Summary: A moderately firm, benign, encapsulated tumor resulting from proliferation of SCHWANN CELLS and FIBROBLASTS that includes portions of nerve fibers. The tumors usually develop along peripheral or cranial nerves and are a central feature of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, where they may occur intracranially or involve spinal roots. Pathologic features include fusiform enlargement of the involved nerve. Microscopic examination reveals a disorganized and loose cellular pattern with elongated nuclei intermixed with fibrous strands. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1016)

Top Publications

  1. Kottler U, Conway R, Schlötzer Schrehardt U, Holbach L. Isolated neurofibroma of the orbit with extensive myxoid changes: a clinicopathologic study including MRI and electron microscopic findings. Orbit. 2004;23:59-64 pubmed
    Isolated orbital neurofibroma (INO) without systemic neurofibromatosis is rare. Previous reports including MRI with elaboration of the ultrastructural features of the cellular and extracellular components in INO do not exist...
  2. Storlazzi C, Von Steyern F, Domanski H, Mandahl N, Mertens F. Biallelic somatic inactivation of the NF1 gene through chromosomal translocations in a sporadic neurofibroma. Int J Cancer. 2005;117:1055-7 pubmed
    b>Neurofibroma is a benign tumor originating from Schwann cells in peripheral nerve sheaths and may occur as a sporadic tumor or as part of the dominantly inherited tumor syndrome NF1...
  3. De Raedt T, Maertens O, Chmara M, Brems H, Heyns I, Sciot R, et al. Somatic loss of wild type NF1 allele in neurofibromas: Comparison of NF1 microdeletion and non-microdeletion patients. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2006;45:893-904 pubmed
    ..We conclude that NF1 is a familial tumor syndrome in which the type of germline mutation influences the type of second hit in the tumors. ..
  4. Huang G, Huang C, Lee H, Chang W, Lee C, Leu N, et al. On the AJR viewbox. Diffuse neurofibroma of the arm: MR characteristics. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184:1711-2 pubmed
  5. Gupta S, Gupta R, Singh S, Pant L. Solitary intrascrotal neurofibroma: a case diagnosed on aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol. 2011;39:843-6 pubmed publisher
    Solitary neurofibroma of the scrotum is exceedingly rare and very few cases of this unusual occurrance have been reported till date. None of the previously reported cases had a preoperative cytologic diagnosis...
  6. Holtkamp N, Reuss D, Atallah I, Kuban R, Hartmann C, Mautner V, et al. Subclassification of nerve sheath tumors by gene expression profiling. Brain Pathol. 2004;14:258-64 pubmed
    ..NF1-associated and sporadic MPNST could not be distinguished by their gene expression patterns. We present a panel of discriminating genes that may assist subclassification of nerve sheath tumors. ..
  7. Che Z, Nam W, Park W, Kim H, Cha I, Kim H, et al. Intraosseous nerve sheath tumors in the jaws. Yonsei Med J. 2006;47:264-70 pubmed
    ..b>Neurofibroma is one of the most common nerve sheath tumors occurring in the soft tissue and generally appears in ..
  8. Trăistaru R, Rogoveanu O, Popescu R, Enăchescu V, Ghiluşi M. Periarticular diffuse neurofibroma of the upper limb. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2011;52:1377-83 pubmed
    The diffuse neurofibroma is an uncommon subtype of neurofibroma that has received little attention in the imaging literature...
  9. McCann E, Fryer A, Kokai G. Congenital melanocytic naevus with associated neurofibroma and schwannoma-like change. Clin Dysmorphol. 2005;14:159-60 pubmed
    ..A case is reported where nodules arising from a naevus were examined histologically and were found to have neurofibroma and schwannoma like elements but strong positivity for S100 protein in keeping with dermal melanocytes...

More Information


  1. Yang F, Chen S, Clegg T, Li X, Morgan T, Estwick S, et al. Nf1+/- mast cells induce neurofibroma like phenotypes through secreted TGF-beta signaling. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2421-37 pubmed
    ..Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of c-abl reverses fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis to wild-type levels. These studies identify a novel molecular target to inhibit neurofibroma formation.
  2. Subramanian S, Thayanithy V, West R, Lee C, Beck A, Zhu S, et al. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses reveal p53 inactivation mediated loss of miR-34a expression in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours. J Pathol. 2010;220:58-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The malignant transformation of the benign neurofibroma to MPNST is incompletely understood at the molecular level...
  3. Upadhyaya M, Huson S, Davies M, Thomas N, Chuzhanova N, Giovannini S, et al. An absence of cutaneous neurofibromas associated with a 3-bp inframe deletion in exon 17 of the NF1 gene (c.2970-2972 delAAT): evidence of a clinically significant NF1 genotype-phenotype correlation. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;80:140-51 pubmed
    ..The biological mechanism that relates this specific mutation to the suppression of cutaneous neurofibroma development is unknown.
  4. García de Marcos J, Dean Ferrer A, Alamillos Granados F, Ruiz Masera J, García de Marcos M, Vidal Jiménez A, et al. Gingival neurofibroma in a neurofibromatosis type 1 patient. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007;12:E287-91 pubmed
    b>Neurofibroma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumour. It is one of the most frequent tumours of neural origin and its presence is one of the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF-I)...
  5. Madhumita K, Nambiar A, Prathapan P. Solitary neurofibroma of the palatine tonsil: a case report. Ear Nose Throat J. 2007;86:756-8 pubmed
    ..Although some sporadic cases of tonsillar schwannoma have been reported, to the best of our knowledge this is only the second case of a solitary neurofibroma of the palatine tonsil to be reported in the English-language literature.
  6. Fine S, McClain S, Li M. Immunohistochemical staining for calretinin is useful for differentiating schwannomas from neurofibromas. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;122:552-9 pubmed
    We studied 25 cases of schwannoma and 42 cases of neurofibroma immunohistochemically with antibodies to calretinin and S-100 protein to explore the potential usefulness of calretinin in differentiating schwannomas from neurofibromas...
  7. Munchhof A, Li F, White H, Mead L, Krier T, Fenoglio A, et al. Neurofibroma-associated growth factors activate a distinct signaling network to alter the function of neurofibromin-deficient endothelial cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1858-69 pubmed
    ..This paradigm is relevant to understanding neurofibroma development in neurofibromatosis type I patients...
  8. Ray S, Das K, Mridha A, Khamrui S. Neurofibroma of the common bile duct: a rare cause of obstructive jaundice. Am J Surg. 2011;202:e1-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Neurofibroma of the common bile duct is extremely rare. Fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of neurofibroma in a 47-year-old female presented with obstructive jaundice...
  9. Tucker T, Riccardi V, Brown C, Fee J, Sutcliffe M, Vielkind J, et al. S100B and neurofibromin immunostaining and X-inactivation patterns of laser-microdissected cells indicate a multicellular origin of some NF1-associated neurofibromas. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:1451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The S100B(+) /Nfn(-) cell population made up only 18% ± 10% (mean ± standard deviation) of the neurofibroma cells in both the diffuse and encapsulated neurofibromas...
  10. Cabrera Castillo P, Alonso y Gregorio S, Cansino Alcaide J, Aguilera Basan A, De la Peña Barthel J. [Bladder neurofibroma: case report and bibliographic review]. Arch Esp Urol. 2006;59:899-901 pubmed
    ..of the urinary tract; bladder neurofibromatosis may present as a diffuse infiltrative process or an isolated neurofibroma. Bladder neurofibromas arise from nervous ganglia of the bladder wall and stain positive for protein S-100 and ..
  11. Zheng H, Chang L, Patel N, Yang J, Lowe L, Burns D, et al. Induction of abnormal proliferation by nonmyelinating schwann cells triggers neurofibroma formation. Cancer Cell. 2008;13:117-28 pubmed publisher
    ..utilizing genetically engineered mouse models of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), we demonstrated that plexiform neurofibroma, the only benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor with potential for malignant transformation, results from Nf1 ..
  12. Tsai P, Liu K, Wang S, Shyr Y, Su C, Chen T. Solitary neurofibroma of the pancreas body not associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis. J Chin Med Assoc. 2012;75:132-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a case of a neurofibroma in a 44-year-old woman who initially presented with epigastralgia. Imaging revealed one large cystic mass of 5...
  13. Le L, Shipman T, Burns D, Parada L. Cell of origin and microenvironment contribution for NF1-associated dermal neurofibromas. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:453-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SKPs, or their derivatives, are the cell of origin of dermal neurofibroma. We also provide evidence that additional signals from nonneoplastic cells in the tumor microenvironment play ..
  14. Staser K, Yang F, Clapp D. Mast cells and the neurofibroma microenvironment. Blood. 2010;116:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies from human and murine models that closely recapitulate human plexiform neurofibroma formation indicate that tumorigenesis necessitates NF1 loss of heterozygosity in the Schwann cell...
  15. Kazakov D, Pitha J, Sima R, Vanecek T, Shelekhova K, Mukensnabl P, et al. Hybrid peripheral nerve sheath tumors: Schwannoma-perineurioma and neurofibroma-perineurioma. A report of three cases in extradigital locations. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2005;9:16-23 pubmed
    We present three cases of subcutaneous tumors with hybrid features of schwannoma-perineurioma (one case) and neurofibroma-perineurioma (two cases), which occurred in two women aged 50 and 52 years and one man aged 52...
  16. Prada C, Jousma E, Rizvi T, Wu J, Dunn R, Mayes D, et al. Neurofibroma-associated macrophages play roles in tumor growth and response to pharmacological inhibition. Acta Neuropathol. 2013;125:159-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrophages accounted for almost half of neurofibroma cells, leading us to hypothesize that nerve macrophages are inflammatory effectors in neurofibroma development ..
  17. Johna S, Shalita T, Johnson W. Laparoscopic-assisted resection of a large retroperitoneal tumor. JSLS. 2004;8:287-9 pubmed
    ..The feasibility of the technique was tested in the removal of a large retroperitoneal neurofibroma.
  18. Khosrotehrani K, Bastuji Garin S, Riccardi V, Birch P, Friedman J, Wolkenstein P. Subcutaneous neurofibromas are associated with mortality in neurofibromatosis 1: a cohort study of 703 patients. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;132A:49-53 pubmed
    ..Our study describes independent risk factors of mortality in a large cohort of adult and pediatric patients. Close follow-up should be obtained for patients presenting with subcutaneous neurofibromas...
  19. Gregorian C, Nakashima J, Dry S, Nghiemphu P, Smith K, Ao Y, et al. PTEN dosage is essential for neurofibroma development and malignant transformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that combined inhibition of RAS/RAF/MAPK and PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathways may be beneficial for patients with MPNST...
  20. Morris Z, McClatchey A. The neurofibroma cell of origin: SKPs expand the playing field. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:371-2 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Le et al. (2009) demonstrate that skin-derived precursors (SKPs) can initiate dermal neurofibromas and highlight the importance of the microenvironment in the formation of this complex tumor...
  21. Sbidian E, Bastuji Garin S, Valeyrie Allanore L, Ferkal S, Lefaucheur J, Drouet A, et al. At-risk phenotype of neurofibromatose-1 patients: a multicentre case-control study. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2011;6:51 pubmed publisher
  22. Koksal Y, Sahin M, Koksal H, Esen H, Sen M. Neurofibroma adjacent to the thyroid gland and a thyroid papillary carcinoma in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1: report of a case. Surg Today. 2009;39:884-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also rare for a neurofibroma to arise in the tissue neighboring the thyroid gland, and mimicking a nonfunctional thyroid nodule...
  23. Funarunart P, Kayasut K, Hirunpat S, Preechawai P. Isolated orbital neurofibroma in NF-1 negative patients. J Med Assoc Thai. 2011;94:1281-2 pubmed
    Isolated orbital neurofibroma unassociated with systemic neurofibromatosis is relatively rare and may be difficult to clinically differentiate from other orbital tumors...
  24. Takahama A, Leon J, de Almeida O, Kowalski L. Nonlymphoid mesenchymal tumors of the parotid gland. Oral Oncol. 2008;44:970-4 pubmed publisher
    ..16% (19 cases; 15 benign and 4 malignant). All cases were treated by surgery with no recurrences, except one case of fibrosarcoma whose patient died of distant metastasis...
  25. Duong T, Bastuji Garin S, Valeyrie Allanore L, Sbidian E, Ferkal S, Wolkenstein P. Evolving pattern with age of cutaneous signs in neurofibromatosis type 1: a cross-sectional study of 728 patients. Dermatology. 2011;222:269-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Neurofibromatosis type 1 is fully penetrant by the age of 8 years, and 3 criteria of diagnosis are dermatological: café-au-lait spots (CLS), intertriginous freckling and neurofibromas (NF)...
  26. Magro G, Amico P, Vecchio G, Caltabiano R, Castaing M, Kacerovska D, et al. Multinucleated floret-like giant cells in sporadic and NF1-associated neurofibromas: a clinicopathologic study of 94 cases. Virchows Arch. 2010;456:71-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, it has been suggested that their detection, especially in an otherwise typical neurofibroma, could be a morphological clue to diagnosis of NF1...
  27. González Vela M, Val Bernal J, González López M, Drake M, Fernández Llaca J. Pure sclerotic neurofibroma: a neurofibroma mimicking sclerotic fibroma. J Cutan Pathol. 2006;33:47-50 pubmed
    b>Neurofibroma (NF) is a benign tumor of the nerve sheath. Several variants of NF have been described.
  28. Spurlock G, Knight S, Thomas N, Kiehl T, Guha A, Upadhyaya M. Molecular evolution of a neurofibroma to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in an NF1 patient: correlation between histopathological, clinical and molecular findings. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2010;136:1869-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Many MPNSTs are histopathologically complex, with regions exhibiting features of the original benign plexiform neurofibroma (PNF), of an atypical PNF, or of MPNST showing varying degrees of de-differentiation...
  29. Itani S, Kunisada T, Morimoto Y, Yoshida A, Sasaki T, Ito S, et al. MicroRNA-21 correlates with tumorigenesis in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) via programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4). J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012;138:1501-9 pubmed publisher
    ..nerve tumors and clarified the involvement of miRNA in the development and progression of MPNST in comparison with neurofibroma (NF). In addition, we attempted to seek associations between the miRNA and their potential targets in MPNST.
  30. Murat A, Kansiz F, Kabakus N, Kazez A, Ozercan R. Neurofibroma of the breast in a boy with neurofibromatosis type 1. Clin Imaging. 2004;28:415-7 pubmed
    ..Excisional biopsy was applied to the mass. The diagnosis of gynecomastia and neurofibroma was made on the basis of histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.
  31. Langman G, Rathinam S, Papadaki L. Primary localised pleural neurofibroma: expanding the spectrum of spindle cell tumours of the pleura. J Clin Pathol. 2010;63:116-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary localised pleural neoplasms are a rare group of thoracic tumours, with solitary fibrous tumour representing the most frequently encountered entity. Two cases of localised pleural neurofibromas involving the pleura are described...
  32. Jones R, Kiatisevi P, Morris D, Munk P, Clarkson P, Masri B. Intravascular embolisation and surgical resection of a giant neurofibroma with intratumoural haemorrhage. Br J Radiol. 2010;83:e225-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report describes a 45-year-old male with a giant neurofibroma who underwent embolisation to stabilise intratumoural haemorrhage and to assist with haemostasis during the ..
  33. Thomas L, Kluwe L, Chuzhanova N, Mautner V, Upadhyaya M. Analysis of NF1 somatic mutations in cutaneous neurofibromas from patients with high tumor burden. Neurogenetics. 2010;11:391-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Somatic NF1 mutations were identified in 57 (64%) of neurofibroma samples. Each mutation was distinct demonstrating the independent origin of each tumor...
  34. Lin S, Chen M, Lin C, Ho D. Olfactory ensheathing cell tumor with neurofibroma-like features: a case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol. 2010;97:117-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor was designated as olfactory ensheathing cell tumor with neurofibroma-like features...
  35. Stolarczuk D, Silva A, Filgueiras F, Alves M, Silva S. Solitary subungual neurofibroma: a previously unreported finding in a male patient. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86:569-72 pubmed
    A neurofibroma is a hamartomatous proliferation of neuromesenchymal origin. It may be found in combination with neurofibromatosis or in the form of a solitary tumor. Clinical presentation as a solitary subungual tumor is very rare...
  36. Moskowitz R, Young J, Box G, Paré L, Clayman R. Retroperitoneal transdiaphragmatic robotic-assisted laparoscopic resection of a left thoracolumbar neurofibroma. JSLS. 2009;13:64-8 pubmed
    ..This report describes the first use of robotic technology to resect a left thoracolumbar neurofibroma.
  37. Upadhyaya M, Spurlock G, Kluwe L, Chuzhanova N, Bennett E, Thomas N, et al. The spectrum of somatic and germline NF1 mutations in NF1 patients with spinal neurofibromas. Neurogenetics. 2009;10:251-63 pubmed publisher
    ..No evidence for LOH of the TP53 gene was found in these tumors...
  38. Mantripragada K, Spurlock G, Kluwe L, Chuzhanova N, Ferner R, Frayling I, et al. High-resolution DNA copy number profiling of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors using targeted microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:1015-24 pubmed publisher
  39. Vivek N, Manikandhan R, James P, Rajeev R. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible. Indian J Dent Res. 2006;17:135-8 pubmed
    Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma is a rare benign non-odontogenic tumor...
  40. Varikatt W, Yong J, Killingsworth M. Somatostatinoma: collision with neurofibroma and ultrastructural features. Histol Histopathol. 2006;21:1171-80 pubmed publisher
    ..somatostatinoma are described, one of which is a hitherto unreported example of a collision tumour with a neurofibroma. Ultrastructural morphometric immunoelectron microscopy studies revealed the presence of four types of cells in ..
  41. Wiesen A, Davidoff S, Sideridis K, Greenberg R, Bank S, Falkowski O. Neurofibroma in the colon. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;40:85-6 pubmed
  42. Lee J, Bae J, Kim K. A case of solitary neurofibroma of the nasal dorsum: resection using an external rhinoplasty approach. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;262:813-5 pubmed
    ..The mass was resected using an external rhinoplasty approach, and the pathologic diagnosis was of neurofibroma. Furthermore, the nasal dorsum was identified as the origin of the neurofibroma without the stigma of ..
  43. Ide F, Shimoyama T, Horie N, Kusama K. Comparative ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study of perineurioma and neurofibroma of the oral mucosa. Oral Oncol. 2004;40:948-53 pubmed
    In the course of assessing the cellular composition of intraoral neurofibroma (NF), we encountered a unique gingival tumor of putative perineurial (PN) origin...
  44. Tucker T, Riccardi V, Sutcliffe M, Vielkind J, Wechsler J, Wolkenstein P, et al. Different patterns of mast cells distinguish diffuse from encapsulated neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis 1. J Histochem Cytochem. 2011;59:584-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences in mast cell density and distribution differentiate the two basic types of NF1-associated neurofibromas, suggesting that the pathogenesis of diffuse and encapsulated neurofibromas may be significantly different...
  45. Kazmi S, Byer S, Eckert J, Turk A, Huijbregts R, Brossier N, et al. Transgenic mice overexpressing neuregulin-1 model neurofibroma-malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor progression and implicate specific chromosomal copy number variations in tumorigenesis. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:646-67 pubmed publisher
    ..A genetically engineered mouse model that accurately models plexiform neurofibroma-MPNST progression in humans would facilitate identification of somatic mutations driving this process...
  46. Eljack S, Rosenkrantz A, Das K. CT and MRI appearance of solitary parapelvic neurofibroma of the kidney. Br J Radiol. 2010;83:e108-10 pubmed publisher
    We report an extremely rare case of a renal parapelvic neurofibroma. The mass was an incidental finding on an abdominal CT scan of an asymptomatic 59-year-old male with hepatitis C...
  47. Karabatsou K, Kiehl T, Wilson D, Hendler A, Guha A. Potential role of 18fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in differentiating benign neurofibroma from malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor associated with neurofibromatosis 1. Neurosurgery. 2009;65:A160-70 pubmed publisher
    ..18FDG-PET/CT has the added advantage of fusing metabolic and anatomic imaging data sets...
  48. Parrinello S, Lloyd A. Neurofibroma development in NF1--insights into tumour initiation. Trends Cell Biol. 2009;19:395-403 pubmed publisher
    ..mature differentiated Schwann cells as the cell of origin and revealed the molecular and cellular mechanisms of neurofibroma initiation...
  49. Yang L, Robertson T, Tollesson G, Francis L, Campbell D, Winter C. An unusual presentation of a solitary benign giant neurofibroma. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2009;11:49-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Histopathological investigation identified a benign, diffuse neurofibroma with associated dysplastic blood vessels exhibiting irregular areas of tunica media and sinusoidal-like ..
  50. Bartelt Kirbach B, Wuepping M, Dodrimont Lattke M, Kaufmann D. Expression analysis of genes lying in the NF1 microdeletion interval points to four candidate modifiers for neurofibroma formation. Neurogenetics. 2009;10:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression analysis of 13 genes of the microdeletion region in dermal neurofibromas and other tissues revealed four candidates for the modification of neurofibroma formation: CENTA2, RAB11FIP4, C17orf79, and UTP6.
  51. Hassell D, Bancroft L, Kransdorf M, Peterson J, Berquist T, Murphey M, et al. Imaging appearance of diffuse neurofibroma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190:582-8 pubmed publisher
    The purposes of this study were to describe the imaging appearance of diffuse neurofibroma in 10 patients and to summarize demographic data on a large group of patients.
  52. Miyawaki T, Billings B, Har Shai Y, Agbenorku P, Kokuba E, Moreira Gonzalez A, et al. Multicenter study of wound healing in neurofibromatosis and neurofibroma. J Craniofac Surg. 2007;18:1008-11 pubmed
    ..The patients with solitary neurofibroma were also included in this study; these were compared with the NF-1 group...
  53. Wu J, Crimmins J, Monk K, Williams J, Fitzgerald M, Tedesco S, et al. Perinatal epidermal growth factor receptor blockade prevents peripheral nerve disruption in a mouse model reminiscent of benign world health organization grade I neurofibroma. Am J Pathol. 2006;168:1686-96 pubmed
    ..Some neurofibroma Schwann cells aberrantly express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)...
  54. Panteris V, Vassilakaki T, Vaitsis N, Elemenoglou I, Mylonakou I, Karamanolis D. Solitary colonic neurofibroma in a patient with transient segmental colitis: case report. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:5573-6 pubmed
    ..Solitary neurofibromas of the colon are extremely rare. We describe a case of an isolated neurofibroma that was found in the large bowel of a patient who suffered from segmental colitis and presented with bloody ..
  55. Boedeker C, Ridder G, Kayser G, Schipper J, Maier W. Solitary neurofibroma of the maxillary sinus and pterygopalatine fossa. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;133:458-9 pubmed
  56. Val Bernal J, González Vela M. Cutaneous lipomatous neurofibroma: characterization and frequency. J Cutan Pathol. 2005;32:274-9 pubmed
    There are numerous variants of cutaneous neurofibroma reflecting its manner of growth and histologic composition. Lipomatous neurofibroma is the latest described variant with only eight cases reported.
  57. Ling B, Wu J, Miller S, Monk K, Shamekh R, Rizvi T, et al. Role for the epidermal growth factor receptor in neurofibromatosis-related peripheral nerve tumorigenesis. Cancer Cell. 2005;7:65-75 pubmed
    ..Genetic reduction of EGFR in Nf1(+/-);p53(+/-) mice that develop sarcomas significantly improved survival. Thus, gain- and loss-of-function experiments support the relevance of EGFR to peripheral nerve tumor formation...
  58. Ohno J, Iwahashi T, Ozasa R, Okamura K, Taniguchi K. Solitary neurofibroma of the gingiva with prominent differentiation of Meissner bodies: a case report. Diagn Pathol. 2010;5:61 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral neurofibromas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors, similar to schwannomas. Histological variations in oral neurofibromas are relatively uncommon...
  59. Rahbar R, Litrovnik B, Vargas S, Robson C, Nuss R, Irons M, et al. The biology and management of laryngeal neurofibroma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130:1400-6 pubmed
    To review the presentation of laryngeal neurofibroma, including its association with neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, and present guidelines for its management.