follicular adenocarcinoma


Summary: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Chung K, Yang S, Lee G, Kim E, Kwon S, Lee S, et al. Detection of BRAFV600E mutation on fine needle aspiration specimens of thyroid nodule refines cyto-pathology diagnosis, especially in BRAF600E mutation-prevalent area. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006;65:660-6 pubmed
    ..A molecular diagnostic method is needed to reduce unnecessary surgery in this group. In Korea, most thyroid cancer is the classic papillary type and the BRAF(V600E) mutation is highly prevalent...
  2. Lu C, Zhao L, Ying H, Willingham M, Cheng S. Growth activation alone is not sufficient to cause metastatic thyroid cancer in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1929-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These in vivo findings provide new insights in understanding carcinogenesis of the human thyroid...
  3. Finn S, Smyth P, Cahill S, Streck C, O Regan E, Flavin R, et al. Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy. Virchows Arch. 2007;450:249-60 pubmed
    ..Fifteen transcripts were significantly associated with FVPTC morphology. Surprisingly, these genes were associated with an extremely narrow repertoire of functions, including the major histocompatibility complex and cathepsin families...
  4. Erickson L, Jin L, Nakamura N, Bridges A, Markovic S, Lloyd R. Clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Cancer. 2007;109:1965-71 pubmed
    ..A series of 16 cutaneous metastases were analyzed from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas to learn more about the clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation status...
  5. Wang Y, Hou P, Yu H, Wang W, Ji M, Zhao S, et al. High prevalence and mutual exclusivity of genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/akt pathway in thyroid tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2387-90 pubmed
    ..Genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and their role in thyroid tumor pathogenesis in Chinese people remain undefined...
  6. Park Y, Kwak S, Kim D, Kim H, Choe G, Park D, et al. Diagnostic value of galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22:621-8 pubmed
  7. Goldenberg D, Zagon I, Fedok F, Crist H, McLaughlin P. Expression of opioid growth factor (OGF)-OGF receptor (OGFr) axis in human nonmedullary thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2008;18:1165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we examined the presence and distribution of OGF and OGFr in nonmedullary thyroid cancer, including papillary, follicular, and anaplastic, as well as thyroid tissue from patients with nonmalignant disease...
  8. Weber F, Teresi R, Broelsch C, Frilling A, Eng C. A limited set of human MicroRNA is deregulated in follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:3584-91 pubmed
    ..For the latter process, a deregulated miRNA can orchestrate the aberrant expression of several hundred target genes...
  9. Yeager N, Brewer C, Cai K, Xu X, Di Cristofano A. Mammalian target of rapamycin is the key effector of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH-initiated proliferative signals in the thyroid follicular epithelium. Cancer Res. 2008;68:444-9 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Schweppe R, Klopper J, Korch C, Pugazhenthi U, Benezra M, Knauf J, et al. Deoxyribonucleic acid profiling analysis of 40 human thyroid cancer cell lines reveals cross-contamination resulting in cell line redundancy and misidentification. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4331-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell lines derived from human cancers provide critical tools to study disease mechanisms and develop novel therapies. Recent reports indicate that up to 36% of cell lines are cross- contaminated...
  2. Hou P, Ji M, Xing M. Association of PTEN gene methylation with genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway in thyroid tumors. Cancer. 2008;113:2440-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Epigenetic silencing of the PTEN gene, a negative regulator of the PI3K/AKT pathway, also occurs in thyroid tumors, but its relationship with genetic alterations in this pathway is unclear...
  3. Papotti M, Rodriguez J, De Pompa R, Bartolazzi A, Rosai J. Galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in well-differentiated thyroid tumors with follicular architecture of uncertain malignant potential. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:541-6 pubmed
    ..The relationship found between the markers investigated and these nuclear changes suggests that the tumors containing them are pathogenetically linked to papillary carcinomas...
  4. Oestreicher Kedem Y, Halpern M, Roizman P, Hardy B, Sulkes J, Feinmesser R, et al. Diagnostic value of galectin-3 as a marker for malignancy in follicular patterned thyroid lesions. Head Neck. 2004;26:960-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, affected patients are referred for surgery, although only 20% will have a final diagnosis of malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of galectin-3 as a marker of malignancy in these lesions...
  5. Franc B, de La Salmonière P, Lange F, Hoang C, Louvel A, de Roquancourt A, et al. Interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility in the histopathology of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2003;34:1092-100 pubmed
  6. Miyakawa M, Onoda N, Etoh M, Fukuda I, Takano K, Okamoto T, et al. Diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma by the vascular pattern and velocimetric parameters using high resolution pulsed and power Doppler ultrasonography. Endocr J. 2005;52:207-12 pubmed
  7. Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, Cappia S, Arecco F, Dei Tos A, et al. Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2005;12:305-17 pubmed
    ..The combination of three or more markers did not substantially improve the diagnostic accuracy of the test...
  8. Puskas L, Juhasz F, Zarva A, Hackler L, Farid N. Gene profiling identifies genes specific for well-differentiated epithelial thyroid tumors. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2005;51:177-86 pubmed
    ..It is apparent that a range of nodular thyroid tissue using large tumor sample numbers is necessary to establish robust markers for malignancy and to categorize tumors on the basis of small tumor samples...
  9. Garcia Rostan G, Costa A, Pereira Castro I, Salvatore G, Hernandez R, Hermsem M, et al. Mutation of the PIK3CA gene in anaplastic thyroid cancer. Cancer Res. 2005;65:10199-207 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that mutant PIK3CA is likely to function as an oncogene among ATC and less frequently well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The data also argue for a role of PIK3CA targeting in the treatment of ATC patients...
  10. Volante M, Bozzalla Cassione F, Orlandi F, Papotti M. Diagnostic role of galectin-3 in follicular thyroid tumors. Virchows Arch. 2004;444:309-12 pubmed
  11. Vitagliano D, Portella G, Troncone G, Francione A, Rossi C, Bruno A, et al. Thyroid targeting of the N-ras(Gln61Lys) oncogene in transgenic mice results in follicular tumors that progress to poorly differentiated carcinomas. Oncogene. 2006;25:5467-74 pubmed
    ..These findings support the notion that mutated ras oncogenes could be able to drive the formation of thyroid tumors that can progress to poorly differentiated, metastatic carcinomas...
  12. Durante C, Haddy N, Baudin E, Leboulleux S, Hartl D, Travagli J, et al. Long-term outcome of 444 patients with distant metastases from papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma: benefits and limits of radioiodine therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:2892-9 pubmed
    ..The goal of this study was to estimate the cumulative activity of (131)I to be administered to patients with distant metastases from thyroid carcinoma...
  13. Verburg F, Lips C, Lentjes E, de Klerk J. Detection of circulating Tg-mRNA in the follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer: how useful is it?. Br J Cancer. 2004;91:200-4 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that currently Tg-mRNA detection is not a useful tool in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, but that the concept of using RT-PCR measurements during follow-up still warrants further research...
  14. Do M, Rhee Y, Kim D, Kim C, Nam K, Ahn C, et al. Clinical features of bone metastases resulting from thyroid cancer: a review of 28 patients over a 20-year period. Endocr J. 2005;52:701-7 pubmed
    ..Further studies of the prognostic factors and effectiveness of various treatments of these patients are needed to enhance survival...
  15. Hibi Y, Nagaya T, Kambe F, Imai T, Funahashi H, Nakao A, et al. Is thyroid follicular cancer in Japanese caused by a specific t(2; 3)(q13; p25) translocation generating Pax8-PPAR gamma fusion mRNA?. Endocr J. 2004;51:361-6 pubmed
    ..These findings are in contrast to previous reports and indicate that ethnic background may affect the translocation...
  16. Yasuda M, Ogane N, Hayashi H, Kameda Y, Miyagi Y, Iida T, et al. Glucose transporter-1 expression in the thyroid gland: clinicopathological significance for papillary carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2005;14:1499-504 pubmed
  17. Lacroix L, Mian C, Barrier T, Talbot M, Caillou B, Schlumberger M, et al. PAX8 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 1 gene expression status in benign and malignant thyroid tissues. Eur J Endocrinol. 2004;151:367-74 pubmed
  18. LiVolsi V, Baloch Z. Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: view, biases, and experiences. Adv Anat Pathol. 2004;11:279-87 pubmed
    ..The authors present their views based on their experience with the cytologic and histologic diagnosis of these tumors and propose a scheme to assist in their classification and appropriate clinical management...
  19. Rosai J. Handling of thyroid follicular patterned lesions. Endocr Pathol. 2005;16:279-83 pubmed
    ..In addition to the two conventional categories, i.e., adenoma and carcinoma, this scheme includes a group of tumors "of uncertain malignant potential."..
  20. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, et al. HBME-1 expression in follicular tumor of the thyroid: an investigation of whether it can be used as a marker to diagnose follicular carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:179-82 pubmed
    ..HBME-1 has been recognized as a useful marker for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma. In this study, we investigated whether it has a diagnostic value for discriminating follicular carcinoma from adenoma...
  21. Ferenc T, Lewinski A, Lange D, Niewiadomska H, Sygut J, Sporny S, et al. Analysis of P161NK4A protein expression in follicular thyroid tumors. Pol J Pathol. 2004;55:143-8 pubmed
  22. Cerutti J, Latini F, Nakabashi C, Delcelo R, Andrade V, Amadei M, et al. Diagnosis of suspicious thyroid nodules using four protein biomarkers. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:3311-8 pubmed
    ..The goal of this study was to determine if antibody markers used alone or in combination could accurately distinguish between a wider variety of benign and malignant thyroid lesions in fixed sections and FNA samples...
  23. Stolf B, Santos M, Simao D, Diaz J, Cristo E, Hirata R, et al. Class distinction between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland on the basis of their signature expression. Cancer. 2006;106:1891-900 pubmed
    ..Consequently, large numbers of patients undergo unnecessary thyroidectomy...
  24. Schmid K, Farid N. How to define follicular thyroid carcinoma?. Virchows Arch. 2006;448:385-93 pubmed
  25. Cerutti J, Delcelo R, Amadei M, Nakabashi C, Maciel R, Peterson B, et al. A preoperative diagnostic test that distinguishes benign from malignant thyroid carcinoma based on gene expression. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:1234-42 pubmed
    ..76; 95% confidence interval, [0.59, 0.93]). A simple test based on a combination of these markers might improve preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules, allowing better treatment decisions and reducing long-term health costs...
  26. Quinn T, Duncan L, Zembowicz A, Faquin W. Cutaneous metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma: a report of four cases and a review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol. 2005;27:306-12 pubmed
    ..Awareness of the varied morphologies of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma to the skin may prompt immunohistochemical analysis and the request for a complete clinical history, ultimately preventing misdiagnosis...
  27. Meireles A, Preto A, Rocha A, Rebocho A, Máximo V, Pereira Castro I, et al. Molecular and genotypic characterization of human thyroid follicular cell carcinoma-derived cell lines. Thyroid. 2007;17:707-15 pubmed
    ..We suggest that genotypic analyses should be included as a routine procedure to guarantee the uniqueness of each cell line used in research. ..
  28. Miyauchi A, Takamura Y, Ito Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, et al. 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine thyrotoxicosis due to increased conversion of administered levothyroxine in patients with massive metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:2239-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Occasional measurement of serum FT(3) in addition to FT(4) and TSH is recommended in patients with massive metastatic FC, especially when serum FT(4) decreases on fixed doses of levothyroxine. ..
  29. Czarniecka A, Jarząb M, Krajewska J, Sacher A, Półtorak S, Włoch J. [The impact of the extent and time of operation on the survival in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC)]. Endokrynol Pol. 2006;57:347-55 pubmed
    ..2. A delay > 12 months in completion surgery in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (tumors > 1 cm of diameter) significantly increases the risk of progression of multifocal disease in thyroid remnants. ..
  30. Vera P, Kuhn Lansoy C, Edet Sanson A, Hapdey S, Modzelewski R, Hitzel A, et al. Does recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated positron emission tomography with [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose improve detection of recurrence of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients with low serum thyroglobulin?. Thyroid. 2010;20:15-23 pubmed publisher
  31. Machens A, Dralle H. Follicular thyroid carcinoma: metastasis to the sternum or adjacent tumour invasion by continuity?. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61:521; author reply 521-2 pubmed
  32. Ye G, Yuan W, Liu L. [Evaluation of lymph node dissection in the central neck area in managing thyroid microcarcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2007;29:396-8 pubmed
    ..It can improve the quality of life and survival through reducing cervical lymph node metastasis. ..
  33. Clerici T, Kolb W, Beutner U, Bareck E, Dotzenrath C, Kull C, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas. Br J Surg. 2010;97:839-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Histopathological re-evaluation by an experienced pathologist is recommended before embarking on further treatments when a diagnosis of mFTC is made. ..
  34. Vasko V, Bauer A, Tuttle R, Francis G. Papillary and follicular thyroid cancers in children. Endocr Dev. 2007;10:140-72 pubmed
    ..We have divided this chapter into two major sections, the first of which pertains to thyroid nodules and the second to well-differentiated thyroid cancers including papillary, follicular and other variants. ..
  35. Besic N, Sesek M, Peric B, Zgajnar J, Hocevar M. Predictive factors of carcinoma in 327 patients with follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Med Sci Monit. 2008;14:CR459-67 pubmed
    ..Predictors of malignancy were tumor diameter and preoperative Tg concentration. ..
  36. Wiseman S, Melck A, Masoudi H, Ghaidi F, Goldstein L, Gown A, et al. Molecular phenotyping of thyroid tumors identifies a marker panel for differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15:2811-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that further study of the molecular profile of thyroid tumors is warranted, and a diagnostic molecular marker panel may potentially improve patient selection for thyroid surgery. ..
  37. Favia G, Iacobone M, Zanella S, Ciarleglio F. Management of invasive and advanced thyroid cancer. Minerva Endocrinol. 2009;34:37-55 pubmed
    ..Novel therapies using molecular targets and redifferentiation agents promise to expand our ability to treat patients with advanced thyroid malignancies in the future. ..
  38. Borel A, Boizel R, Faure P, Barbe G, Boutonnat J, Sturm N, et al. Significance of low levels of thyroglobulin in fine needle aspirates from cervical lymph nodes of patients with a history of differentiated thyroid cancer. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;158:691-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Measurement of FNA albumin demonstrated that contamination of FNA by serum proteins was negligible. Low FNATg levels can indicate a DTC metastasis. It cannot be related to clinically relevant levels of serum Tg. ..
  39. Iared W, Shigueoka D, Cristófoli J, Andriolo R, Atallah A, Ajzen S, et al. Use of color Doppler ultrasonography for the prediction of malignancy in follicular thyroid neoplasms: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ultrasound Med. 2010;29:419-25 pubmed
    ..18. Predominant internal flow seen on CDU is associated with malignancy of thyroid FNs. Absence of internal flow or predominantly peripheral flow indicates a low probability of thyroid FN malignancy. ..
  40. Gong J, Zhang R, Cheng H. [Clinical analysis of 88 elderly patients with thyroid cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2007;29:150 pubmed
  41. Hsieh M, Lin M, Shun C, Chang T. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mixed medullary-follicular thyroid carcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2008;52:361-5 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemistry and pathologic analyses are helpful to confirm the diagnosis, especially in the absence of elevated serum calcitonin level. ..
  42. Eroglu A, Karaoglanoglu N, Bilen H, Gursan N. Follicular thyroid carcinoma: metastasis to the sternum, 13 years after total thyroidectomy. Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60:1506-8 pubmed
    ..For patients with thyroid carcinoma and sternal metastasis, we recommend surgical resection of the metastasis, not only as a curative or palliative measure but also to maximise the effect of subsequent radioiodine treatment. ..
  43. Schmidt D, Linke R, Uder M, Kuwert T. Five months' follow-up of patients with and without iodine-positive lymph node metastases of thyroid carcinoma as disclosed by (131)I-SPECT/CT at the first radioablation. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2010;37:699-705 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings motivate further research into the value of (131)I-SPECT/CT of the neck for predicting recurrence and planning surgical reintervention in DTC. ..
  44. Popowicz B, Klencki M, Lewinski A, Słowińska Klencka D. The usefulness of sonographic features in selection of thyroid nodules for biopsy in relation to the nodule's size. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;161:103-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of LN, the usefulness of sonographic features is less sensitive, but more specific than in the case of SN. ..
  45. Niu D, Murata S, Kondo T, Nakazawa T, Kawasaki T, Ma D, et al. Involvement of centrosomes in nuclear irregularity of thyroid carcinoma cells. Virchows Arch. 2009;455:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we suggest that cell-to-cell contact may affect nuclear changes such as BLNs and DLNs in cancer cell lines and that centrosomes may be involved in the morphogenetic process of these nuclear changes. ..
  46. Williams M, Suliburk J, Staerkel G, Busaidy N, Clayman G, Evans D, et al. Clinical significance of distinguishing between follicular lesion and follicular neoplasm in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:3146-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support surgical resection for follicular neoplasms, selective use of surgical intervention for follicular lesions at our institution, and continued efforts to define unified terminology between institutions. ..
  47. Matuszczyk A, Petersenn S, Voigt W, Kegel T, Dralle H, Schmoll H, et al. Chemotherapy with paclitaxel and gemcitabine in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium. Horm Metab Res. 2010;42:61-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Paclitaxel and gemcitabine are not a valid chemotherapy option, in particular in patients with progressive, nonradioiodine-accumulating follicular thyroid carcinoma, who were already treated by other chemotherapeutic agents. ..
  48. Mitsiades C, Negri J, McMullan C, McMillin D, Sozopoulos E, Fanourakis G, et al. Targeting BRAFV600E in thyroid carcinoma: therapeutic implications. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:1070-8 pubmed
    ..Small molecule inhibitors that selectively target B-Raf(V600E) may provide clinical benefit for patients with thyroid cancer. ..
  49. Hinsch N, Frank M, Döring C, Vorländer C, Hansmann M. QPRT: a potential marker for follicular thyroid carcinoma including minimal invasive variant; a gene expression, RNA and immunohistochemical study. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:93 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, QPRT is a potential new marker for the immunohistochemical screening of follicular thyroid nodules. ..
  50. Guignard R, Truong T, Rougier Y, Baron Dubourdieu D, Guénel P. Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid cancer: a countrywide case-control study in New Caledonia. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166:1140-9 pubmed
    ..Because of the high prevalence of obesity among Melanesian women of New Caledonia, this finding may explain in part the exceptionally elevated incidence of thyroid cancer in this group. ..
  51. Rahbar K, Hutzenlaub V, Fischer R, Schober O, Riemann B. Risk-profile and outcome of small papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas (<or=1 cm). Nuklearmedizin. 2008;47:188-93 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the decision for or against radioiodine ablation in patients with small differentiated thyroid carcinomas should be discussed individually. ..
  52. Rath G, Schneider C, Langlois B, Sartelet H, Morjani H, Btaouri H, et al. De novo ceramide synthesis is responsible for the anti-tumor properties of camptothecin and doxorubicin in follicular thyroid carcinoma. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:1165-72 pubmed publisher
  53. Espadinha C, Pinto A, Leite V. Underexpression of PPARgamma is associated with aneuploidy and lower differentiation of thyroid tumours of follicular origin. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:907-13 pubmed
    ..Therapies designed to modulate expression of PPARgamma may have an impact on the growth of thyroid neoplasias...
  54. Mijovic T, Rochon L, Gologan O, Hier M, Black M, Young J, et al. Fine-needle aspiration biopsies in the management of indeterminate follicular and Hurthle cell thyroid lesions. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;140:715-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the value of fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of the thyroid and stratify the risk of malignancy within the indeterminate FNAB diagnostic category at our institution...
  55. Portocarrero Ortiz L, Garcia Lopez R, Romero Vargas S, Padilla J, Gómez Amador J, Salinas Lara C, et al. Thyroid follicular carcinoma presenting as skull and dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma: a case report. J Neurooncol. 2009;95:281-284 pubmed publisher
    ..The definitive diagnosis of a meningioma should be established only after the histopathological analysis. Thyroid follicular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of extrinsic tumoral lesions...
  56. Lin J, Hsueh C, Chao T. Early recurrence of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma predicts a worse outcome. Thyroid. 2009;19:1053-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that an early recurrence of papillary and follicular thyroid cancers implies a rapid growth of cancer resulting in high mortality rate...
  57. Sanabria A, Carvalho A, Piana de Andrade V, Pablo Rodrigo J, Vartanian J, Rinaldo A, et al. Is galectin-3 a good method for the detection of malignancy in patients with thyroid nodules and a cytologic diagnosis of "follicular neoplasm"? A critical appraisal of the evidence. Head Neck. 2007;29:1046-54 pubmed
    ..Immunostaining of cytological smears from FNAB with galectin-3 has been proposed as a tool for differentiating between benign and malignant nodules. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the utility of galectin-3...
  58. Mebed A. Aggressive surgical therapy for locally invasive differentiated thyroid carcinoma : an experience of nineteen ( 19 ) cases. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2007;19:282-91 pubmed
    ..This report analyzes patients and tumor characteristics, anatomic structures invaded, surgical procedures, postoperative complications, adequacy of tumor resection, and follow-up of all patients...
  59. Alden K, Weber K, Hungerford M. Periprosthetic thyroid metastasis after total knee arthroplasty: a report of two cases and review of the literature. J Surg Orthop Adv. 2007;16:148-52 pubmed
    ..Clinical and radiographic examinations, as well as surgical follow-up, are presented to underscore the need for a focused history and physical examination in the initial evaluation of a patient with a painful TKA...
  60. Shaha A. Treatment of thyroid cancer based on risk groups. J Surg Oncol. 2006;94:683-91 pubmed
    ..The histopathologic studies are very important to distinguish well differentiated from the tall cell, insular, and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer...
  61. Wang W, Ozolek J, Rohde G. Detection and classification of thyroid follicular lesions based on nuclear structure from histopathology images. Cytometry A. 2010;77:485-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We also conclude that the distribution of nuclear size and chromatin concentration (how tightly packed it is) seem to be discriminating features between nuclei of follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and normal thyroid...
  62. Bogdanova T, Zurnadzhy L, Greenebaum E, McConnell R, Robbins J, Epstein O, et al. A cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases after the Chornobyl accident: pathology analysis of thyroid cancer cases in Ukraine detected during the first screening (1998-2000). Cancer. 2006;107:2559-66 pubmed
    ..In this article, the authors describe the pathology of thyroid carcinomas detected in the first screening...
  63. Somma J, Schlecht N, Fink D, Khader S, Smith R, Cajigas A. Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology: follicular lesions and the gray zone. Acta Cytol. 2010;54:123-31 pubmed
    ..Further, our current diagnostic scheme is equivalent to that recently proposed by the NCI, and, herein, we not only illustrate its application in clinical practice but also highlight potential pitfalls of this system. ..
  64. Karger S, Weidinger C, Krause K, Sheu S, Aigner T, Gimm O, et al. FOXO3a: a novel player in thyroid carcinogenesis?. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009;16:189-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, PI3K-dependent FOXO3a inactivation may be a novel pathomechanism for the escape from apoptosis in thyroid cancer cells, in particular in follicular thyroid carcinoma...
  65. Sugitani I, Toda K, Yamamoto N, Sakamoto A, Fujimoto Y. Re-evaluation of histopathological factors affecting prognosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in an iodine-sufficient country. World J Surg. 2010;34:1265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We re-evaluated the impact of histopathological findings on the clinical course of PTC and FTC...
  66. Santos R, Melo T, Assumpção L. [Familial nommedullary thyroid cancer]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2007;51:769-73 pubmed
  67. Rosario P, Salles D, Bessa B, Purisch S. Low false-negative rate of cytology in thyroid nodules >or= 4 cm. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2009;53:1143-5 pubmed
    ..To report the results of cytology and histology obtained for a series of systematically resected thyroid nodules >or= 4 cm...
  68. Jakubowski M, Hunt J. BRAF mutational analysis in papillary carcinomas with mixed follicular and papillary growth patterns. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:1590-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumors with mixed patterns of growth, including distinctive area of follicular and papillary growth, have not been well studied for the presence of the BRAF gene mutation...
  69. Randolph G, Thompson G, Branovan D, Tuttle R. Treatment of thyroid cancer: 2007--a basic review. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69:S92-7 pubmed
  70. Liu Y, Morreau H, Kievit J, Romijn J, Carrasco N, Smit J. Combined immunostaining with galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, Hector Battifora mesothelial-1, cytokeratin-19, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}, and sodium/iodide symporter antibodies for the differential diagnosis of non-medullar. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;158:375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study differed from earlier ones with regard to the identification of optimal semiquantitative cut-off levels using receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis...
  71. Lin J, Chao T, Hsueh C, Kuo S. High recurrent rate of multicentric papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:2609-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Multicentric papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is not unusual in patients with PTC. However, its clinical features concerning cancer recurrence and mortality are not well described...
  72. Deng H, Huang X, Han S, Ding G. [Relationship between micro-lymphatic vessel density and lymphatic metastasis in follicular thyroid carcinoma]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009;25:519-21 pubmed
    ..To investigate the relationship between micro-lymphatic vessel density (MLVD) and lymphatic metastasis in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC)...
  73. Matsumoto H, Sakamoto A, Fujiwara M, Yano Y, Shishido Hara Y, Fujioka Y, et al. Decreased expression of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor in poorly-differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid. Oncol Rep. 2008;19:1405-11 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrated that TSHR expression was decreased in PDCs despite conserved TTF-1 expression and that it correlated to the proliferative activity in PDCs...
  74. Kukulska A, Krajewska J, Roskosz J, Handkiewicz Junak D, Jarząb M, Paliczka E, et al. [Optimization of 131I ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: comparison of early outcomes of treatment with 100 mCi versus 60 mCi]. Endokrynol Pol. 2006;57:374-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the early outcomes between two groups of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) who received 60 or 100 mCi of (131)I for remnant ablation...
  75. Filesi M, Colandrea M, Montesano T, D Apollo R, Ronga G. Thyroid stunning in clinical practice: is it a real problem?. Minerva Endocrinol. 2009;34:29-36 pubmed
    ..Because it was found out a very small number of cases in our wide population, we conclude that stunning is not influent in clinical practice, above all if ''well-practice'' diagnostic-therapeutical procedures are strictly observed...
  76. Borup R, Rossing M, Henao R, Yamamoto Y, Krogdahl A, Godballe C, et al. Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010;17:691-708 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the described molecular pathways provide an accurate and robust genetic signature for the diagnosis of FA and FC...
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