aids related lymphoma


Summary: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.

Top Publications

  1. Bellan C, Lazzi S, Hummel M, Palummo N, de Santi M, Amato T, et al. Immunoglobulin gene analysis reveals 2 distinct cells of origin for EBV-positive and EBV-negative Burkitt lymphomas. Blood. 2005;106:1031-6 pubmed
    ..The different types of C-MYC translocation reported in BL may also be related to the different stages of B-cell maturation...
  2. Aoki Y, Tosato G. Neoplastic conditions in the context of HIV-1 infection. Curr HIV Res. 2004;2:343-9 pubmed
    ..Understanding the direct and indirect roles of HIV-1 in the pathogenesis of neoplastic conditions could provide the rationale for prevention and development of new treatments for AIDS-associated malignancies...
  3. Carbone A, Gloghini A. AIDS-related lymphomas: from pathogenesis to pathology. Br J Haematol. 2005;130:662-70 pubmed
  4. Wolf T, Brodt H, Fichtlscherer S, Mantzsch K, Hoelzer D, Helm E, et al. Changing incidence and prognostic factors of survival in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Leuk Lymphoma. 2005;46:207-15 pubmed
  5. Lim S, Levine A. Recent advances in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005;55:229-41; 260-1, 264 pubmed
  6. Epeldegui M, Widney D, Martinez Maza O. Pathogenesis of AIDS lymphoma: role of oncogenic viruses and B cell activation-associated molecular lesions. Curr Opin Oncol. 2006;18:444-8 pubmed
    ..We discuss recently published studies that elucidate the pathogenesis of AIDS-associated lymphoma...
  7. Xu D, Coleman T, Zhang J, Fagot A, Kotalik C, Zhao L, et al. Epstein-Barr virus inhibits Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic replication in primary effusion lymphomas. J Virol. 2007;81:6068-78 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide evidence that an interaction between EBV and KSHV at molecular levels promotes the maintenance and possibly establishment of viral latency, which may contribute to pathogenesis of PELs...
  8. Newell M, Hoy J, Cooper S, DeGraaff B, Grulich A, Bryant M, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-related primary central nervous system lymphoma: factors influencing survival in 111 patients. Cancer. 2004;100:2627-36 pubmed
  9. Besson C, Raphael M. [Lymphoma genesis in the context of HIV infection]. Ann Med Interne (Paris). 2003;154:523-8 pubmed
    ..A better knowledge of these mechanisms should lead to the development of specific targeted treatments (antiviral, cytotoxic anti-EBV lymphocytes, cell cycle regulators)...

More Information


  1. Lim S, Karim R, Nathwani B, Tulpule A, Espina B, Levine A. AIDS-related Burkitt's lymphoma versus diffuse large-cell lymphoma in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HAART eras: significant differences in survival with standard chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:4430-8 pubmed
  2. Diamond C, Taylor T, Aboumrad T, Anton Culver H. Changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: incidence, presentation, treatment, and survival. Cancer. 2006;106:128-35 pubmed
    ..The authors sought to determine whether the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) coincided with changes in the epidemiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)...
  3. Vega F, Chang C, Medeiros L, Udden M, Cho Vega J, Lau C, et al. Plasmablastic lymphomas and plasmablastic plasma cell myelomas have nearly identical immunophenotypic profiles. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:806-15 pubmed
    ..These results do not support the suggestion in the WHO classification that plasmablastic lymphoma is a variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma...
  4. Chadburn A, Chiu A, Lee J, Chen X, Hyjek E, Banham A, et al. Immunophenotypic analysis of AIDS-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and clinical implications in patients from AIDS Malignancies Consortium clinical trials 010 and 034. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:5039-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine whether immunohistochemical analyses of biopsies from patients with DLBCL having HIV infection are similarly relevant for prognosis...
  5. Navarro W, Kaplan L. AIDS-related lymphoproliferative disease. Blood. 2006;107:13-20 pubmed
    ..Significant progress has been made in the understanding and management of ARL but outcomes still remain inferior compared to those achieved in HIV- individuals...
  6. Epeldegui M, Breen E, Hung Y, Boscardin W, Detels R, Martinez Maza O. Elevated expression of activation induced cytidine deaminase in peripheral blood mononuclear cells precedes AIDS-NHL diagnosis. AIDS. 2007;21:2265-70 pubmed
    ..Additionally, AID expression was seen to differ depending on NHL subtype, with the highest levels of expression seen in those who developed Burkitt's lymphoma...
  7. Cingolani A, Fratino L, Scoppettuolo G, Antinori A. Changing pattern of primary cerebral lymphoma in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. J Neurovirol. 2005;11 Suppl 3:38-44 pubmed
  8. Robotin M, Law M, Milliken S, Goldstein D, Garsia R, Dolan G, et al. Clinical features and predictors of survival of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a population-based case series in Sydney, Australia. HIV Med. 2004;5:377-84 pubmed
    ..To analyse clinical features and predictors of survival for AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared to earlier in the HIV epidemic...
  9. Castanos Velez E, Heiden T, Ekman M, Lawrence J, Biberfeld G, Biberfeld P. Proliferation and apoptosis-related gene expression in experimental acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related simian lymphoma. Blood. 1999;93:1364-71 pubmed
    ..In summary, our observations indicate a high similarity between this simian model of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphomas (ARL) and human ARL and other immunosuppression-related lymphomas...
  10. Flaitz C, Nichols C, Walling D, Hicks M. Plasmablastic lymphoma: an HIV-associated entity with primary oral manifestations. Oral Oncol. 2002;38:96-102 pubmed
    ..The same tumor was negative for HHV-8 by PCR. Recognition of plasmablastic lymphoma is important, because it represents an HIV-associated malignancy that predominantly involves the oral cavity, may mimic KS and has a poor prognosis...
  11. Castanos Velez E, Heiden T, Lindvall C, Capello D, Sandlund A, Imreh S, et al. Simian AIDS-related lymphoma growth in severe combined immunodeficiency mice is independent of karyotypic abnormalities or Bcl-6 mutations. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002;18:383-90 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that no cytogenetic alterations are needed for the development of highly aggressive lymphomas in the SIV-immunosuppressed host...
  12. Skiest D, Crosby C. Survival is prolonged by highly active antiretroviral therapy in AIDS patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma. AIDS. 2003;17:1787-93 pubmed
    ..To determine the effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on survival in AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL)...
  13. Bellan C, De Falco G, Lazzi S, Leoncini L. Pathologic aspects of AIDS malignancies. Oncogene. 2003;22:6639-45 pubmed
    ..The aim of this paper is to review the pathology of AIDS-related malignancies, taking into account the pathogenetic mechanisms and their potential for improving the treatment of these tumors...
  14. Thirlwell C, Sarker D, Stebbing J, Bower M. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Lymphoma. 2003;4:86-92 pubmed
    ..This has led to a more aggressive approach to the management of AIDS-related NHL and response rates and overall survival durations that are approaching those seen in stage-matched high-grade lymphomas in the immunocompetent population...
  15. Shiramizu B, Herndier B, McGrath M. Identification of a common clonal human immunodeficiency virus integration site in human immunodeficiency virus-associated lymphomas. Cancer Res. 1994;54:2069-72 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that HIV may contribute directly to lymphomagenesis and identify a common site of HIV integration within a subset of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome lymphoma...
  16. Knowles D. Etiology and pathogenesis of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2003;17:785-820 pubmed
    ..AIDS-related NHL is an important biologic model for investigating the development and progression of high-grade NHLs and NHLs that develop in immunedeficient hosts...
  17. Martinez Maza O, Breen E. B-cell activation and lymphoma in patients with HIV. Curr Opin Oncol. 2002;14:528-32 pubmed
  18. Carbone A. AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: from pathology and molecular pathogenesis to treatment. Hum Pathol. 2002;33:392-404 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a greater knowledge of other biologic features of these tumors may help investigators identify new potential targets for "intelligent" therapies...
  19. Rabkin C. AIDS and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Eur J Cancer. 2001;37:1316-9 pubmed
    ..Further improvements in the long-term consequences of HIV infection will depend on better prevention and treatment of this serious malignant complication...
  20. Buske C, Hannig H, Schneider E, Blaschke S, Hunsmann G, Bodemer W, et al. Transforming growth factor beta is a growth-inhibitory cytokine of B cell lymphoma in SIV-infected macaques. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999;15:1477-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, TGF-beta fulfilled the criteria of a negative autocrine inhibitor in H50. These data identify TGF-beta as a promising candidate as an inhibitory factor in the regulatory network of HIV-associated lymphomagenesis...
  21. Franceschi S, Dal Maso L, La Vecchia C. Advances in the epidemiology of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and other lymphoid neoplasms. Int J Cancer. 1999;83:481-5 pubmed
  22. Blaschke S, Hannig H, Buske C, Kaup F, Hunsmann G, Bodemer W. Expression of the simian Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein-1 in malignant lymphomas of SIV-infected rhesus macaques. J Med Virol. 2001;65:114-20 pubmed
    ..Analysis of LMP-1 expression suggests an important role for this viral oncogene in the pathogenesis of both SIV and HIV-1-associated malignant lymphomas...
  23. Powles T, Thirlwell C, Nelson M, Bower M. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome mimicking relapse of AIDS related lymphoma in patients with HIV 1 infection. Leuk Lymphoma. 2003;44:1417-9 pubmed
    ..We present three cases of IRIS following a diagnosis of AIDS related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that resembled lymphoma relapse...
  24. Conti S, Masocco M, Pezzotti P, Toccaceli V, Vichi M, Boros S, et al. Differential impact of combined antiretroviral therapy on the survival of italian patients with specific AIDS-defining illnesses. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000;25:451-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether combined antiretroviral therapies had a differential impact on the survival of patients with different AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs)...
  25. Levine A, Seneviratne L, Espina B, Wohl A, Tulpule A, Nathwani B, et al. Evolving characteristics of AIDS-related lymphoma. Blood. 2000;96:4084-90 pubmed
    ..0005) and an increase in diffuse large cell lymphoma (P <.0001). Despite changes in the use of antiretroviral or chemotherapy regimens, the median survival has not significantly changed...
  26. Arvanitakis L, Mesri E, Nador R, Said J, Asch A, Knowles D, et al. Establishment and characterization of a primary effusion (body cavity-based) lymphoma cell line (BC-3) harboring kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) in the absence of Epstein-Barr virus. Blood. 1996;88:2648-54 pubmed
  27. Sipsas N, Kontos A, Panayiotakopoulos G, Androulaki A, Zormpala A, Balafouta M, et al. Extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as a soft tissue mass in the proximal femur in a HIV(+) patient. Leuk Lymphoma. 2002;43:2405-7 pubmed
    ..The patient was treated by surgical resection of the tumor, chemotherapy and local radiotherapy with no serious side effects. After 36 mdnths of follow up he is in excellent clinical condition, with his lymphoma in complete remission...
  28. Gates A, Kaplan L. AIDS malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Oncology (Williston Park). 2002;16:657-65; discussion 665, 668-70 pubmed
    ..This two-part article, which began in the April 2002 issue, analyzes the impact of HAART on the incidence, clinical course, and outcomes of each of the AIDS-related malignancies...
  29. Corti M, Villafañe M, Palmieri O, Aisencher D, Sawicki M, Schtirbu R, et al. [Ileocolic intussusception due to a large B cell lymphoma in a patient with AIDS]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam. 2008;38:51-5 pubmed
    ..Surgical treatment included the resection of the right hemicolon because of the tumor, located in the cecum, causing intussusception. The English and Spanish literature is reviewed. ..
  30. Biggar R, Engels E, Ly S, Kahn A, Schymura M, Sackoff J, et al. Survival after cancer diagnosis in persons with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;39:293-9 pubmed
    ..Clinicians should be encouraged by the improving prognosis and be diligent about detecting and treating cancer in PWA. ..
  31. Bertrand F, McCubrey J. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated lymphoma. Front Biosci. 2005;10:2972-7 pubmed
    ..The treatment and etiology of lymphoma is a burgeoning issue in the care of HIV positive populations. This review will provide a basic overview of the association between HIV and lymphoma. ..
  32. Spina M, Tirelli U. Rituximab for HIV-associated lymphoma: weighing the benefits and risks. Curr Opin Oncol. 2005;17:462-5 pubmed
    ..In patients with higher CD4 counts, the benefit of rituximab may outweigh its risk, although this has yet to be confirmed in prospective, randomized trials specifically performed in this population. ..
  33. Zazpe I, De Llano P, Gorosquieta A, Cabada T, Tunon T, Vazquez A, et al. [Primary CNS Lymphoma: bibliographical review and experience at the Hospital of Navarre in the last 5 years (2000-2004)]. An Sist Sanit Navar. 2005;28:367-77 pubmed
    ..To resolve these and other questions it is necessary to deep in the study of primary cerebral lymphoma and to carry out high quality clinical trials. ..
  34. Lascaux A, Hemery F, Goujard C, Lesprit P, Delfraissy J, Sobel A, et al. Beneficial effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the prognosis of AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphomas. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005;21:214-20 pubmed
    ..0085). No influence on outcome was found for other variables except for prior AIDS and bone marrow involvement. HAART has significantly improved the survival and EFS in patients with ARL, independently of chemotherapy regimen. ..
  35. Dunlap N, Parkhie S. Unusual manifestation of Hodgkin disease. Am J Clin Oncol. 2006;29:529-30 pubmed
  36. Ribera J, Oriol A, Morgades M, Gonzalez Barca E, Miralles P, Lopez Guillermo A, et al. Safety and efficacy of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results of a phase II trial. Br J Haematol. 2008;140:411-9 pubmed
    ..In HIV-related DLBCL R-CHOP is feasible, safe and effective. The prognosis depends on lymphoma-related parameters and on the response to HAART. ..
  37. Cluzeau T, Mounier N. [Patients and the Web]. Bull Cancer. 2010;97:1133-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The information from the Internet is mostly good but not updated and erroneous data are regularly found. This confirms that the consultation by a specialist doctor referral should remain the main source of information for the patient. ..
  38. Wood N, Feller L, Raubenheimer E, Jadwat Y, Meyerov R, Lemmer J. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated extranodal T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the oral cavity. SADJ. 2008;63:158-61 pubmed
    ..A case is presented with extranodal T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma as an initial sign of HIV-infection. The characteristics of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma are discussed. ..
  39. Simonelli C, Tedeschi R, Gloghini A, Spina M, Talamini R, De Paoli P, et al. Prognostic factors in human herpesvirus 8-related lymphoproliferative disorders associated with HIV infection. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:209; author reply 209-10 pubmed
  40. Wang J, Hernandez O, Sen F. Plasmablastic lymphoma involving breast: a case diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy. Diagn Cytopathol. 2008;36:257-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular genetic studies showed clonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin kappa light chain gene. This is the first case of PBL involving the breast reported in English cytological literature. ..
  41. Rafaniello Raviele P, Pruneri G, Maiorano E. Plasmablastic lymphoma: a review. Oral Dis. 2009;15:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..PBL patients have been treated heterogeneously, with a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or surgery, and their prognosis is usually poor, with a death rate of approximately 60% at 1 year. ..
  42. Chanan Khan A, Holkova B, Goldenberg A, Pavlick A, Demopoulos R, Takeshita K. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as a breast mass in patients with HIV infection: a report of three cases. Leuk Lymphoma. 2005;46:1189-93 pubmed
    ..We reviewed our tumor registry database of all AIDS-associated NHL and report on the clinical presentation and long-term outcome of 3 patients with AIDS who presented with lymphomatous involvement of the breast. ..
  43. Mohit A, Santiago P, Rostomily R. Intramedullary tuberculoma mimicking primary CNS lymphoma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:1636-8 pubmed
    ..This case illustrates the risk of misdiagnosis with this assay and the importance of histological confirmation of a pathological lesion prior to implementation of therapy. ..
  44. Navarro J, Vall Llovera F, Mate J, Morgades M, Feliu E, Ribera J. Decrease in the frequency of meningeal involvement in AIDS-related systemic lymphoma in patients receiving HAART. Haematologica. 2008;93:149-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Those receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed a decrease in leptomeningeal involvement in systemic NHL (0/30 vs. 12/87; p=0.023). Therefore HAART could prevent CNS involvement in systemic NHL. ..
  45. Okada S. [Recent advances and the treatment strategies of AIDS-related malignant lymphoma]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2008;49:1490-8 pubmed
  46. Davis F. Epidemiology of brain tumors. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2007;7:S3-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Promising avenues of research include the role of immune function, genetic components in families, metabolic and DNA-repair pathways and neurocarcinogen exposures. ..
  47. Adeyemi O, Yeldandi A, Ison M. Fatal adenovirus pneumonia in a person with AIDS and Burkitt lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature. AIDS Read. 2008;18:196-8, 201-2, 206-7 pubmed
  48. Czura A, Czura C. CD38 and CD157: biological observations to clinical therapeutic targets. Mol Med. 2006;12:309-11 pubmed
    ..This issue of Molecular Medicine, featuring several short reviews based on a conference held in Turin, Italy, 10-12 June 2006, showcases the current state of this field and highlights some recent progress in molecular medicine. ..
  49. Kizer N, Martinez E, Powell M. Report of two cases of rasburicase-induced methemoglobinemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2006;47:2648-50 pubmed
  50. Radhakrishnan R, Suhas S, Kumar R, Krishnanand G, Srinivasan R, Rao N. Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity in an HIV-positive child. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005;100:725-31 pubmed
    ..The importance of excluding other common pediatric small round cell tumors by immunohistochemistry is highlighted. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this entity in a vertically transmitted HIV-positive child. ..
  51. Voigtländer C, Harrer T, Schneider L, Schulze Koops H, Niedobitek G, Lüftl M. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma on the back of a patient with AIDS: successful treatment by the CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. Int J Dermatol. 2005;44:976-8 pubmed
  52. Kasamon Y, Swinnen L. Treatment advances in adult Burkitt lymphoma and leukemia. Curr Opin Oncol. 2004;16:429-35 pubmed
    ..New approaches are particularly needed in older patients to improve survival rates while minimizing toxicities. ..
  53. Bower M, Palmieri C, Dhillon T. AIDS-related malignancies: changing epidemiology and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006;19:14-9 pubmed
  54. Corti M, Villafañe M, Trione N, Narbaitz M. [Hodgkin lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection: epidemiologic, clinic and histopathologic findings in 18 patients]. Med Clin (Barc). 2005;124:116-7 pubmed
  55. Freudenberg S, Palma P, Grobholz R, Ngendahayo L, Post S. HIV-related and Epstein-Barr virus-associated anal Burkitt's lymphoma: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:1656-9 pubmed
    ..This article describes and discusses primary Burkitt's lymphoma of the anus which is an extremely rare site of origin...
  56. Ma Y, He R. [Pathology of AIDS-related lymphadenopathy: a study of 18 biopsy cases]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2005;34:776-9 pubmed
    ..To study the clinicopathologic features of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphadenopathy and to elucidate the salient features helpful in achieving a correct pathologic differentiated diagnosis...
  57. Nava V, Cohen P, Kalan M, Ozdemirli M. HIV-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a report of three cases. AIDS. 2008;22:1892-4 pubmed publisher
  58. Rinaldi A, Capello D, Scandurra M, Greiner T, Chan W, Bhagat G, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphism-arrays provide new insights in the pathogenesis of post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2010;149:569-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in PT-DLBCL were partially different to those in HIV-DLBCL, suggesting different pathogenetic mechanisms in the two conditions linked to immunodeficiency...
  59. Heise W. GI-lymphomas in immunosuppressed patients (organ transplantation; HIV). Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2010;24:57-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapy strategies including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and HAART will show promising results in response and survival rates...
  60. Martin P, Leonard J, Coleman M, Furman R. Durable complete remissions in HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma after treatment with only one cycle of chemotherapy complicated by sepsis. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma. 2009;9:247-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis and immunologic activation that appear to have led to these long-term remissions might lead to novel therapeutic approaches for patients with HL...
  61. Siani L, Siani A, Ricci V, D Elia M, Masoni T, Uggeri G. [Burkitt's lymphoma of the caecum in a patient with AIDS: clinical case and review of the literature]. Minerva Chir. 2009;64:229-33 pubmed
    ..Primary NHLs of the colon are relatively frequent and aggressive in patients with AIDS; early diagnosis and treatment are therefore of fundamental importance to improve the oncological outcome for these patients...
  62. Tirado Ramos A, Saltz J, Lechowicz M. HIV-K: an integrative knowledge base for semantic integration of AIDS-related malignancy data and treatment outcomes. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2010;159:239-43 pubmed
  63. Rajagopal A, Copson E, Addis B, Shinkfield M, Mead G. Plasmablastic lymphoma: a case of rectal disease with spinal cord compression. Leuk Lymphoma. 2006;47:2670-3 pubmed
  64. Wang J, Ozzard A, Nathan M, Atkins M, Nelson M, Gazzard B, et al. The significance of Epstein-Barr virus detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of people with HIV infection. HIV Med. 2007;8:306-11 pubmed
    ..However, EBV may also be detected in the CSF of patients without PCL, and here the significance is uncertain...
  65. Kane S, Khurana A, Parulkar G, Shet T, Prabhash K, Nair R, et al. Minimum diagnostic criteria for plasmablastic lymphoma of oral/sinonasal region encountered in a tertiary cancer hospital of a developing country. J Oral Pathol Med. 2009;38:138-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Elaborate ancillary diagnostic techniques can make the process expensive, tedious and out of reach for pathology laboratory in a developing country...
  66. Barkhuysen R, Merkx M, Weijs W, Gerlach N, Berge S. Plasmablastic lymphoma mimicking orbital cellulitis. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;12:125-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of cases have been reported in which these symptoms have been mistakenly interpreted as being secondary to an orbital infection whilst, in fact, other pathology was present...
  67. Smit C, Geskus R, Walker S, Sabin C, Coutinho R, Porter K, et al. Effective therapy has altered the spectrum of cause-specific mortality following HIV seroconversion. AIDS. 2006;20:741-9 pubmed
    ..Although HAART has led to a reduction in overall mortality among HIV-infected individuals, its impact on death from specific causes is unknown...
  68. Butt F, Chindia M, Rana F, Machigo F. Pattern of head and neck malignant neoplasms in HIV-infected patients in Kenya. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37:907-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the most common malignant neoplasms were KS, SCC and NHL, manifesting in a younger age group than in the non-HIV group of patients...
  69. Tanaka P, Pracchia L, Calore E. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: the experience of a single center in Brazil. Int J Hematol. 2006;84:337-42 pubmed
    ..5%. Our results provide additional information regarding HIV-related lymphoma in Brazil...
  70. Levine A, Tulpule A, Espina B, Sherrod A, Boswell W, Lieberman R, et al. Liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin in combination with standard agents (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone) in patients with newly diagnosed AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: results of therapy and correlates of response. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:2662-70 pubmed
    ..Secondary objectives were to assess the impact of HIV viral control on response and survival, and to correlate MDR-1 expression with outcome...
  71. Llibre J, Falco V, Tural C, Negredo E, Pineda J, Munoz J, et al. The changing face of HIV/AIDS in treated patients. Curr HIV Res. 2009;7:365-77 pubmed
    ..The present review focuses on these twelve areas of increasing interest for physicians currently facing successfully treated HIV+ patients...
  72. Musolino A, Guazzi A, Lazzaretti M, Pezzuolo D, Calzetti C, Degli Antoni A, et al. Intracranial hematopoiesis in a patient with AIDS-related central nervous system lymphoma and severe pancytopenia. Haematologica. 2007;92:e59-61 pubmed
    ..Although rare, intracranial EMH should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of headache and other endocranial hypertension symptoms in patients with chronic bone marrow dysfunction...
  73. Corti M, Carolis L, Solari R, Villafañe M, Schtirbu R, Lewi D, et al. Non Hodgkin's lymphoma with cutaneous involvement in AIDS patients: report of five cases and review of the literature. Braz J Infect Dis. 2010;14:81-5 pubmed
    ..All were CBCL; 3 were immunoblastic, 1 was plasmablastic, and the other was a Burkitt lymphoma. We analyzed the epidemiological, clinical, virological, and immunological characteristics of this group of patients...
  74. Morton L, Curtis R, Linet M, Bluhm E, Tucker M, Caporaso N, et al. Second malignancy risks after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: differences by lymphoma subtype. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:4935-44 pubmed publisher
  75. Cheung T. AIDS-related cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a model of the interplay of the immune system, virus, and cancer. "On the offensive--the Trojan Horse is being destroyed"--Part B: Malignant lymphoma. Cancer Invest. 2004;22:787-98 pubmed
    ..The use of biological agents, for example, monoclonal antibody against CD-20, is being explored to improve the clinical outcome of this disease...
  76. Mylona E, Baraboutis I, Georgiou O, Rondogianni D, Lekakis L, Papastamopoulos V, et al. Solid variant of primary effusion lymphoma in successfully treated HIV infection: a case report. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:570-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, his disease developed while being on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) with high CD4 counts. He had a relatively long survival with chemotherapy and ART...
  77. Jiang Y, Xu D, Zhao Y, Zhang L. Mutual inhibition between Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus lytic replication initiators in dually-infected primary effusion lymphoma. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1569 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data about putative interactions between EBV and KSHV would be applicable to the majority of AIDS-associated PELs and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of PELs...
  78. Chen Y, Yu H, Gillani A, Brown J. AIDS-associated plasmablastic lymphoma presenting at the insertion site of a peritoneal dialysis catheter. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:3176-8 pubmed