brain stem neoplasms

Summary

Summary: Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.

Top Publications

  1. Roujeau T, Machado G, Garnett M, Miquel C, Puget S, Geoerger B, et al. Stereotactic biopsy of diffuse pontine lesions in children. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:1-4 pubmed
    ..To be included into a trial, patients need a definitive histological diagnosis. The authors present their prospective study of the stereotactic biopsy of these lesions during a 4-year period...
  2. Buczkowicz P, Hoeman C, Rakopoulos P, Pajovic S, Létourneau L, Dzamba M, et al. Genomic analysis of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas identifies three molecular subgroups and recurrent activating ACVR1 mutations. Nat Genet. 2014;46:451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight distinct molecular subgroups and novel therapeutic targets for this incurable pediatric cancer. ..
  3. Li G, Mitra S, Monje M, Henrich K, Bangs C, Nitta R, et al. Expression of epidermal growth factor variant III (EGFRvIII) in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. J Neurooncol. 2012;108:395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..We were therefore able to detect EGFRvIII expression in 6 of 11 DIPG cases. These data suggest that EGFRvIII warrants investigation as a target for these deadly pediatric tumors...
  4. Wu G, Broniscer A, McEachron T, Lu C, Paugh B, Becksfort J, et al. Somatic histone H3 alterations in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and non-brainstem glioblastomas. Nat Genet. 2012;44:251-3 pubmed publisher
    ..3, or in the related HIST1H3B, encoding histone H3.1, that caused a p.Lys27Met amino acid substitution in each protein. An additional 14% of non-BS-PGs had somatic mutations in H3F3A causing a p.Gly34Arg alteration...
  5. Koyfman S, Tendulkar R, Chao S, Vogelbaum M, Barnett G, Angelov L, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for single brainstem metastases: the cleveland clinic experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;78:409-14 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the imaging and clinical outcomes of patients with single brainstem metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)...
  6. Taylor K, Mackay A, Truffaux N, Butterfield Y, Morozova O, Philippe C, et al. Recurrent activating ACVR1 mutations in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Nat Genet. 2014;46:457-461 pubmed publisher
    ..These mutations represent new targets for therapeutic intervention in this otherwise incurable disease. ..
  7. Puget S, Philippe C, Bax D, Job B, Varlet P, Junier M, et al. Mesenchymal transition and PDGFRA amplification/mutation are key distinct oncogenic events in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30313 pubmed publisher
    ..Classifying these tumors by signal transduction pathway activation and by mutation in pathway member genes may be particularily valuable for the development of targeted therapies...
  8. Bartels U, Hawkins C, Vezina G, Kun L, Souweidane M, Bouffet E. Proceedings of the diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) Toronto Think Tank: advancing basic and translational research and cooperation in DIPG. J Neurooncol. 2011;105:119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The advancement of basic and translational research and cooperation was the objective of the Toronto Think Tank, as new approaches are urgently needed...
  9. Kased N, Huang K, Nakamura J, Sahgal A, Larson D, McDermott M, et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery for brainstem metastases: the UCSF experience. J Neurooncol. 2008;86:195-205 pubmed
    ..To assess clinical and imaging outcomes in patients treated with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brainstem metastases...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Anderson R, Kennedy B, Yanes C, Garvin J, Needle M, Canoll P, et al. Convection-enhanced delivery of topotecan into diffuse intrinsic brainstem tumors in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013;11:289-95 pubmed publisher
    ..More studies are needed to improve patient selection and determine the optimal flow rates for CED of chemotherapeutic agents into DIPG to maximize safety and efficacy. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00324844...
  2. Sethi R, Allen J, Donahue B, Karajannis M, Gardner S, Wisoff J, et al. Prospective neuraxis MRI surveillance reveals a high risk of leptomeningeal dissemination in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. J Neurooncol. 2011;102:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..All patients should undergo routine craniospinal imaging at diagnosis and follow-up. Central nervous system prophylaxis should be considered in future clinical trials...
  3. Becher O, Hambardzumyan D, Walker T, Helmy K, Nazarian J, Albrecht S, et al. Preclinical evaluation of radiation and perifosine in a genetically and histologically accurate model of brainstem glioma. Cancer Res. 2010;70:2548-57 pubmed publisher
    ..92). Perifosine + 10 Gy did not result in a significantly increased survival relative to 10 Gy alone (P = 0.23). This PDGF-induced BSG model can serve as a preclinical tool for the testing of novel agents...
  4. Chassot A, Canale S, Varlet P, Puget S, Roujeau T, Negretti L, et al. Radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. J Neurooncol. 2012;106:399-407 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel treatment modalities are needed to improve the outcome of these patients...
  5. Warren K, Killian K, Suuriniemi M, Wang Y, Quezado M, Meltzer P. Genomic aberrations in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Neuro Oncol. 2012;14:326-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This study establishes the feasibility of genomic DNA analysis from DIPG autopsy material, identifies several targets for which molecular targeted therapy exists, and suggests significant heterogeneity among patients with DIPG...
  6. Masui K, Suzuki S, Torisu R, Goldman J, Canoll P, Iwaki T. Glial progenitors in the brainstem give rise to malignant gliomas by platelet-derived growth factor stimulation. Glia. 2010;58:1050-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings are the first implications regarding the cell-of-origin and the gliomagenesis in the brainstem...
  7. Bender S, Tang Y, Lindroth A, Hovestadt V, Jones D, Kool M, et al. Reduced H3K27me3 and DNA hypomethylation are major drivers of gene expression in K27M mutant pediatric high-grade gliomas. Cancer Cell. 2013;24:660-72 pubmed publisher
  8. Sharp J, Bouffet E, Stempak D, Gammon J, Stephens D, Johnston D, et al. A multi-centre Canadian pilot study of metronomic temozolomide combined with radiotherapy for newly diagnosed paediatric brainstem glioma. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46:3271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this regimen in paediatric DIBSG patients...
  9. Geoerger B, Hargrave D, Thomas F, Ndiaye A, Frappaz D, Andreiuolo F, et al. Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer pediatric phase I study of erlotinib in brainstem glioma and relapsing/refractory brain tumors. Neuro Oncol. 2011;13:109-18 pubmed publisher
    ..6 hours. Thus, erlotinib 125 mg/m² per day has an acceptable tolerability profile in pediatric patients with brain tumors and can be combined with radiotherapy...
  10. Barrow J, Adamowicz Brice M, Cartmill M, Macarthur D, Lowe J, Robson K, et al. Homozygous loss of ADAM3A revealed by genome-wide analysis of pediatric high-grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Neuro Oncol. 2011;13:212-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight the importance of obtaining pretreatment samples...
  11. Hatiboglu M, Chang E, Suki D, Sawaya R, Wildrick D, Weinberg J. Outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with brainstem metastases undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery. Neurosurgery. 2011;69:796-806; discussion 806 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of tumors metastatic to the brainstem with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has not been widely studied...
  12. Jansen M, van Vuurden D, Vandertop W, Kaspers G. Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas: a systematic update on clinical trials and biology. Cancer Treat Rev. 2012;38:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Translation of this knowledge into clinical trials in combination with improved drug distribution methods may eventually lead to more effective treatment of this devastating disease...
  13. Wu G, Diaz A, Paugh B, Rankin S, Ju B, Li Y, et al. The genomic landscape of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and pediatric non-brainstem high-grade glioma. Nat Genet. 2014;46:444-450 pubmed publisher
    ..This comprehensive analysis provides insights into the unique and shared pathways driving pediatric HGG within and outside the brainstem. ..
  14. Cohen K, Heideman R, Zhou T, Holmes E, Lavey R, Bouffet E, et al. Temozolomide in the treatment of children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Neuro Oncol. 2011;13:410-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5%, compared with 32% ± 6% for CCG-9941. The median time to death was 9.6 months. Chemoradiotherapy with TMZ followed by adjuvant TMZ is not more effective than previously reported regimens for the treatment of children with DIPG...
  15. Monje M, Mitra S, Freret M, Raveh T, Kim J, Masek M, et al. Hedgehog-responsive candidate cell of origin for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4453-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings provide a foundation for understanding the cellular and molecular origins of DIPG, and suggest that the Hh pathway represents a potential therapeutic target in this devastating pediatric tumor...
  16. Zarghooni M, Bartels U, Lee E, Buczkowicz P, Morrison A, Huang A, et al. Whole-genome profiling of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas highlights platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as potential therapeutic targets. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:1337-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we address this lack of knowledge by performing the first high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -based DNA microarray analysis of a series of DIPGs...
  17. Khuong Quang D, Buczkowicz P, Rakopoulos P, Liu X, Fontebasso A, Bouffet E, et al. K27M mutation in histone H3.3 defines clinically and biologically distinct subgroups of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Acta Neuropathol. 2012;124:439-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on prognostic and therapeutic implications, our findings argue for H3.3-mutation testing at diagnosis, which should be rapidly integrated into the clinical decision-making algorithm, particularly in atypical DIPG...
  18. Broniscer A, Laningham F, Sanders R, Kun L, Ellison D, Gajjar A. Young age may predict a better outcome for children with diffuse pontine glioma. Cancer. 2008;113:566-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Because diffuse pontine glioma (DPG) is rare among young children, the outcome of affected patients is unknown...
  19. Sharma M, Kondziolka D, Khan A, Kano H, Niranjan A, Flickinger J, et al. Radiation tolerance limits of the brainstem. Neurosurgery. 2008;63:728-32; discussion 732-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors conducted an analysis of patients with intra-axial brainstem lesions and documented the incidence of adverse radiation imaging effects (ARIE) and new neurological deficits after gamma knife surgery...
  20. Lorenzoni J, Devriendt D, Massager N, Desmedt F, Simon S, Van Houtte P, et al. Brain stem metastases treated with radiosurgery: prognostic factors of survival and life expectancy estimation. Surg Neurol. 2009;71:188-95; discussion 195, 195-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study is to study prognostic factors of survival and 3 stratification systems for life expectancy estimation in patients with brain stem metastases treated with radiosurgery...
  21. Paugh B, Broniscer A, Qu C, Miller C, Zhang J, Tatevossian R, et al. Genome-wide analyses identify recurrent amplifications of receptor tyrosine kinases and cell-cycle regulatory genes in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:3999-4006 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated a large cohort of DIPGs to identify recurrent genomic abnormalities and gene expression signatures underlying DIPG...
  22. Lin C, Selch M, Lee S, Wu J, Xiao F, Hong D, et al. Accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for brainstem metastases. Neurosurgery. 2012;70:953-8; discussion 958 pubmed publisher
    ..Stereotactic radiosurgery represents a noninvasive alternative treatment for intracranial metastases...
  23. Freeman C, Perilongo G. Chemotherapy for brain stem gliomas. Childs Nerv Syst. 1999;15:545-53 pubmed
    ..The results of these studies using chemotherapy, as well as other approaches using other systemic agents, are reviewed in detail...
  24. Doz F, Neuenschwander S, Bouffet E, Gentet J, Schneider P, Kalifa C, et al. Carboplatin before and during radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant brain stem tumours: a study by the Société Française d'Oncologie Pédiatrique. Eur J Cancer. 2002;38:815-9 pubmed
    ..38 eligible patients were included. No tumour response was observed after the initial phase. This schedule of first-line carboplatin followed by concurrent carboplatin and radiotherapy did not improve survival...
  25. Lee J, Jallo G, Guarnieri M, Carson B, Penno M. A novel brainstem tumor model: guide screw technology with functional, radiological, and histopathological characterization. Neurosurg Focus. 2005;18:E11 pubmed
    ..The authors report the technique, functional progression, radiological appearance, and histopathological features of a novel brainstem tumor model in rats...
  26. Jennings M, Sposto R, Boyett J, Vezina L, Holmes E, Berger M, et al. Preradiation chemotherapy in primary high-risk brainstem tumors: phase II study CCG-9941 of the Children's Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:3431-7 pubmed
    ..This Children's Cancer Group group-wide phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of two chemotherapy arms administered before hyperfractionated external-beam radiotherapy (HFEBRT)...
  27. Shuto T, Fujino H, Asada H, Inomori S, Nagano H. Gamma knife radiosurgery for metastatic tumours in the brain stem. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2003;145:755-60 pubmed
    ..This study evaluated the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for the treatment of brain stem metastases...
  28. Korones D, Fisher P, Kretschmar C, Zhou T, Chen Z, Kepner J, et al. Treatment of children with diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioma with radiotherapy, vincristine and oral VP-16: a Children's Oncology Group phase II study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;50:227-30 pubmed
  29. Gilbertson R, Hill D, Hernan R, Kocak M, Geyer R, Olson J, et al. ERBB1 is amplified and overexpressed in high-grade diffusely infiltrative pediatric brain stem glioma. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:3620-4 pubmed
  30. Broniscer A, Iacono L, Chintagumpala M, Fouladi M, Wallace D, Bowers D, et al. Role of temozolomide after radiotherapy for newly diagnosed diffuse brainstem glioma in children: results of a multiinstitutional study (SJHG-98). Cancer. 2005;103:133-9 pubmed
    ..The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of children with newly diagnosed diffuse brainstem glioma is uncertain. In the current study, the authors tested the efficacy of temozolomide treatment after radiotherapy (RT) in this setting...
  31. Jallo G, Penno M, Sukay L, Liu J, Tyler B, Lee J, et al. Experimental models of brainstem tumors: development of a neonatal rat model. Childs Nerv Syst. 2005;21:399-403 pubmed
    ..The feasibility of creating an experimental rodent model by inoculating newborn pups with tumor cells was examined. The study was performed to create an animal model for diffuse brainstem tumors...
  32. Hargrave D, Bartels U, Bouffet E. Diffuse brainstem glioma in children: critical review of clinical trials. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7:241-8 pubmed
    ..However, consistency between protocols (eg, eligibility criteria and outcome measures) is important to measure the progress in management of diffuse pontine gliomas...
  33. Wolff J, Molenkamp G, Westphal S, Pietsch T, Gnekow A, Kortmann R, et al. Oral trofosfamide and etoposide in pediatric patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer. 2000;89:2131-7 pubmed
    ..The Pediatric Oncology Society of the Germanic language group (GPOH) enrolls patients in a series of pilot trials, the first of which is reported here (HIT-GBM-A)...
  34. Packer R, Krailo M, Mehta M, Warren K, Allen J, Jakacki R, et al. A Phase I study of concurrent RMP-7 and carboplatin with radiation therapy for children with newly diagnosed brainstem gliomas. Cancer. 2005;104:1968-74 pubmed
    ..The objective of this Phase I study was to determine the toxicity and feasibility of delivering RMP-7 and carboplatin for 5 successive days during radiotherapy to children with newly diagnosed, diffuse, intrinsic brainstem gliomas...
  35. Jallo G, Volkov A, Wong C, Carson B, Penno M. A novel brainstem tumor model: functional and histopathological characterization. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:1519-25 pubmed
    ..The development of a satisfactory brainstem tumor model is necessary for testing new therapeutic paradigms that may prolong survival...
  36. Yen C, Sheehan J, Patterson G, Steiner L. Gamma knife surgery for metastatic brainstem tumors. J Neurosurg. 2006;105:213-9 pubmed
    ..The authors review imaging and clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic brainstem tumors treated using Gamma Knife surgery (GKS)...
  37. Pollack I, Jakacki R, Blaney S, Hancock M, Kieran M, Phillips P, et al. Phase I trial of imatinib in children with newly diagnosed brainstem and recurrent malignant gliomas: a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium report. Neuro Oncol. 2007;9:145-60 pubmed
    ..Imatinib may increase the risk of ITH, although the incidence of spontaneous hemorrhages in brainstem glioma is sufficiently high that this should be considered in studies of agents in which hemorrhage is a concern...
  38. Recinos P, Sciubba D, Jallo G. Brainstem tumors: where are we today?. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2007;43:192-201 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the current classification of brainstem tumors, current management options and future directions for the treatment of these rare tumors...
  39. Pincus D, Richter E, Yachnis A, Bennett J, Bhatti M, Smith A. Brainstem stereotactic biopsy sampling in children. J Neurosurg. 2006;104:108-14 pubmed
    ..The authors retrospectively reviewed their institutional experience with stereotactic biopsy procedures in pediatric patients during a 4-year period...
  40. Donaldson S, Laningham F, Fisher P. Advances toward an understanding of brainstem gliomas. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:1266-72 pubmed
    ..Although we briefly discuss the nondiffuse tumors, we focus specifically on those diffuse brainstem tumors that regrettably still carry a bleak prognosis...
  41. Gururangan S, McLaughlin C, Brashears J, Watral M, Provenzale J, Coleman R, et al. Incidence and patterns of neuraxis metastases in children with diffuse pontine glioma. J Neurooncol. 2006;77:207-12 pubmed
    ..We performed a retrospective study of patients with diffuse pontine glioma (DPG) who suffered neuraxis metastasis (NM) and characterized the incidence, clinical features, radiologic findings, and patterns of disease dissemination...
  42. Hussain A, Brown P, Stafford S, Pollock B. Stereotactic radiosurgery for brainstem metastases: Survival, tumor control, and patient outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;67:521-4 pubmed
    ..Patients with brainstem metastases have limited treatment options. In this study, we reviewed outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of patients with brainstem metastases...
  43. Schumacher M, Schulte Mönting J, Stoeter P, Warmuth Metz M, Solymosi L. Magnetic resonance imaging compared with biopsy in the diagnosis of brainstem diseases of childhood: a multicenter review. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:111-9 pubmed
    ..Data analysis was performed in a multicenter study to evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for classification of brain tumors, prognosis, and prediction of tumor histological diagnosis...
  44. Broniscer A, Gajjar A. Supratentorial high-grade astrocytoma and diffuse brainstem glioma: two challenges for the pediatric oncologist. Oncologist. 2004;9:197-206 pubmed
    ..Because the outcome for patients with either type of tumor is poor when standard multimodality therapy is used, these children are ideal candidates for innovative treatment approaches...
  45. Carson B, Wu Q, Tyler B, Sukay L, Raychaudhuri R, DiMeco F, et al. New approach to tumor therapy for inoperable areas of the brain: chronic intraparenchymal drug delivery. J Neurooncol. 2002;60:151-8 pubmed
    ..5 cm in diameter. The results suggest that chronic low-flow infusions provide a promising approach to therapy for CNS lesions in tissues considered to be inoperable...
  46. Wu Q, Tyler B, Sukay L, Rhines L, DiMeco F, Clatterbuck R, et al. Experimental rodent models of brainstem tumors. Vet Pathol. 2002;39:293-9 pubmed
    ..Median survival for rats challenged with 10(4) 9L and F98 cells was 14 and 13 days, respectively. The present study demonstrates a feasible approach to preparing models of brainstem tumors. Limitations of these models are discussed...
  47. Mellon G, Henry B, Aoun O, Boutolleau D, Laparra A, Mayaux J, et al. Adenovirus related lymphohistiocytic hemophagocytosis: Case report and literature review. J Clin Virol. 2016;78:53-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenoviral infection is a classic cause of lymphohistiocytic hemophagocytosis (LH) in bone marrow transplantation but is rare outside this setting...
  48. Ghannane H, Khalil T, Sakka L, Chazal J. [Analysis of a series of cavernomas of the central nervous system: 39 non operated cases, 39 operated cases, 1 dead]. Neurochirurgie. 2007;53:217-22 pubmed
    ..They demonstrate the difficulties for an exact evaluation of the hemorrhagic risk in cavernomas of the central nervous system. So, it is very important to meticulously discuss surgical indications...
  49. Li Y, Xu D, Zhang Z, Zhang Y, Liu D, Liu X, et al. Gamma Knife surgery for brainstem metastases. J Neurosurg. 2012;117 Suppl:13-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to assess neuroimaging and clinical outcomes in patients harboring brainstem metastases that were treated with the Leksell Gamma Knife...
  50. Ramelli G, Cortesi C, Boscherini D, Faggin R, Bianchetti M. Age-dependent presentation of tectal plate tumors: preliminary observations. J Child Neurol. 2011;26:377-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The difference between groups was statistically significant. Tumor size was similar in the groups. It is therefore concluded that the presentation of tectal plate tumors varies with age...
  51. Kim J, Jung D, Kang B, Kang M, Park H. Unilateral facial paresis secondary to a suspected brainstem arachnoid cyst in a Maltese dog. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:459-62 pubmed
    ..This report described unilateral facial nerve dysfunction that resulted from a suspected brainstem arachnoid cyst in an unusual anatomic location...
  52. Cuthikonda B, Buckleair L, Goodman J, Powell S, Rose J. Ganglioglioma in the cerebellopontine angle of an adult without seizures. J La State Med Soc. 2009;161:143-6 pubmed
    ..Our case illustrates that ganglioglioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebellopontine angle masses at any age. This appears to be especially true when dealing with masses that are non-enhancing on imaging...
  53. Santoro A, Piccirilli M, Brunetto G, Delfini R, Cantore G. Intramedullary cavernous angioma of the spinal cord in a pediatric patient, with multiple cavernomas, familial occurrence and partial spontaneous regression: case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst. 2007;23:1319-26 pubmed
    ..The authors present their experience with the 17th pediatric intramedullary cavernoma reported in English literature...