gastrinoma

Summary

Summary: A GASTRIN-secreting neuroendocrine tumor of the non-beta ISLET CELLS, the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS. This type of tumor is primarily located in the PANCREAS or the DUODENUM. Majority of gastrinomas are malignant. They metastasize to the LIVER; LYMPH NODES; and BONE but rarely elsewhere. The presence of gastrinoma is one of three requirements to be met for identification of ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME, which sometimes occurs in families with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1; (MEN 1).

Top Publications

  1. Tonelli F, Fratini G, Nesi G, Tommasi M, Batignani G, Falchetti A, et al. Pancreatectomy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-related gastrinomas and pancreatic endocrine neoplasias. Ann Surg. 2006;244:61-70 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of pancreatic resection in pancreatic endocrine neoplasias (PENs) in patients affected by multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome...
  2. Odelowo O, Nidiry J, Zulu S. Primary lymph node gastrinoma: a case report. J Natl Med Assoc. 2003;95:168-71 pubmed
    ..Here we present a case of a primary gastrinoma within a lymph node.
  3. Nishio K, Nishio A, Nishikawa T, Kobashi Y, Matsusue S. Recurrent gastrinoma in the mesentery 19 years after primary resection. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52:3104-8 pubmed
  4. Berna M, Hoffmann K, Serrano J, Gibril F, Jensen R. Serum gastrin in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: I. Prospective study of fasting serum gastrin in 309 patients from the National Institutes of Health and comparison with 2229 cases from the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2006;85:295-330 pubmed
    ..Although many studies have analyzed FSG levels in patients with gastrinoma, limited information has resulted from these studies because of their small size, different methodologies, and ..
  5. Ellison E, Sparks J, Verducci J, Johnson J, Muscarella P, Bloomston M, et al. 50-year appraisal of gastrinoma: recommendations for staging and treatment. J Am Coll Surg. 2006;202:897-905 pubmed
    b>Gastrinoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor associated with ulcerogenic syndrome...
  6. Ding W, Kuntz S, Böhmig M, Wiedenmann B, Miller L. Dominant negative action of an abnormal secretin receptor arising from mRNA missplicing in a gastrinoma. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:500-11 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to explore the molecular basis for positive and false-negative secretin-stimulation test results in patients with these tumors...
  7. Norton J, Jensen R. Resolved and unresolved controversies in the surgical management of patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Ann Surg. 2004;240:757-73 pubmed
    ..Highlight unresolved controversies in the management of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES)...
  8. Ellison E, Sparks J. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in the era of effective acid suppression: are we unknowingly growing tumors?. Am J Surg. 2003;186:245-8 pubmed
    Effective medical therapy of gastric hypersecretion in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome may delay the diagnosis of gastrinoma. To examine the impact of effective medical therapy on the surgical treatment of gastrinoma we reviewed the records of ..
  9. Kloppel G, Anlauf M. Gastrinoma--morphological aspects. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119:579-84 pubmed
    ..The prognosis of duodenal gastrinomas is better than that of pancreatic gastrinomas, since despite early lymph node metastasis they progress slowly to liver metastasis...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Jensen R, Niederle B, Mitry E, Ramage J, Steinmuller T, Lewington V, et al. Gastrinoma (duodenal and pancreatic). Neuroendocrinology. 2006;84:173-82 pubmed
  2. Hughes S. Canine gastrinoma: a case study and literature review of therapeutic options. N Z Vet J. 2006;54:242-7 pubmed
    ..A 6.2 kg, 8-year-old, spayed female Australian Terrier was presented with weight loss, inappetence, lethargy and a 2-day history of intermittent vomiting...
  3. Gibril F, Jensen R. Advances in evaluation and management of gastrinoma in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2005;7:114-21 pubmed
    ..Recently, a number of important studies have examined their molecular pathogenesis and natural history and provided important guidelines for their treatment. Each of these areas is briefly reviewed in this article...
  4. Anlauf M, Perren A, Kloppel G. Endocrine precursor lesions and microadenomas of the duodenum and pancreas with and without MEN1: criteria, molecular concepts and clinical significance. Pathobiology. 2007;74:279-84 pubmed
    ..Whether these types of microadenomatosis represent novel disease entities and how to diagnose and treat these patients remains to be clarified by further studies...
  5. Kann P. The value of endoscopic ultrasound in localizing gastrinoma. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119:585-7 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, in certain conditions endoscopic ultrasound may yield important information, besides detection of the primary tumor for example about structures suspected to be metastases in the region of the gastrinoma triangle.
  6. Lodish M, Powell A, Abu Asab M, Cochran C, Lenz P, Libutti S, et al. Insulinoma and gastrinoma syndromes from a single intrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:1123-8 pubmed publisher
    The insulinoma syndrome is marked by fasting hypoglycemia and inappropriate elevations of insulin. The gastrinoma syndrome is characterized by hypergastrinemia, ulcer disease, and/or diarrhea...
  7. Wild A, Langer P, Celik I, Chaloupka B, Bartsch D. Chromosome 22q in pancreatic endocrine tumors: identification of a homozygous deletion and potential prognostic associations of allelic deletions. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002;147:507-13 pubmed
    ..A variety of human tumors frequently show allelic deletions of chromosome 22q, suggesting that inactivation of one or more tumor suppressor genes in this region is important for their tumorigenesis...
  8. Ehehalt F, Saeger H, Schmidt C, Grutzmann R. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Oncologist. 2009;14:456-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgery remains the primary therapeutic option for patients with PNETs. Research on PNETs is desperately needed to improve the therapeutic options for patients with this disease...
  9. Debray M, Geoffroy O, Laissy J, Lebtahi R, Silbermann Hoffman O, Henry Feugeas M, et al. Imaging appearances of metastases from neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreas. Br J Radiol. 2001;74:1065-70 pubmed
    ..This pictorial review shows the typical radiological features of ETP metastases and emphasizes the role of different imaging modalities...
  10. Shojamanesh H, Gibril F, Louie A, Ojeaburu J, Bashir S, Abou Saif A, et al. Prospective study of the antitumor efficacy of long-term octreotide treatment in patients with progressive metastatic gastrinoma. Cancer. 2002;94:331-43 pubmed
    ..little information exists regarding their efficacy or effect on survival in patients with progressive malignant gastrinoma, the most common symptomatic malignant PET...
  11. Konturek S, Konturek P, Bielański W, Lorens K, Sito E, Konturek J, et al. Case presentation of gastrinoma combined with gastric carcinoid with the longest survival record -- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8:CS43-59 pubmed
    ..Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a very rare disease caused by tumor with gastrin producing cells accompanied by hypergastrinemia leading to gastric hypersecretion and peptic ulcers and their complications...
  12. Fukushima R, Ichikawa K, Hirabayashi M, Yamagami T, Koyama H, Hirose H, et al. A case of canine gastrinoma. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:993-5 pubmed
    ..echo-levels were disclosed by pancreas ultrasonography, serum gastrin level was determined with a suspect of gastrinoma. And an increase of serum gastrin was demonstrated...
  13. Gibril F, Venzon D, Ojeaburu J, Bashir S, Jensen R. Prospective study of the natural history of gastrinoma in patients with MEN1: definition of an aggressive and a nonaggressive form. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:5282-93 pubmed
    ..The identification of prognostic factors that identify this group will be important clinically in allowing more aggressive treatment options to be instituted earlier...
  14. Norton J, Fang T, Jensen R. Surgery for gastrinoma and insulinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2006;4:148-53 pubmed
    ..b>Gastrinoma and insulinoma are the 2 most common functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with multiple ..
  15. Gibril F, Jensen R. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome revisited: diagnosis, biologic markers, associated inherited disorders, and acid hypersecretion. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2004;6:454-63 pubmed
    ..Finally, almost every patient with ZES has marked gastric acid hypersecretion, and its current treatment as well as the long-term possible side effects are reviewed briefly...
  16. Price T, Thompson G, Lewis J, Lloyd R, Young W. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome due to primary gastrinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tree: three case reports and review of literature. Endocr Pract. 2009;15:737-49 pubmed publisher
    ..To report 3 cases of primary neuroendocrine tumors (PNT) of the extrahepatic biliary tree (EHBT) in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES), 2 of whom had multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1)...
  17. Bartsch D, Langer P, Rothmund M. Surgical aspects of gastrinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119:602-8 pubmed
    b>Gastrinoma is the most frequent functional pancreaticoduodenal endocrine tumor in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and one major determinant of mortality in this syndrome...
  18. Corbetta S, Peracchi M, Cappiello V, Lania A, Lauri E, Vago L, et al. Circulating ghrelin levels in patients with pancreatic and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: identification of one pancreatic ghrelinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:3117-20 pubmed
    ..carcinoid (10 with midgut and 6 with gastric carcinoid), 24 patients with pancreatic tumor (8 with gastrinoma, 2 with insulinoma, 2 with vipoma, 1 with glucagonoma, and 11 with nonfunctioning tumor), and 35 healthy ..
  19. Park S, Rhee Y, Youn J, Park Y, Lee S, Kim D, et al. Ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to concurrent corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreted by malignant gastrinoma. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007;115:13-6 pubmed
    ..This report demonstrates concurrent ACTH- and CRH-related ectopic Cushing's syndrome caused by malignant gastrinoma with multiple liver metastases that was treated with marginal success using a multidisciplinary medical approach.
  20. Saijo F, Naito H, Funayama Y, Fukushima K, Shibata C, Hashimoto A, et al. Octreotide in control of multiple liver metastases from gastrinoma. J Gastroenterol. 2003;38:905-8 pubmed
    ..analogue octreotide was effective in controlling systemic effects related to multiple liver metastases from a gastrinoma. A 61-year-old man underwent distal gastrectomy for gastrinoma in the duodenum, because a curative resection was ..
  21. van Santen S, Van Soest E, Busch O, van Eeden S, Fockens P. [A woman with shock as first sign of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007;151:478-83 pubmed
    ..Shock is very rarely the first sign ofZollinger-Ellison syndrome. In this case, the use of a proton-pump inhibitor may have masked the disease for years...
  22. Azimuddin K, Chamberlain R. The surgical management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Surg Clin North Am. 2001;81:511-25 pubmed
    ..Hepatic arterial embolization is the preferred mode of palliation for pain and hormonal symptoms. A curative hepatic resection may be possible in selected patients...
  23. Pritchard D. Pathogenesis of gastrinomas associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Gut. 2007;56:606-7 pubmed
  24. Campana D, Piscitelli L, Mazzotta E, Bonora M, Serra C, Salomone L, et al. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Diagnosis and therapy. Minerva Med. 2005;96:187-206 pubmed
    ..disease, severe diarrhoea and gastric acid hypersecretion associated with an islet-cell tumor of the pancreas (gastrinoma)...
  25. Zhou H, Schweikert H, Wolff M, Fischer H. Primary peripancreatic lymph node gastrinoma in a woman with MEN1. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2006;13:477-81 pubmed
    ..Clinical, laboratory, and surgical examinations revealed a peripancreatic lymph node gastrinoma as the cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome...
  26. Pfannenberg A, Burkart C, Kröber S, Eschmann S, Horger M, Claussen C. Dual-phase multidetector thin-section CT in detecting duodenal gastrinoma. Abdom Imaging. 2005;30:543-7 pubmed
    ..We report a case of a duodenal gastrinoma with regional lymph node metastases that presented with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome...
  27. Diaz R, Aparicio J, Pous S, Dolz J, Calderero V. Primary hepatic gastrinoma. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:1665-7 pubmed
  28. Fendrich V, Langer P, Waldmann J, Bartsch D, Rothmund M. Management of sporadic and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 gastrinomas. Br J Surg. 2007;94:1331-41 pubmed
    ..Gastrinomas are functional endocrine duodenopancreatic tumours and are responsible for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Clinical presentation, localization techniques and operative management were reviewed...
  29. Gurevich L, Kazantseva I, Isakov V, Korsakova N, Egorov A, Kubishkin V, et al. The analysis of immunophenotype of gastrin-producing tumors of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. Cancer. 2003;98:1967-76 pubmed
    ..The current study analyzed immunophenotypes of gastrinomas and compared them with other pancreatic endocrine tumors...
  30. Cisco R, Norton J. Surgery for gastrinoma. Adv Surg. 2007;41:165-76 pubmed
    ..More research also is needed to define the appropriate indications for pancreaticoduodenectomy in ZES and to determine whether proximal vagotomy should be performed at the time of surgical exploration...
  31. Thompson N. Current concepts in the surgical management of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 pancreatic-duodenal disease. Results in the treatment of 40 patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, hypoglycaemia or both. J Intern Med. 1998;243:495-500 pubmed
    ..One patient developed a solitary liver metastasis that was excised a year ago without other evidence of recurrence. There has been no operative mortality and three subsequent deaths were due to unrelated disease...
  32. Wu P, Pan C, Huang Z, Li W, Zhao M, Zhou Z. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation approach through the spleen: initial case report for pancreatic tail gastrinoma. Chin J Cancer. 2010;29:836-41 pubmed
    b>Gastrinoma has a low incidence, and the pancreas-originated gastrinoma is rare. Pancreatic gastrinoma patients with liver metastases have poor prognosis and short survival...
  33. Wada M, Komoto I, Doi R, Imamura M. Intravenous calcium injection test is a novel complementary procedure in differential diagnosis for gastrinoma. World J Surg. 2002;26:1291-6 pubmed
    ..efficacy of the intravenous calcium injection test as a new diagnostic approach to clarify the existence of gastrinoma, which often goes undetected with routine testing. Twenty-six patients with hypergastrinemia were studied...
  34. Imamura M, Komoto I, Ota S, Hiratsuka T, Kosugi S, Doi R, et al. Biochemically curative surgery for gastrinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:1343-53 pubmed publisher
    To search for the optimal surgery for gastrinoma and duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  35. Norton J, Fraker D, Alexander H, Gibril F, Liewehr D, Venzon D, et al. Surgery increases survival in patients with gastrinoma. Ann Surg. 2006;244:410-9 pubmed
    To determine whether the routine use of surgical exploration for gastrinoma resection/cure in 160 patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) altered survival compared with 35 ZES patients who did not undergo surgery.
  36. Anlauf M, Perren A, Henopp T, Rudolf T, Garbrecht N, Schmitt A, et al. Allelic deletion of the MEN1 gene in duodenal gastrin and somatostatin cell neoplasms and their precursor lesions. Gut. 2007;56:637-44 pubmed
    ..Patients with a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)-associated Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) show multifocal duodenal gastrinomas and precursor lesions...
  37. Imamura M, Komoto I, Ota S. Changing treatment strategy for gastrinoma in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. World J Surg. 2006;30:1-11 pubmed
    We overviewed the recent development of curative surgery for gastrinoma that has been rapidly improved since the development of new localization techniques, especially the selective arterial secretagogue injection test (SASI test) and ..
  38. Tartaglia A, Vezzadini C, Bianchini S, Vezzadini P. Gastrinoma of the stomach: a case report. Int J Gastrointest Cancer. 2005;35:211-6 pubmed
    ..We report here the case of a patient with gastrinoma of the stomach who presented regional and hepatic metastases at the time of diagnosis...
  39. Hao W, Skarulis M, Simonds W, Weinstein L, Agarwal S, Mateo C, et al. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variant with frequent prolactinoma and rare gastrinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:3776-84 pubmed
    ..The latter included 10% insulinoma, 7% nonfunctioning islet tumor, but only 10% gastrinoma. Compared with prior large series, this lower prevalence of gastrinoma (10% vs. 42%, P < 0...
  40. Banasch M, Schmitz F. Diagnosis and treatment of gastrinoma in the era of proton pump inhibitors. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007;119:573-8 pubmed
    ..6 is highly specific for gastrinoma. To localize the gastrin-secreting tumor computer-assisted tomography, endoscopic ultrasound, and somatostatin ..
  41. Matthews B, Smith T, Kercher K, Holder W, Heniford B. Surgical experience with functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Am Surg. 2002;68:660-5; discussion 665-6 pubmed
    ..male:female 12:8) with a mean age of 53 years (range 26-82) underwent surgery for a functioning pancreatic ICT [gastrinoma (eight), multiple endocrine neoplasia (three), insulinoma (seven), glucagonoma (four), and VI-Poma (vasoactive ..
  42. Norton J, Alexander H, Fraker D, Venzon D, Gibril F, Jensen R. Possible primary lymph node gastrinoma: occurrence, natural history, and predictive factors: a prospective study. Ann Surg. 2003;237:650-7; discussion 657-9 pubmed
    ..To analyze the results of a prospective study of 176 patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) (138 sporadic, 38 MEN1) undergoing 207 operations over a 17-year period...
  43. Kimura N, Pilichowska M, Okamoto H, Kimura I, Aunis D. Immunohistochemical expression of chromogranins A and B, prohormone convertases 2 and 3, and amidating enzyme in carcinoid tumors and pancreatic endocrine tumors. Mod Pathol. 2000;13:140-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, expression of CgA and CgB was different depending on the tumor location. High frequency of PCs and PGM may explain why even nonfunctioning tumors produce some inconspicuous peptides. ..
  44. McArthur K, Richardson C, Barnett C, Eshaghi N, Smerud M, McClelland R, et al. Laparotomy and proximal gastric vagotomy in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: results of a 16-year prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91:1104-11 pubmed
    ..Acid secretion can be safely reduced in almost all patients with laparotomy/vagotomy, usually allowing discontinuation, or reduced dose, of acid-inhibiting drugs. Long-term survival and quality of life are generally excellent. ..
  45. Faggiano A, Mansueto G, Ferolla P, Milone F, Del Basso De Caro M, Lombardi G, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic implications of the World Health Organization classification of neuroendocrine tumors. J Endocrinol Invest. 2008;31:216-23 pubmed
  46. Norton J, Alexander H, Fraker D, Venzon D, Gibril F, Jensen R. Does the use of routine duodenotomy (DUODX) affect rate of cure, development of liver metastases, or survival in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?. Ann Surg. 2004;239:617-25; discussion 626 pubmed
    ..To determine whether routine use of duodenotomy (DUODX) alters cure rate, survival, or development of liver metastases in 143 patients (162 operations) with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) without MEN1...
  47. Hall N, Nichols S, Povoski S, James I, Wright C, Harris R, et al. Intraoperative Use of a Portable Large Field of View Gamma Camera and Handheld Gamma Detection Probe for Radioguided Localization and Prediction of Complete Surgical Resection of Gastrinoma: Proof of Concept. J Am Coll Surg. 2015;221:300-8 pubmed publisher
    ..gamma detection probe (HGDP) for indium-111 ((111)In)-pentetreotide radioguided localization and confirmation of gastrinoma resection in ZES. Five patients (6 cases) with (111)In-pentetreotide-avid ZES were evaluated...
  48. Cohen T, Herzog Y, Brodzky A, Greenson J, Eldar S, Gluzman Poltorak Z, et al. Neuropilin-2 is a novel marker expressed in pancreatic islet cells and endocrine pancreatic tumours. J Pathol. 2002;198:77-82 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the vast majority of EPTs examined expressed NP-2, suggesting its utility as a diagnostic marker for these tumours. The function of NP-2 in islet cell biology or tumourigenesis remains to be elucidated. ..
  49. Tonelli F, Fratini G, Falchetti A, Nesi G, Brandi M. Surgery for gastroenteropancreatic tumours in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: review and personal experience. J Intern Med. 2005;257:38-49 pubmed
    ..Endoscopic removal is possible for lesions growing in the mucosa-submucosa, but partial or even total gastrectomy is recommended for the small number of gastric carcinoids infiltrating the muscular layers. ..
  50. Jordan P, Barroso A, Sweeney J. Gastric carcinoids in patients with hypergastrinemia. J Am Coll Surg. 2004;199:552-5 pubmed
    ..Hypergastrinemia in patients with pernicious anemia is a major regulator contributing to enterochromaffin-cell hyperplasia and, ultimately, to gastric carcinoids...
  51. Pandolfi U, Cossard D, Pesenti Campagnoni A, Biandrate F, Piccolini M, Francia L, et al. [Gastrin-secreting neuroendocrine carcinoma: two cases identified and treated surgically with a radio-guided technique]. Chir Ital. 2004;56:383-8 pubmed
    ..We recommend that the radio-guided strategy should be included among the guidelines for the treatment of gastrinomas and believe that the procedure can also be used in other functioning endocrine tumours. ..
  52. van den Born B, Koopmans R, Fliers E, Hart W. [Clinical thinking and decision making in practice. Unexplained rectal blood loss in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2002;146:712-7 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis and localisation of the gastrinoma can be difficult: serum gastrin concentrations can be normal and the sensitivity of CT scanning is low...
  53. Cattan D. Discussion on the effect of chronic hypergastrinemia on human enterochromaffin-like cells: insights from patients with sporadic gastrinomas. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:627; author reply 627-8 pubmed
  54. Doi R, Komoto I, Nakamura Y, Kawamura J, Fujimoto K, Wada M, et al. Pancreatic endocrine tumor in Japan. Pancreas. 2004;28:247-52 pubmed
    ..Further, the present use of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and the application of the laparoscopic surgery for pancreatic endocrine tumor in Japan are discussed...
  55. Abreu de Carvalho L, Troisi R, de Hemptinne B. Living donor liver transplantation combined with Whipple's procedure for metastatic gastrinoma: a clinical case with 5 years follow-up. Acta Chir Belg. 2009;109:498-500 pubmed
    ..As metastases are usually widespread in the liver, though remain confined to this organ for long periods of time, liver transplantation could be in some cases a possible treatment option...
  56. Frezza E. Laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation of solitary hepatic gastrinoma metastases. Dig Dis Sci. 2004;49:224-7 pubmed
  57. Abbey Toby A, Vullierme M, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Bedossa P, Couvelard A. A clear cell malignant gastrinoma of the pancreas with cytoplasmic accumulation of lipid droplets. Virchows Arch. 2006;448:105-6 pubmed
  58. Mayer A, Sheiner E, Holcberg G. Zollinger Ellison syndrome, treated with lansoprazole, during pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;276:171-3 pubmed
    ..Zollinger Ellison syndrome (ZES), an ulcerative disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract that involves the production of high levels of gastrin and gastric acid, is a rare, symptomatic, endocrine neoplastic disease...
  59. Strutyńska Karpińska M, Knast W, Markocka Maczka K. Comments on: case presentation of gastrinoma combined with gastric carcinoid with the longest survival record -Zollinger - Ellison syndrome: pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy. Med Sci Monit. 2003;9:LE23 pubmed
  60. Dhillo W, Jayasena C, Jackson J, Lynn J, Bloom S, Meeran K, et al. Localization of gastrinomas by selective intra-arterial calcium injection in patients on proton pump inhibitor or H2 receptor antagonist therapy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;17:429-33 pubmed
    ..This study shows that in four patients with a confirmed gastrinoma we were able to localize the gastrinoma by selective intra-arterial calcium injection and hepatic venous ..
  61. Shibata C, Funayama Y, Fukushima K, Takahashi K, Ueno T, Nagao M, et al. Role of selective arterial secretin injection test in treatment of gastrinoma. Hepatogastroenterology. 2006;53:960-3 pubmed
    To study whether use of the selective arterial secretin injection test increased the rate of tumor localization and curative resection in patients with gastrinoma.
  62. Bruzzese A, Chiarini S, Pasquino C, Favoriti M, Marchegiani C, Stella S. [Apudomas: nosographic and physiopathological aspects]. Minerva Chir. 1996;51:313-20 pubmed
  63. Demeure M. Physiology of the APUD system. Semin Surg Oncol. 1993;9:362-7 pubmed
    ..Increasing understanding of the origins of APUDomas as well as the biochemistry and physiology of the hormones they produce, has led to improved methods of detection, imaging and treatment of afflicted patients...
  64. Fendrich V, Habbe N, Celik I, Langer P, Zielke A, Bartsch D, et al. [Operative management and long-term survival in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas--experience with 144 patients]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2007;132:195-200 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the outcome of patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) in a tertiary referral centre...