radiation induced leukemia


Summary: Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.

Top Publications

  1. Muirhead C. Studies on the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, and their use in estimating radiation risks. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;104:331-5 pubmed
    ..Continued follow-up of the survivors will be important in shedding further light on these issues...
  2. Hall E, Wuu C. Radiation-induced second cancers: the impact of 3D-CRT and IMRT. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;56:83-8 pubmed
    ..75% for patients surviving 10 years. The numbers may be larger for longer survival (or for younger patients), but the ratio should remain the same...
  3. Schüz J, Grigat J, Brinkmann K, Michaelis J. Residential magnetic fields as a risk factor for childhood acute leukaemia: results from a German population-based case-control study. Int J Cancer. 2001;91:728-35 pubmed
    ..Despite the large size of our study, the results are based on small numbers of exposed children. If the observed association stands, the effect on a population level in Germany would be small...
  4. Mezei G, Kheifets L. Selection bias and its implications for case-control studies: a case study of magnetic field exposure and childhood leukaemia. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:397-406 pubmed
    ..We call for better reporting and for evaluation of the potential for selection bias in all case-control studies, as well as, for the development of novel methods in control selection and recruitment...
  5. Kabuto M, Nitta H, Yamamoto S, Yamaguchi N, Akiba S, Honda Y, et al. Childhood leukemia and magnetic fields in Japan: a case-control study of childhood leukemia and residential power-frequency magnetic fields in Japan. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:643-50 pubmed
    ..Most of the leukemia cases in the highest exposure category had MF levels far above 0.4 microT. Our results provided additional evidence that high MF exposure was associated with a higher risk of childhood leukemia, particularly of ALL...
  6. Wakeford R. Childhood leukaemia following medical diagnostic exposure to ionizing radiation in utero or after birth. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;132:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This is unfortunate given the rise in relatively high dose diagnostic procedures (e.g. paediatric CT scans) that would be predicted to materially increase the relative risk of childhood leukaemia...
  7. Plumb M, Cleary H, Wright E. Genetic instability in radiation-induced leukaemias: mouse models. Int J Radiat Biol. 1998;74:711-20 pubmed
  8. Kaatsch P, Spix C, Schulze Rath R, Schmiedel S, Blettner M. Leukaemia in young children living in the vicinity of German nuclear power plants. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:721-6 pubmed
    ..Considering that there is no evidence of relevant accidents and that possible confounders could not be identified, the observed positive distance trend remains unexplained...
  9. Ishihara H, Tanaka I. Detection and cloning of unique integration sites of retrotransposon, intracisternal A-particle element in the genome of acute myeloid leukemia cells in mice. FEBS Lett. 1997;418:205-9 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that IAP-mediated retrotransposition occurs frequently in radiation-induced AML cells from C3H/He mice...

More Information


  1. Vrijheid M, Cardis E, Ashmore P, Auvinen A, Gilbert E, Habib R, et al. Ionizing radiation and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the 15-country study of nuclear industry workers. Radiat Res. 2008;170:661-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study had little power due to low doses, short follow-up periods, and uncertainties in CLL ascertainment from death certificates; an extended follow-up of the cohorts is merited and would ideally include incident cancer cases...
  2. Beaumont M, Sanz M, Carli P, Maloisel F, Thomas X, Detourmignies L, et al. Therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:2123-37 pubmed
    ..To analyze patient cases of therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia (tAPL), occurring after chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT) or both for a prior disorder, diagnosed during the last 20 years in three European countries...
  3. Guizard A, Boutou O, Pottier D, Troussard X, Pheby D, Launoy G, et al. The incidence of childhood leukaemia around the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant (France): a survey for the years 1978-1998. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001;55:469-74 pubmed
    ..A previous study has suggested an increased incidence rate of leukaemia from 1978 to 1992 in people aged 0 to 24 years and living in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant without considering age and cytological type...
  4. Kheifets L, Mezei G, Greenland S. Comment concerning "Childhood leukemia and residential magnetic fields: are pooled analyses more valid than the original studies?" (Bioelectromagnetics 27:1-7 [2006]). Bioelectromagnetics. 2006;27:674-5; discussion 675-6 pubmed
  5. Feizi A, Arabi M. Acute childhood leukemias and exposure to magnetic fields generated by high voltage overhead power lines - a risk factor in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007;8:69-72 pubmed
    ..Residence near very high voltage overhead power lines, in distances < or = 500 meters, and Magnetic Fields >0.45 microT, should be considered a risk factor for the pathogenesis of acute leukaemias in children...
  6. Damber L, Larsson L, Johansson L, Norin T. A cohort study with regard to the risk of haematological malignancies in patients treated with x-rays for benign lesions in the locomotor system. I. Epidemiological analyses. Acta Oncol. 1995;34:713-9 pubmed
    ..40 (1.00-1.92) and 1.50 (1.08-2.04). In the mortality analysis also a slightly increased myeloma risk was noted with SMR = 1.20 (0.99-1.56). Extension of the cohort and nested case-control studies are under progress...
  7. Laurier D, Grosche B, Hall P. Risk of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear installations--findings and recent controversies. Acta Oncol. 2002;41:14-24 pubmed
    ..Some elements should also be suggested from the recent French and German experiences to reinforce credibility in the results...
  8. Yoshida K, Hirabayashi Y, Watanabe F, Sado T, Inoue T. Caloric restriction prevents radiation-induced myeloid leukemia in C3H/HeMs mice and inversely increases incidence of tumor-free death: implications in changes in number of hemopoietic progenitor cells. Exp Hematol. 2006;34:274-83 pubmed
    ..In this report, CalR before and after irradiation was examined to determine whether they exert different effects on the prevention of radiation-induced myeloid leukemogenesis and the consequent extension of life span by CalR...
  9. Lopez Abente G, Aragones N, Pollan M, Ruiz M, Gandarillas A. Leukemia, lymphomas, and myeloma mortality in the vicinity of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel facilities in Spain. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8:925-34 pubmed
    ..More specific studies are called for in areas near installations that have been fully operational for longer periods. In this connection, stress should be laid on the importance of using dosimetric information in all future studies...
  10. Ishihara H, Tanaka I, Wan H, Nojima K, Yoshida K. Retrotransposition of limited deletion type of intracisternal A-particle elements in the myeloid leukemia Clls of C3H/He mice. J Radiat Res. 2004;45:25-32 pubmed
    ..This indicates that limited populations of the IAP elements contribute to the unique retrotransposition in AML cells...
  11. Morgan W. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: II. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vivo, clastogenic factors and transgenerational effects. Radiat Res. 2003;159:581-96 pubmed
    ..These effects pose new challenges to evaluating the risk(s) associated with radiation exposure and understanding radiation-induced carcinogenesis...
  12. Schüz J, Ahlbom A. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of childhood leukaemia: a review. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;132:202-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies on mobile phone use and leukaemia risk in adolescents and young adults may be indicated...
  13. Laurier D, Jacob S, Bernier M, Leuraud K, Metz C, Samson E, et al. Epidemiological studies of leukaemia in children and young adults around nuclear facilities: a critical review. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;132:182-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Many studies were launched to investigate possible origins of the observed clusters around specific sites, but up to now, none of the proposed hypotheses have explained them...
  14. Tanaka I, Ishihara H. Unusual long target duplication by insertion of intracisternal A-particle element in radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia cells in mouse. FEBS Lett. 1995;376:146-50 pubmed
    ..This suggests the possibility of a radiation-induced integration mechanism which is distinct from normal retrotransmission...
  15. Maslanyj M, Mee T, Renew D, Simpson J, Ansell P, Allen S, et al. Investigation of the sources of residential power frequency magnetic field exposure in the UK Childhood Cancer Study. J Radiol Prot. 2007;27:41-58 pubmed
    ..Further investigations would be necessary to determine whether this is feasible...
  16. Wakeford R, Little M. Risk coefficients for childhood cancer after intrauterine irradiation: a review. Int J Radiat Biol. 2003;79:293-309 pubmed
  17. White Koning M, Hemon D, Laurier D, Tirmarche M, Jougla E, Goubin A, et al. Incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear sites in France, 1990-1998. Br J Cancer. 2004;91:916-22 pubmed
    ..No evidence was found of a generally increased risk of childhood leukaemia around the 29 French nuclear sites under study during 1990-1998...
  18. Hattchouel J, Laplanche A, Hill C. Leukaemia mortality around French nuclear sites. Br J Cancer. 1995;71:651-3 pubmed
    ..15) estimated according to national mortality statistics. There was no difference in the risks of leukaemia mortality according to sex, age, type of installation and no trend with an increasing distance from installations...
  19. Laurier D, Hemon D, Clavel J. Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants. J Radiol Prot. 2008;28:401-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These results do not indicate an excess risk of leukaemia in young children living near French nuclear power plants...
  20. Schüz J, Svendsen A, Linet M, McBride M, Roman E, Feychting M, et al. Nighttime exposure to electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia: an extended pooled analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166:263-9 pubmed
    ..These results do not support the hypotheses that nighttime measures are more appropriate; hence, the observed association between ELF EMF and childhood leukemia still lacks a plausible explanation...
  21. Nakamura N. A hypothesis: radiation-related leukemia is mainly attributable to the small number of people who carry pre-existing clonally expanded preleukemic cells. Radiat Res. 2005;163:258-65 pubmed
    ..e. the great majority) are likely at low risk of developing leukemia. The hypothesis can also be applied to chronic myelogenous leukemia and to young-at-exposure cases of acute myelogenous leukemia...
  22. Moysich K, Menezes R, Michalek A. Chernobyl-related ionising radiation exposure and cancer risk: an epidemiological review. Lancet Oncol. 2002;3:269-79 pubmed
    ..Among adult populations, there is no strong evidence to suggest that risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia, or other malignant disease has increased as a result of the Chernobyl accident...
  23. Shearer P, Kapoor G, Beckwith J, Takashima J, Breslow N, Green D. Secondary acute myelogenous leukemia in patients previously treated for childhood renal tumors: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001;23:109-11 pubmed
    ..The development of secondary AML in this subset of patients after treatment of renal neoplasms may reflect the interaction of the effects of treatment and possible genetic predisposition toward cancer. ..
  24. Kesminiene A, Cardis E, Tenet V, Ivanov V, Kurtinaitis J, Malakhova I, et al. Studies of cancer risk among Chernobyl liquidators: materials and methods. J Radiol Prot. 2002;22:A137-41 pubmed
  25. Plumb M. Comments on the paper: Microsatellite instability in acute myelocytic leukaemia developed from A-bomb survivors--a biological perspective. Int J Radiat Biol. 2003;79:367-70; author reply 371-4 pubmed
  26. Hashibe M, Ritz B, Le A, Li G, Sankaranarayanan R, Zhang Z. Radiotherapy for oral cancer as a risk factor for second primary cancers. Cancer Lett. 2005;220:185-95 pubmed
    ..Further studies that account for chemotherapy and examine frequency and duration of radiotherapy would be of interest in confirming the observed association. ..
  27. Ha M, Im H, Lee M, Kim H, Kim B, Gimm Y, et al. Radio-frequency radiation exposure from AM radio transmitters and childhood leukemia and brain cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166:270-9 pubmed
    ..39 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.86) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.11) for children in the second and third quartiles, respectively, versus the lowest quartile. Brain cancer and infantile cancer were not associated with AM RFR. ..
  28. Nomura T. Paternal exposure to radiation and offspring cancer in mice: reanalysis and new evidence. J Radiat Res. 1991;32 Suppl 2:64-72 pubmed
    ..04 Gy of X-rays, respectively, showing a marked difference in the sensitivity to the leukemia induction by radiation between mouse strains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  29. Humphreys J, Priest N, Ishikawa Y. Thorotrast distribution in monkey bone marrow at early and late times after injection. Health Phys. 1998;74:442-7 pubmed
  30. Möhner M, Lindtner M, Otten H, Gille H. Leukemia and exposure to ionizing radiation among German uranium miners. Am J Ind Med. 2006;49:238-48 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the study does not support the hypothesis of an association between exposure to short-lived radon progeny and leukemia risk. ..
  31. Busby C. Is there a sea coast effect on childhood leukaemia in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, 1975-2002?. Occup Environ Med. 2008;65:286; author reply 286-7 pubmed publisher
  32. Meruelo D, Rossomando A, Scandalis S, D EUSTACHIO P, Fournier R, Roop D, et al. Assignment of the Ly-6--Ril-1--Sis--H-30--Pol-5/Xmmv-72--Ins-3--Krt-1--Int-1 --Gdc-1 region to mouse chromosome 15. Immunogenetics. 1987;25:361-72 pubmed
    ..C-H-30c, C3H.B-Ly-6b, and C57BL/6By-Eh/+ congenic mouse strains and in situ hybridization experiments support the above gene order and indicate further that the cluster is located on distal chromosome 15, with Ly-6 and Sis near Eh. ..
  33. Haran Ghera N, Krautghamer R, Lapidot T, Peled A, Dominguez M, Stanley E. Increased circulating colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) in SJL/J mice with radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with autocrine regulation of AML cells by CSF-1. Blood. 1997;89:2537-45 pubmed
    ..Studies in humans have shown that patients with AML possess elevated levels of circulating CSF-1 and that AML cells can express CSF-1 and the CSF-1R. Thus, RI-AML in the SJL/J mouse appears to be a useful model for human AML. ..
  34. Pegram L, Megonigal M, Lange B, Nowell P, Rowley J, Rappaport E, et al. t(3;11) translocation in treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia fuses MLL with the GMPS (GUANOSINE 5' MONOPHOSPHATE SYNTHETASE) gene. Blood. 2000;96:4360-2 pubmed
    ..Guanosine monophosphate synthetase is essential for de novo purine synthesis. GMPS is the first partner gene of MLL on chromosome 3q and the first gene of this type in leukemia-associated translocations. (Blood. 2000;96:4360-4362) ..
  35. Lightfoot T, Roman E. Causes of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;199:104-17 pubmed
  36. Germonneau P, Castor C. [Cancer incidence and mortality among persons having been exposed to ionizing waves in a school in Val-de-Marne]. Sante Publique. 2006;18:401-11 pubmed
    ..The difficulties met by the authors justify that when faced with similar problems in the future, greater attention should be paid to the feasibility study before any involvement or action. ..
  37. Cattanach B, Papworth D, Patrick G, Goodhead D, Hacker T, Cobb L, et al. Investigation of lung tumour induction in C3H/HeH mice, with and without tumour promotion with urethane, following paternal X-irradiation. Mutat Res. 1998;403:1-12 pubmed
  38. Pearson T, Messinezy M. Idiopathic erythrocytosis, diagnosis and clinical management. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2001;49:170-7 pubmed
    ..54 should be venesected to a PCV less than 0.45. This target PCV should also apply to patients with lesser degrees of raised PCV who have additional other risk factors for vascular occlusion. ..
  39. Laurier D, Valenty M, Tirmarche M. Radon exposure and the risk of leukemia: a review of epidemiological studies. Health Phys. 2001;81:272-88 pubmed
    ..Our conclusion is that the overall epidemiologic results currently available do not provide evidence for an association between radon exposure and leukemia. ..
  40. Muirhead C, Bingham D, Haylock R, O Hagan J, Goodill A, Berridge G, et al. Follow up of mortality and incidence of cancer 1952-98 in men from the UK who participated in the UK's atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60:165-72 pubmed
    ..However, the possibility that test participation caused a small absolute risk of leukaemia other than CLL cannot be ruled out. ..
  41. Finch S. Myelodysplasia and radiation. Radiat Res. 2004;161:603-6 pubmed
    ..Reasons are given why myelodysplasia should be considered in any assessment in humans of radiation exposure as an etiological factor for the development of leukemia. ..
  42. Zeeb H, Blettner M. Adult leukaemia: what is the role of currently known risk factors?. Radiat Environ Biophys. 1998;36:217-28 pubmed
    ..Future research should emphasize the shortcomings in exposure assessment that pervade many studies, and interactions between different risk factors need to be taken into consideration. ..
  43. Little J, McLaughlin J, Miller A. Leukaemia in young children living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:x-xi pubmed
  44. Yoshida K, Inoue T, Nojima K, Hirabayashi Y, Sado T. Calorie restriction reduces the incidence of myeloid leukemia induced by a single whole-body radiation in C3H/He mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:2615-9 pubmed
  45. Kavet R, Daigle J, Zaffanella L. Residential magnetic fields, contact voltage and their relationship: the effects of distribution unbalance and residential proximity to a transmission line. Health Phys. 2006;91:592-607 pubmed
  46. Hunacek M, Kathren R. Alpha radiation risk coefficients for liver cancer, bone sarcomas, and leukemia. Health Phys. 1995;68:41-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the BEIR IV risk coefficient for bone sarcomas may be too high, and that for leukemia may be too low. ..
  47. Coates P, Robinson J, Lorimore S, Wright E. Ongoing activation of p53 pathway responses is a long-term consequence of radiation exposure in vivo and associates with altered macrophage activities. J Pathol. 2008;214:610-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The data implicate persistent activation of inflammatory-type responses in irradiated tissues as a contributory bystander mechanism for causing delayed DNA damage. ..
  48. Ivanov V, Gorskiĭ A, Tsyb A, Khaut S. [Incidence of post-Chernobyl leukemia and thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the Briansk region: evaluation of radiation risks]. Vopr Onkol. 2003;49:445-9 pubmed
    ..The findings are clearly indicative of exposure to radiation being a factor of higher thyroid cancer incidence in children and adolescents in Bryansk region. ..
  49. Jawad M, Cole C, Zanker A, Lo P, Fitch S, Plumb M. Evidence for clustered tumour suppressor gene loci on mouse chromosomes 2 and 4 in radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia. Int J Radiat Biol. 2006;82:383-91 pubmed
    ..Allelic loss in mouse r-AML and subsequent tumour suppressor gene mutation (PU1) or silencing (Pax5) is strongly influenced by genetic background and/or epigenetic factors, and driven by in vivo clonal selection. ..
  50. Schmitz Feuerhake I, von Boetticher H, Dannheim B, Gotz K, Heimers A, Hoffmann W, et al. Estimation of x ray overexposure in a childhood leukaemia cluster by means of chromosome aberration analysis. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2002;98:291-7 pubmed
    ..An overexposure of about 12-fold could be derived compared to state of the art X raying. At least two cases of the leukaemia cluster in Sittensen can therefore be correlated to an overexposure by diagnostic X rays. ..
  51. Volpato C, Martínez Alfaro M, Corvi R, Gabus C, Sauvaigo S, Ferrari P, et al. Enhanced sensitivity of the RET proto-oncogene to ionizing radiation in vitro. Cancer Res. 2008;68:8986-92 pubmed publisher
    ..RET was more susceptible to fragmentation in the thyroid-derived cells than in lymphoblasts. This enhanced susceptibility of RET to ionizing radiation suggests the possibility of using it as a radiation exposure marker. ..
  52. Howe G. Leukemia following the Chernobyl accident. Health Phys. 2007;93:512-5 pubmed
    ..However, it is important to carry on with such studies to satisfy various public health objectives. ..
  53. van Kaick G, Dalheimer A, Hornik S, Kaul A, Liebermann D, Luhrs H, et al. The german thorotrast study: recent results and assessment of risks. Radiat Res. 1999;152:S64-71 pubmed
    ..For hematopoietic malignancies, the cumulative risk was calculated to be about 7 per 10(4) person Sv (radiation weighting factor = 20). This risk estimate is lower by a factor of 10 compared to the results of the Life Span Study. ..
  54. Yoshida K, Hirabayashi Y, Wada S, Watanabe F, Watanabe K, Aizawa S, et al. p53 (TRP53) deficiency-mediated antiapoptosis escape after 5 Gy X irradiation still induces stem cell leukemia in C3H/He mice: comparison between whole-body assay and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) assay. Radiat Res. 2007;167:703-10 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the target cells for radiation-induced stem cell leukemias may be p53-deficient hematopoietic stem cells...
  55. Nakanishi M, Tanaka K, Shintani T, Takahashi T, Kamada N. Chromosomal instability in acute myelocytic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome patients among atomic bomb survivors. J Radiat Res. 1999;40:159-67 pubmed
    ..These chromosomal instability suggested that the leukemic cells from the heavily exposed patients contained persistent cellular genetic instability which may strongly influence the development of leukemia in people exposed to radiation...
  56. Woo T, Pignol J, Rakovitch E, Vu T, Hicks D, O BRIEN P, et al. Body radiation exposure in breast cancer radiotherapy: impact of breast IMRT and virtual wedge compensation techniques. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;65:52-8 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to evaluate the radiation body exposure during breast radiotherapy and to characterize the factors associated with an increased exposure...
  57. Schüz J, Philipp J, Merzenich H, Schmiedel S, Brüggemeyer H. Re: "Radio-frequency radiation exposure from AM radio transmitters and childhood leukemia and brain cancer". Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167:883-4 pubmed publisher
  58. Bailey W, Wagner M. IARC evaluation of ELF magnetic fields: public understanding of the 0.4-microT exposure metric. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2008;18:233-5 pubmed publisher
  59. Binhi V. Do naturally occurring magnetic nanoparticles in the human body mediate increased risk of childhood leukaemia with EMF exposure?. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008;84:569-79 pubmed publisher
  60. Ishihara H, Yoshida K, Nemoto K, Tsuneoka K, Shikita M. Constitutive overexpression of the c-fos gene in radiation-induced granulocytic leukemia in mice. Radiat Res. 1993;135:394-9 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the persistent expression of c-fos is distinguished from its transient expression and is characteristic for granulocytic leukemia cells as it is for normal mature granulocytes...
  61. Nakanishi M, Tanaka K, Takahashi T, Kyo T, Dohy H, Fujiwara M, et al. Microsatellite instability in acute myelocytic leukaemia developed from A-bomb survivors. Int J Radiat Biol. 2001;77:687-94 pubmed
    ..To investigate MSI in A-bomb survivors, leukaemic cells were analysed from 13 acute myelocytic leukaemia patients with a history of radiation exposure and also in 12 de novo patients...
  62. Shuryak I, Sachs R, Hlatky L, Little M, Hahnfeldt P, Brenner D. Radiation-induced leukemia at doses relevant to radiation therapy: modeling mechanisms and estimating risks. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98:1794-806 pubmed
    ..This earlier model predicted the risks of solid tumors induced by radiation therapy but overestimated the corresponding leukemia risks...
  63. Andersson M, Storm H, Mouridsen H. Carcinogenic effects of adjuvant tamoxifen treatment and radiotherapy for early breast cancer. Acta Oncol. 1992;31:259-63 pubmed
    ..11). The cumulative risk of non-lymphocytic leukaemia was 0.9% and 0.1% among irradiated and non-irradiated patients respectively (p = 0.4). Prolonged follow-up of tamoxifen-treated patients with regard to new tumours is recommended...
  64. Katayama H, Matsuura M, Endo S, Hoshi M, Ohtaki M, Hayakawa N. Reassessment of the cancer mortality risk among Hiroshima atomic-bomb survivors using a new dosimetry system, ABS2000D, compared with ABS93D. J Radiat Res. 2002;43:53-64 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is indicated that a modification of the neutron-dose estimates would not markedly change the conclusions about the cancer mortality risk...
  65. Mosavi Jarrahi A, Mohagheghi M, Kalaghchi B, Mousavi Jarrahi Y, Kolahi A, Noori M. Estimating the incidence of leukemia attributable to occupational exposure in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2009;10:67-70 pubmed
    ..The aim this study was to estimate the fraction of leukemia incidence in Iran attributable to occupational exposure to benzene, ionizing radiation, and ethylene oxide...
  66. de Witte T, Oosterveld M, Span B, Muus P, Schattenberg A. Stem cell transplantation for leukemias following myelodysplastic syndromes or secondary to cytotoxic therapy. Rev Clin Exp Hematol. 2002;6:72-85; discussion 86-7 pubmed
    ..The advice is to treat patients early after diagnosis and preferably before progression as these patients have the highest chance of a favorable outcome...
  67. Zonenberg A, Zarzycki W, Leoniak M. [The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of malignant diseases--situation after 20 years]. Endokrynol Pol. 2006;57:244-52 pubmed
    ..In this article the epidemiology of thyroid diseases in Poland was also reviewed...
  68. Roman E, Doyle P, Maconochie N, Davies G, Smith P, Beral V. Cancer in children of nuclear industry employees: report on children aged under 25 years from nuclear industry family study. BMJ. 1999;318:1443-50 pubmed
    ..To determine whether children of men and women occupationally exposed to ionising radiation are at increased risk of developing leukaemia or other cancers before their 25th birthday...
  69. Kido C, Sasaki F, Hirota Y, Kiyosawa K, Hayashi S, Mori T, et al. Cancer mortality of thorotrast patients in Japan: the second series updated 1998. Radiat Res. 1999;152:S81-3 pubmed
    ..0 times higher in Thorotrast patients compared to controls; this was statistically significant. Rate ratios for liver cancer, liver cirrhosis and leukemia were 35.0, 7.5 and 18.2, respectively...
  70. Merchant S, Schlette E, Sanger W, Lai R, Medeiros L. Mature B-cell leukemias with more than 55% prolymphocytes: report of 2 cases with Burkitt lymphoma-type chromosomal translocations involving c-myc. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127:305-9 pubmed
    ..We have encountered 2 such cases in which conventional cytogenetic analysis identified Burkitt lymphoma-type chromosomal translocations involving 8q24...
  71. Cleary H, Boulton E, Plumb M. Allelic loss on chromosome 4 (Lyr2/TLSR5) is associated with myeloid, B-lympho-myeloid, and lymphoid (B and T) mouse radiation-induced leukemias. Blood. 2001;98:1549-54 pubmed
  72. Brain J, Kavet R, McCormick D, Poole C, Silverman L, Smith T, et al. Childhood leukemia: electric and magnetic fields as possible risk factors. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111:962-70 pubmed
  73. Little M, Wakeford R, Lubin J, Kendall G. The statistical power of epidemiological studies analyzing the relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and cancer, with special reference to childhood leukemia and natural background radiation. Radiat Res. 2010;174:387-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Sufficiently large studies should be capable of detecting the predicted risk attributable to natural background radiation. ..
  74. Balonov M, Alexakhin R, Bouville A, Liljinzin J. Report from the techa river dosimetry review workshop held on 8-10 December 2003 at The State Research Centre Institute of Biophysics, Moscow, Russia. Health Phys. 2006;90:97-113 pubmed
  75. Vastag B. [Electromagnetic fields at home have leukemia risks for children]. Servir. 2002;50:42-3 pubmed
  76. Hirose Y, Konda S, Sasaki K, Konishi F, Takazakura E. Erythroleukemia and gastric cancer following thorotrast injection. Jpn J Med. 1991;30:43-6 pubmed
    ..He also had differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma of the posterior wall of the stomach...
  77. Milham S, Ossiander E. Historical evidence that residential electrification caused the emergence of the childhood leukemia peak. Med Hypotheses. 2001;56:290-5 pubmed
    ..The childhood leukemia peak of common acute lymphoblastic leukemia may be attributable to electrification...
  78. Ono M, Watanabe T, Shimizu C, Hiramoto N, Goto Y, Yonemori K, et al. Therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia caused by hormonal therapy and radiation in a patient with recurrent breast cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2008;38:567-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This patient is thought to be a rare case of secondary leukemia, since the leukemia might have been caused by hormonal therapy and regional radiation without chemotherapy...
  79. Rithidech K, Dunn J, Roe B, Gordon C, Cronkite E. Evidence for two commonly deleted regions on mouse chromosome 2 in gamma ray-induced acute myeloid leukemic cells. Exp Hematol. 2002;30:564-70 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to delineate a precise molecular map of the commonly deleted region (CDR) on mouse chr2 in radiation-induced mouse acute myeloid leukemic (AML) cells...
  80. Draper G, Little M, Sorahan T, Kinlen L, Bunch K, Conquest A, et al. Cancer in the offspring of radiation workers: a record linkage study. BMJ. 1997;315:1181-8 pubmed
  81. Hromas R, Busse T, Carroll A, Mack D, Shopnick R, Zhang D, et al. Fusion AML1 transcript in a radiation-associated leukemia results in a truncated inhibitory AML1 protein. Blood. 2001;97:2168-70 pubmed
    ..This fusion AML1 protein functions as an inhibitor of the normal AML1 protein. (Blood. 2001;97:2168-2170)..
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