melanoma, there has been no information about the expression in precursor lesions of melanoma such as melanocytic naevi and blue naevi...
  73. Ah Hot P, Rivet J, Saliou C, Bailly C, Bruneval P. [Atypical cellular blue nevus. Apropos of 1 case]. Ann Pathol. 2000;20:228-31 pubmed
    We report a new case of a cellular blue nevus with clinicopathologic atypia. It was a large lesion presenting clinically as a vascular tumor located in the middle of the back. It grew for 2 years without skin ulceration...
  74. Gonzalez A, Kumar D, Sanchez R. AgNOR area measurements differentiate benign and malignant melanocytic lesions more accurately than simple counting. Am J Dermatopathol. 1994;16:372-6 pubmed
    ..0420). We conclude that the ratio AgNOR area/nuclear area discriminates benign from malignant melanocytic lesions better than AgNOR counts or other parameters studied...
  75. Naylor E, Ruben B, Robinson Bostom L, Telang G, Jellinek N. Subungual blue nevus with combined phenotypic features. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58:1021-4 pubmed publisher
    ..On histopathologic examination, there was a combined subungual blue nevus, with features of a common blue nevus and a pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma...
  76. Van Gysel D, Oranje A, Stroink H, Simonsz H. Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis. Pediatr Dermatol. 1996;13:33-5 pubmed
    ..This second patient suggests that the association might be more common. Additional reports will indicate if such an association is more frequent than is now assumed...
  77. Dobru D, Seuchea N, Dorin M, Careianu V. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: case report and literature review. Rom J Gastroenterol. 2004;13:237-40 pubmed
    ..Similar lesions were found in the stomach, bowel and on his foot. In addition, we review the available literature on the epidemiology, clinical features, associated conditions, diagnosis and treatment...
  78. Alper M, Aydin A, Ozdemir I, Suna M, Ciralik H, Aksoy K. Blue nevus with an unusual presentation: two patients with endocervical location. Ceska Gynekol. 2004;69:411-3 pubmed
    To report two cases of endocervically located blue nevus.
  79. Nahm W, Moise S, Eichenfield L, Paller A, Nathanson L, Malicki D, et al. Venous malformations in blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: variable onset of presentation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50:S101-6 pubmed
    ..Subcutaneous venous malformations may occasionally be the sole presenting finding in patients with this unusual syndrome, and may be evident even in the prenatal period...
  80. King R, Lyons J, Meyers A, Googe P, Page R, Gupta V. Primary invasive melanoma and basal cell carcinoma (collision tumor) with blue nevus-like cutaneous metastases. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34:629-33 pubmed
    ..of pigmented dendritic melanocytes and melanophages in the superficial and mid-dermis and arranged in a blue nevus-like lesion...
  81. Gabikian P, Clatterbuck R, Gailloud P, Rigamonti D. Developmental venous anomalies and sinus pericranii in the blue rubber-bleb nevus syndrome. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:409-11 pubmed
    ..Cerebral angiography demonstrated an extensive network of developmental venous anomalies and a left anterior sinus pericranii. The literature on BRBNS and developmental venous anomalies is reviewed...
  82. Handa U, Mohan H, Garg S. Incidental detection of pigmented lesions in the cervix. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;47:254-5 pubmed
  83. Arguedas M, Shore G, Wilcox C. Congenital vascular lesions of the gastrointestinal tract: blue rubber bleb nevus and Klippel-Trenaunay syndromes. South Med J. 2001;94:405-10 pubmed
    ..In addition, we review the available literature on the epidemiology, transmission, clinical features, associated conditions, diagnosis, and treatment of these two disorders...
  84. Shin S, Chae H, Ji J, Kim H, Cho Y, Chang E, et al. A case of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. Korean J Intern Med. 2008;23:208-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We report on this case along with a review of the literature...
  85. Antony F, Sanclemente G, Shaikh H, Trelles A, Calonje E. Pigment synthesizing melanoma (so-called animal type melanoma): a clinicopathological study of 14 cases of a poorly known distinctive variant of melanoma. Histopathology. 2006;48:754-62 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to report the clinicopathological characteristics of 14 cases of animal type melanoma...
  86. Piccolo D, Altamura D, Lozzi G, Peris K. Blue-whitish veil-like structure as the primary dermoscopic feature of combined nevus. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:1176-8 pubmed
    ..We report two cases of combined nevi dermoscopically characterized by a diffuse blue-whitish pigmentation similar to the blue-whitish veil, suggesting the diagnosis of melanoma...