lymphangioma

Summary

Summary: A benign tumor resulting from a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system. Lymphangioendothelioma is a type of lymphangioma in which endothelial cells are the dominant component.

Top Publications

  1. Okazaki T, Iwatani S, Yanai T, Kobayashi H, Kato Y, Marusasa T, et al. Treatment of lymphangioma in children: our experience of 128 cases. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:386-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal treatment for lymphangioma in children by analyzing the effectiveness and complications of treatment modalities.
  2. Yoon J, Choi J, Kim S, Lee S. Intralesional injection of OK-432 for vision-threatening orbital lymphangioma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007;245:1031-5 pubmed
    ..The present report describes the successful use of intralesional OK-432 administration to treat two patients with intractable hemorrhagic proptosis due to orbital lymphangiomas...
  3. Halhal M, El Bakkali M, Benabdellah W, Chefchaouni M, Ouahabi A, Khamlichi A, et al. [Orbital lymphangioma. A case report]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2001;24:175-9 pubmed
    The diffuse form of orbital lymphangioma is well known for its difficult surgical treatment. A diffuse orbital lymphangioma was diagnosed in a 6-year-old girl, revealed by unilateral recurrent proptosis...
  4. Giguere C, Bauman N, Smith R. New treatment options for lymphangioma in infants and children. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2002;111:1066-75 pubmed
    ..We provide a complete review of the diagnostic measures available and thoroughly discuss new therapeutic interventions proposed to treat lymphangiomas...
  5. Revelles J, Diaz J, Angulo J, Santonja C, Kutzner H, Requena L. Giant benign lymphangioendothelioma. J Cutan Pathol. 2012;39:950-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In our case, the positivity for WT1 supports the neoplastic nature of this lesion...
  6. Wilson S, Bohrer S, Losada R, Price A. Retroperitoneal lymphangioma: an unusual location and presentation. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:603-5 pubmed
  7. Kalof A, Cooper K. D2-40 immunohistochemistry--so far!. Adv Anat Pathol. 2009;16:62-4 pubmed publisher
    ..its introduction, D2-40 immunoexpression has been described in a variety of lymphovascular neoplasms including lymphangioma, Kaposi sarcoma, and hemangioendothelioma, as well as nonvascular neoplasms such as epithelioid mesothelioma, ..
  8. Bruyére F, Noel A. Lymphangiogenesis: in vitro and in vivo models. FASEB J. 2010;24:8-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Their rationales and limitations are discussed and illustrated by the most informative findings obtained with them...
  9. Bruyére F, Melen Lamalle L, Blacher S, Detry B, Masset A, Lecomte J, et al. Does plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 drive lymphangiogenesis?. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9653 pubmed publisher
    ..PAI-1 deficiency did neither affect the development of lymphangioma nor burn-induced corneal lymphangiogenesis...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Sims S, McLean F, Davis J, Morgan L, Wilkinson E. Vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: a report of 3 cases, 2 associated with vulvar carcinoma and 1 with hidradenitis suppurativa. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2010;14:234-7 pubmed publisher
    Vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum is a rare, benign proliferation of the lymphatic system that presents a diagnostic and management challenge. It may be confused with condyloma acuminata, molluscum contagiosum, or other vulvar disorders...
  2. Papalas J, Robboy S, Burchette J, Foo W, Selim M. Acquired vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: a comparison of 12 cases with Crohn's associated lesions or radiation therapy induced tumors. J Cutan Pathol. 2010;37:958-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is a benign lesion of lymphatic origin. Vulvar involvement occurs in various clinical settings.
  3. Pennec P, Blanc J. Cardiac lymphangioma: a benign cardiac tumour. Eur Heart J. 2006;27:2913 pubmed
  4. Handra Luca A, Montgomery E. Vascular malformations and hemangiolymphangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract: morphological features and clinical impact. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2011;4:430-43 pubmed
    ..There was no statistical difference in occurrence of associated autoimmune, tumoral and cardiovascular conditions between the two patient groups...
  5. Hacker A, Hatzinger M, Grobholz R, Alken P, Hoang Böhm J. [Scrotal lymphangioma--a rare cause of acute scrotal pain in childhood]. Aktuelle Urol. 2006;37:445-8; quiz 421-2 pubmed
    Scrotal lymphangioma is a rare differential diagnosis in boys with acute scrotal pain.
  6. Fang Y, Qiu L, Du Y, Jiang Z, Gao M. Small intestinal hemolymphangioma with bleeding: a case report. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:2145-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To arrive at a definitive diagnosis and exclude malignancy, partial resection of the small intestine was considered to be the required treatment...
  7. Ahn S, Chang S, Choi J, Moon K, Koh J, Kim D. A case of unresectable lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva successfully treated with OK-432 in childhood. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;55:S106-7 pubmed
  8. Makh D, Mortimer P, Powell B. A review of the surgical treatment of vulval lymphangioma and lymphangiectasia: four case reviews. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59:1442-5 pubmed
    ..To evaluate whether surgical management of vulval lymphoedema and/or lymphangiectasia conveys any longstanding patient benefit...
  9. Ji R, Eshita Y, Xing L, Miura M. Multiple expressions of lymphatic markers and morphological evolution of newly formed lymphatics in lymphangioma and lymph node lymphangiogenesis. Microvasc Res. 2010;80:195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..injected incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) peritoneally into BALB/c and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice to induce lymphangioma and found atypical lymphatic accumulations with intervening fibrous tissue and lymphoid aggregates...
  10. Chung S, Park Y, Jo Y, Kim S, Jun D, Son B, et al. Asymptomatic lymphangioma involving the spleen and retroperitoneum in adults. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:5620-3 pubmed
    b>Lymphangioma, a benign neoplasm of the lymphatic system, is common in children but rare in adults. Its clinical manifestations include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and a palpable mass...
  11. Sylla P, Deutsch G, Luo J, Recavarren C, Kim S, Heimann T, et al. Cavernous, arteriovenous, and mixed hemangioma-lymphangioma of the rectosigmoid: rare causes of rectal bleeding--case series and review of the literature. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008;23:653-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, they may present with massive life-threatening hemorrhage...
  12. Ghaemmaghami F, Karimi Zarchi M, Mousavi A. Major labiaectomy as surgical management of vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: three cases and a review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;278:57-60 pubmed publisher
    Vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is a developmental defect of lymphatics in deep dermal and subcutaneous layers. The entity may be acquired that induced by surgical intervention and radiation therapy for malignancy or congenital...
  13. Niti K, Manish P. Microcystic lymphatic malformation (lymphangioma circumscriptum) treated using a minimally invasive technique of radiofrequency ablation and sclerotherapy. Dermatol Surg. 2010;36:1711-7 pubmed publisher
  14. Nobuhara Y, Onoda N, Fukai K, Hosomi N, Ishii M, Wakasa K, et al. TIE2 gain-of-function mutation in a patient with pancreatic lymphangioma associated with blue rubber-bleb nevus syndrome: report of a case. Surg Today. 2006;36:283-6 pubmed
    Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare tumor in adults. The most common location is the mesentery, but this tumor occasionally develops in the pancreas...
  15. Kim S, Shin E, Kim S, Shin J, Cheong J, Kim Y, et al. A case of cardiac lymphangioma presenting as a cystic mass in the right atrium. Yonsei Med J. 2007;48:1043-7 pubmed
    ..Complete resection was performed via a median sternotomy under cardiopulmonary bypass. The postoperative course was uneventful. However, the histological result was surprising: the mass was a cardiac lymphangioma.
  16. Aggarwal K, Gupta S, Jain V, Marwah N. Congenital lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva. Indian Pediatr. 2009;46:428-9 pubmed
    b>Lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva is a disorder of lymphatic channels involving deep dermal tissues. Most of these cases are confused with genital warts leading to improper diagnosis and treatment...
  17. Muramori K, Zaizen Y, Noguchi S. Abdominal lymphangioma in children: report of three cases. Surg Today. 2009;39:414-7 pubmed publisher
    Most cases of abdominal lymphangioma are asymptomatic. However, patients may occasionally present with acute abdomen because of an intestinal obstruction or peritonitis caused by infected cysts, hemorrhaging, and/or torsion...
  18. Thissen C, Sommer A. Treatment of lymphangioma circumscriptum with the intense pulsed light system. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46 Suppl 3:16-8 pubmed
    b>Lymphangioma circumscriptum is a superficial lymphatic malformation presenting with grouped translucent vesicles that often contain blood. In the past, several treatment modalities have been described...
  19. Kertész Z, Bala G, Bancu S, Gozar H, Virgil G, Horvath E, et al. [Bleomycin therapy for lymphangioma]. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2011;106:103-7 pubmed
    ..We report the cases of five patients, with congenital lymphangioma, localized on the leg, in cervical and latero-thoracal region, treated with repeated intralesional bleomycin ..
  20. Lanuza García A, Bañón Navarro R, Llorca Cardeñosa A, Delgado Navarro C. [Unsuccessful treatment with OK-432 picibanil for orbital lymphangioma]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2012;87:17-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Lymphangioma is a malformation of the lymphatic system. The classic approach is surgery. We report a case of orbital lymphangioma in a girl who was given OK-432 to avoid surgery and its complications.
  21. Mohanna S, Sanchez J, Ferrufino J, Bravo F, Gotuzzo E. Lymphangioma-like Kaposi's sarcoma: report of four cases and review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:1010-1 pubmed
  22. Erguney S, Teksoz S, Erdamar S, Ainechii S, Olgun D. Extended pancreaticoduodenectomy for a huge cystic-cavernous lymphangioma: a case report. JOP. 2012;13:289-91 pubmed
    Cystic-cavernous lymphangioma is a rare cystic tumor especially for adults and pancreas.
  23. Amouri M, Masmoudi A, Boudaya S, Amouri A, Ben Ali I, Bouassida S, et al. Acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva. Dermatol Online J. 2007;13:10 pubmed
    Lymphangiomas are rare benign proliferations of the lymphatic system. Acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva is induced by impaired lymph flow...
  24. Vurucu S, Battal B, Kocaoglu M, Akin R. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome with hemimegalencephaly, retroperitoneal lymphangioma and double inferior vena cava. Br J Radiol. 2009;82:e102-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to findings consistent with KTS, we also found hemimegalencephaly, retroperitoneal lymphangioma and double inferior vena cava...
  25. Toyoki Y, Hakamada K, Narumi S, Nara M, Kudoh D, Ishido K, et al. A case of invasive hemolymphangioma of the pancreas. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2932-4 pubmed
    ..However, we experienced a case of hemolymphangioma of the pancreas with gastrointestinal bleeding due to invasion to the duodenum. This disease is a very rare entity, but should be considered when patients have gastrointestinal bleeding...
  26. Jang J, Lee S, Ku Y, An C, Chang E. Small bowel volvulus induced by mesenteric lymphangioma in an adult: a case report. Korean J Radiol. 2009;10:319-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here on an unusual case of small bowel volvulus that was induced by a mesenteric lymphangioma in a 43-year-old man who suffered from repeated bouts of abdominal pain...
  27. Arpaia N, Cassano N, Vena G. Dermoscopic features of cutaneous lymphangioma circumscriptum. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:852-4 pubmed
    Cutaneous lymphangioma circumscriptum (CLC) is clinically characterized by clusters of translucent vesicles that may be filled by blood.
  28. Park J, Aubry M, Godfrey J, Midthun D. Mediastinal lymphangioma: Mayo Clinic experience of 25 cases. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81:1197-203 pubmed
    To describe the clinical findings, treatment outcomes, disease recurrence rates, and survival of patients with pathologically confirmed mediastinal and cervicomediastinal lymphangioma.
  29. Pereira F, Trindade S, Cruz A, Müller T. [Orbital lymphangioma: case report]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2010;73:84-7 pubmed
    A case of orbital lymphangioma in a 9 year-old female, with proptosis (Hertel= 29 mm), ocular motility restriction, pain and visual loss due to compressive optic neuropathy is described...
  30. Itakura E, Yamamoto H, Oda Y, Furue M, Tsuneyoshi M. VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in a series of lymphangiomas: is superficial lymphangioma a true lymphangioma?. Virchows Arch. 2009;454:317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The age of patients with lymphangioma circumscriptum or intraabdominal lymphangioma was significantly higher than in patients with cavernous ..
  31. Kim J, Yoo K, Moon J, Park K, Chung Y, Kim K, et al. Gallbladder lymphangioma: a case report and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:320-3 pubmed
    ..We experienced a case of a 60-year-old man diagnosed with a cystic lymphangioma of the gallbladder, which was successfully resected without any complication...
  32. Wang L, Chen L, Yang X, Gao T, Wang G. Benign lymphangioendothelioma: a clinical, histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of four cases. J Cutan Pathol. 2013;40:945-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical analysis has been lacking in most previously reported cases...
  33. Vikicevic J, Milobratovic D, Vukadinovic V, Golubovic Z, Krstic Z. Lymphangioma scroti. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24:654-6 pubmed
    ..Histopathologic examination showed scrotal lymphangioma cavernosum...
  34. Ghaemmaghami F, Karimi Zarchi M, Mousavi A. Surgical management of primary vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum and postradiation: case series and review of literature. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2008;15:205-8 pubmed publisher
    Vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum is a defect of lymphatics in the reticular dermis. It can occur as either acquired-induced by radical hysterectomy and pelvic radiation for cervical cancer-or congenital...
  35. Surlin V, Georgescu E, Dumitrescu C, Ramboiu S, Comănescu M, Ghiluşi M. Retropancreatic cystic lymphangioma - considerations upon a case. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2011;52:493-6 pubmed
    ..It was completely removed. Postoperative course was uneventful. Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of benign cystic lymphangioma. At 2 years of follow-up the patient was free of recidive.
  36. Lapidoth M, Ackerman L, Amitai D, Raveh E, Kalish E, David M. Treatment of lymphangioma circumscriptum with combined radiofrequency current and 900 nm diode laser. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:790-4 pubmed
    Laser treatment of lymphangioma circumscriptum is a major challenge because of the persistent nature of the disease and the large variations in lesion size, depth, and anatomic location.
  37. Ghaemmaghami F, Karimi Zarchi M. Giant vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum mimicking vulvar tumor: a case report and literature review. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2007;11:281-3 pubmed
    b>Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is a benign dilation of lymph channels localized to the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Primary vulvar involvement is very rare, with only 34 cases reported.
  38. Torashima Y, Yamaguchi J, Taniguchi K, Fujioka H, Shimokawa I, Izawa K, et al. Surgery for ileal mesenteric lymphangioma during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. J Gastrointest Surg. 2004;8:616-20 pubmed
    Mesenteric lymphangioma is one of the least frequently encountered types of benign tumor. This case report concerns a 31-year-old pregnant woman with a mesenteric cystic lymphangioma in the ileum...
  39. Matsuba Y, Mizuiri H, Murata T, Niimi K. Adult intussusception due to lymphangioma of the colon. J Gastroenterol. 2003;38:181-5 pubmed
    We present herein a case report of adult intussusception due to lymphangioma of the colon. On May 27, 2000, a 39-year-old woman with right lower abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital...
  40. Alaminos Mingorance M, Sánchez López Tello C, Castejon Casado J, Valladares Mendias J, Martínez Meca S. Scrotal lymphangioma in children. Urol Int. 1998;61:181-2 pubmed
    The intrascrotal localization of lymphangioma in children is uncommon, especially when the lymphangioma does not depend on testicular structures...
  41. Deshpande P, Twining P, O NEILL D. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal abdominal lymphangioma by ultrasonography. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001;17:445-8 pubmed
    We present a case of abdominal lymphangioma in a fetus together with a review of the literature. Diagnosis was made at 20 weeks' gestation by antenatal ultrasonography...
  42. El Hajj L, Mazieres J, Rouquette I, Mittaine M, Bolduc J, Didier A, et al. Diagnostic value of bronchoscopy, CT and transbronchial biopsies in diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis: case report and review of the literature. Clin Radiol. 2005;60:921-5 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis can be made by transbronchial biopsy without performing open lung biopsy which was, until now, considered necessary for diagnosis. ..
  43. Zukerberg L, Nickoloff B, Weiss S. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma of infancy and childhood. An aggressive neoplasm associated with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome and lymphangiomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 1993;17:321-8 pubmed
    ..Lymphangiomatosis consisted of diffusely infiltrating lymphangioma of soft tissue (three cases) and in two by the additional presence of bone lesions...
  44. Kwon A, Inui H, Tsuji K, Takai S, Imamura A, Kamiyama Y. Laparoscopic splenectomy for a lymphangioma of the spleen: report of a case. Surg Today. 2001;31:258-61 pubmed
    We present the first case report of a successful laparoscopic complete excision of a splenic lymphangioma. The splenic tumor was preoperatively diagnosed to be a lymphangioma by the combined modalities of ultrasonography, computed ..
  45. Jappe U, Zimmermann T, Kahle B, Petzoldt D. Lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva following surgical and radiological therapy of cervical cancer. Sex Transm Dis. 2002;29:533-5 pubmed
    b>Lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva rarely develops after postoperative pelvic irradiation. The goal was to describe two cases of lymphangioma circumscriptum and their treatment and present a brief review of the literature...
  46. Wilting J, Papoutsi M, Christ B, Nicolaides K, Von Kaisenberg C, Borges J, et al. The transcription factor Prox1 is a marker for lymphatic endothelial cells in normal and diseased human tissues. FASEB J. 2002;16:1271-3 pubmed
    ..VEGFR-3 and CD34 are less reliable markers for LECs and BECs, respectively, because exceptions from their normal expression patterns are found in pathologic tissues...
  47. Gurelik M, Ozum U, Erdogan H, Aslan A. Orbital lymphangioma and its association with intracranial venous angioma. Br J Neurosurg. 2004;18:168-70 pubmed
    Orbital lymphangioma is an uncommon, benign cystic lesion, generally manifest in childhood. It usually presents with a slowly progressive proptosis, displacement of the globe, ptosis and restriction of eye movements...
  48. Huilgol S, Neill S, Barlow R. CO(2) laser therapy of vulval lymphangiectasia and lymphangioma circumscriptum. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28:575-7 pubmed
    ..is a disorder of superficial lymphatics resulting from obstruction of previously normal deep lymphatics, while lymphangioma circumscriptum describes a deep dermal and subcutaneous lymphatic malformation with secondary superficial ..
  49. Taylor D, Loughrey C. Acute presentation of lymphangioma of the retroperitoneum. Ulster Med J. 2004;73:129-31 pubmed
  50. Goto H, Usui M, Okada S. Histopathological study of orbital lymphangioma in an infant. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2004;48:594-7 pubmed
    There has been controversy over whether orbital lymphangioma is a true entity in the orbit or various venous malformations.
  51. Gui L, Bigler S, Subramony C. Lymphangioma of the pancreas with "ovarian-like" mesenchymal stroma: a case report with emphasis on histogenesis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127:1513-6 pubmed
    ..We describe a 36-year-old woman with lymphangioma of the pancreas with "ovarian-like" mesenchymal stroma in the wall...
  52. Mar C, Pushpanathan C, Price D, Cramer B. Best cases from the AFIP: omental lymphangioma with small-bowel volvulus. Radiographics. 2003;23:847-51 pubmed
  53. Vachharajani A, Paes B. Orbital lymphangioma with non-contiguous cerebral arteriovenous malformation, manifesting with thrombocytopenia (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome) and intracerebral hemorrhage. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91:98-9 pubmed
    This study describes the first reported case in a preterm infant of an orbital lymphangioma with non-contiguous cerebral arteriovenous malformation, manifesting with thrombocytopenia (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome) and intracerebral hemorrhage...
  54. Bossert T, Gummert J, Mohr F. Giant cystic lymphangioma of the mediastinum. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;21:340 pubmed
  55. Whimster I. The pathology of lymphangioma circumscriptum. Br J Dermatol. 1976;94:473-86 pubmed
    A study of lymphangioma circumscriptum has been carried out over a number of years in an attempt to understand its nature and pathogenesis, with a view to improving treatment...
  56. Cherk M, Nikfarjam M, Christophi C. Retroperitoneal lymphangioma. Asian J Surg. 2006;29:51-4 pubmed
    ..A case of a retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma occurring in a 41-year-old woman raising interesting diagnostic and management issues is reported...
  57. Lee S, Cho J, Song M, Min J, Han B, Lee Y, et al. Prenatal ultrasound findings of fetal neoplasms. Korean J Radiol. 2002;3:64-73 pubmed
    ..During the last five years, we experienced 32 cases of fetal neoplasms in a variety of organs. We describe their typical ultrasonographic findings with correlating postnatal CT, MRI, and pathologic findings...
  58. Park C, Lee J, Kim S, Kim J. Sonographic findings of prenatal torsion of ovarian lymphangioma. J Clin Ultrasound. 2005;33:421-3 pubmed
    Ovarian cysts are primarily of follicular origin, and ovarian lymphangioma is an extremely rare lesion. Most ovarian cysts demonstrated on prenatal sonograms are asymptomatic and resolve antenatally...
  59. Huang H, Ho C, Huang P, Hsu S. Co-expression of VEGF-C and its receptors, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3, in endothelial cells of lymphangioma. Implication in autocrine or paracrine regulation of lymphangioma. Lab Invest. 2001;81:1729-34 pubmed
    b>Lymphangioma has long been thought of as congenital malformations resulting from the failure of lymphatic vessels communicating with the venous system in the fetal period...
  60. Baskin D, Tander B, Bankaoglu M. Local bleomycin injection in the treatment of lymphangioma. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2005;15:383-6 pubmed
    We report here our experience with local bleomycin injection in lymphangioma.
  61. Horn L, Kühndel K, Pawlowitsch T, Leo C, Einenkel J. Acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva mimicking genital warts. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005;123:118-20 pubmed
  62. Vavvas D, Fay A, Watkins L. Two cases of orbital lymphangioma associated with vascular abnormalities of the retina and iris. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:189-92 pubmed
    ..To report 2 patients with combined intraocular and orbital vascular abnormalities...
  63. Balderramo D, Di Tada C, de Ditter A, Mondino J. Hemolymphangioma of the pancreas: case report and review of the literature. Pancreas. 2003;27:197-9 pubmed
  64. Fontaliran F, Guillois B, Colin A, Blanc J, Chabaud J, Boog G, et al. [Congenital atrioventricular block and maternal lupus erythematosus. Histologic discovery of tumor of the atrioventricular node]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1989;82:609-13 pubmed
    ..The relationship between the two categories of lesions is discussed...