prolactinoma

Summary

Summary: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.

Top Publications

  1. Hamilton D, Vance M, Boulos P, Laws E. Surgical outcomes in hyporesponsive prolactinomas: analysis of patients with resistance or intolerance to dopamine agonists. Pituitary. 2005;8:53-60 pubmed
    Surgery for prolactinoma patients is usually reserved for those who are intolerant of or have an inadequate response to medication. We report the results of surgical treatment in these patients...
  2. Raverot G, Wierinckx A, Dantony E, Auger C, Chapas G, Villeneuve L, et al. Prognostic factors in prolactin pituitary tumors: clinical, histological, and molecular data from a series of 94 patients with a long postoperative follow-up. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:1708-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Predicting pituitary tumor behavior remains a challenge. This multiparameter investigation aimed to identify markers for recurrence and progression in prolactin tumors...
  3. Kreutzer J, Buslei R, Wallaschofski H, Hofmann B, Nimsky C, Fahlbusch R, et al. Operative treatment of prolactinomas: indications and results in a current consecutive series of 212 patients. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;158:11-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Classical' surgical indications are intolerance or lack of efficiency of DA therapy. Focusing on a possible shift of recent indications, we retrospectively analyzed our results of surgical treatment in prolactinomas...
  4. Kharlip J, Salvatori R, Yenokyan G, Wand G. Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia after withdrawal of long-term cabergoline therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:2428-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia after cabergoline withdrawal ranges widely from 36 to 80%. The Pituitary Society recommends withdrawal of cabergoline in selected patients...
  5. Laloi Michelin M, Ciraru Vigneron N, Meas T. Cabergoline treatment of pregnant women with macroprolactinomas. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007;99:61-2 pubmed
  6. Vallette S, Serri K, Serri O. Cabergoline therapy for prolactinomas: is valvular heart disease a real safety concern?. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2010;8:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical significance of the present findings has yet to be confirmed by future larger prospective studies with rigorous echocardiographic protocols and prolonged duration of follow-up...
  7. Akkaya C, Kaya B, Kotan Z, Sarandol A, Ersoy C, Kirli S. Hyperprolactinemia and possibly related development of prolactinoma during amisulpride treatment; three cases. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23:723-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Antipsychotics may enhance prolactinoma growth as manifested by an increase in serum prolactin concentration...
  8. Colao A, Galderisi M, Di Sarno A, Pardo M, Gaccione M, D Andrea M, et al. Increased prevalence of tricuspid regurgitation in patients with prolactinomas chronically treated with cabergoline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3777-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Cabergoline, a dopamine receptor-2 agonist used to treat prolactinomas, was associated with increased risk of cardiac valve disease in Parkinson's disease...
  9. Colao A. Pituitary tumours: the prolactinoma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;23:575-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The patients achieving disappearance of the tumours and suppression of PRL levels during treatment are those showing the highest likelihood to have persistent remission of hyperprolactinaemia after treatment withdrawal...

More Information

Publications71

  1. Kurwale N, Ahmad F, Satyarthi G, Suri A, Mahapatra A. Can radiation induce pituitary tumors? Giant prolactinoma after radiation exposure. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:1287-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of radiation exposure in the etiology of pituitary adenoma is discussed, along with a literature review of radiation-induced tumors...
  2. Hong J, Lee M, Kim S, Lee E. Discrimination of prolactinoma from hyperprolactinemic non-functioning adenoma. Endocrine. 2010;37:140-7 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to evaluate characteristics that discriminate prolactinoma from non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma with hyperprolactinemia. We included 117 patients with hyperprolactinemic pituitary macroadenomas...
  3. Babey M, Sahli R, Vajtai I, Andres R, Seiler R. Pituitary surgery for small prolactinomas as an alternative to treatment with dopamine agonists. Pituitary. 2011;14:222-30 pubmed publisher
    ..guidelines recommend long-term dopamine agonist (DA) therapy as a first-line approach to the treatment of small prolactinoma, some patients continue to prefer a primary surgical approach...
  4. Yavasoglu I, Kucuk M, Coskun A, Guney E, Kadikoylu G, Bolaman Z. Polycystic ovary syndrome and prolactinoma association. Intern Med. 2009;48:611-3 pubmed
    ..with irregular menses, obesity, hirsutism and infertility, and hyperprolactinemia who was diagnosed as PCOS and prolactinoma and admitted to our clinic. Prolactinoma and PCOS association is a rare condition...
  5. Murakami M, Mizutani A, Asano S, Katakami H, Ozawa Y, Yamazaki K, et al. A mechanism of acquiring temozolomide resistance during transformation of atypical prolactinoma into prolactin-producing pituitary carcinoma: case report. Neurosurgery. 2011;68:E1761-7; discussion E1767 pubmed publisher
    The case presented here describes the clinical evolution of a pituitary carcinoma from an atypical prolactinoma after temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. The mechanism of acquisition of TMZ resistance was analyzed.
  6. Ishida E, Yamada M, Horiguchi K, Taguchi R, Ozawa A, Shibusawa N, et al. Attenuated expression of menin and p27 (Kip1) in an aggressive case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) associated with an atypical prolactinoma and a malignant pancreatic endocrine tumor. Endocr J. 2011;58:287-96 pubmed
    ..We describe the case of a 56 year-old male with an atypical prolactinoma and malignant pancreatic neuroenocrine tumor...
  7. Kars M, Pereira A, Smit J, Romijn J. Long-term outcome of patients with macroprolactinomas initially treated with dopamine agonists. Eur J Intern Med. 2009;20:387-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Dopamine agonists are the first line therapy for the treatment of prolactinomas. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of macroprolactinomas during long-term follow-up after initial treatment with dopamine agonists...
  8. Tong Y, Zhou J, Mizutani J, Fukuoka H, Ren S, Gutierrez Hartmann A, et al. CEBPD suppresses prolactin expression and prolactinoma cell proliferation. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1880-91 pubmed publisher
    ..CEBPD expression levels are decreased approximately 7-fold in experimental rat prolactinoma cells...
  9. Fideleff H, Boquete H, Suarez M, Azaretzky M. Prolactinoma in children and adolescents. Horm Res. 2009;72:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of prolactinoma requires both radiographic evidence of pituitary adenoma and laboratory analysis documenting the presence of ..
  10. Cho E, Lee S, Chung J, Koh E, Cho Y, Kim J, et al. Efficacy and safety of cabergoline as first line treatment for invasive giant prolactinoma. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:874-8 pubmed publisher
    Although cabergoline is effective in the treatment of micro- and macro-prolactinoma, little is known about its efficacy in the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma...
  11. Byrne S, Karapetis C, Vrodos N. A novel use of temozolomide in a patient with malignant prolactinoma. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:1694-6 pubmed publisher
    ..who presented to our department in 2007 with bitemporal hemianopia secondary to a large recurrent pituitary prolactinoma in the sellar region and metastatic deposits elsewhere in his neuraxis...
  12. Vlotides G, Cooper O, Chen Y, Ren S, Greenman Y, Melmed S. Heregulin regulates prolactinoma gene expression. Cancer Res. 2009;69:4209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeted inhibition of up-regulated p185(c-neu)/ErbB3 activity could be useful for the treatment of aggressive prolactinomas resistant to conventional therapy...
  13. Mueller A, Gooren L. Hormone-related tumors in transsexuals receiving treatment with cross-sex hormones. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;159:197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Design Description of cases of transsexuals who have developed a hormone-related malignancy observed in their own clinic or reported in the literature. Recommendations for early diagnosis and prevention are presented...
  14. Konopelska S, Quinkler M, Strasburger C, Ventz M. Difficulties in the medical treatment of prolactinoma in a patient with schizophrenia--a case report with a review of the literature. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28:120-2 pubmed publisher
  15. Suliman S, Gurlek A, Byrne J, Sullivan N, Thanabalasingham G, Cudlip S, et al. Nonsurgical cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in invasive macroprolactinoma: incidence, radiological, and clinicopathological features. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3829-35 pubmed
    ..Macroprolactinomas (MPRLs) may result in nonsurgical (spontaneous or dopamine agonist induced) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea; however, the incidence of and mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood...
  16. Castro Castro J, Torre Eiriz J, Pinzón Millán A, Pastor Zapata A. [Cabergoline-induced tension pneumocephalus in a patient with giant invasive prolactinoma. Case report]. Neurocirugia (Astur). 2011;22:558-61; discussion 561 pubmed
    ..He had been treated for 2 weeks with cabergoline after an invasive prolactinoma was discovered...
  17. Hazrati S, Aghazadeh J, Mohtarami F, Abouzari M, Rashidi A. Immunotherapy of prolactinoma with a T helper 1 activator adjuvant and autoantigens: a case report. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2006;13:205-8 pubmed
    ..To date, efforts to reliably manipulate the immune system to promote tumor regression in the brain have been disappointing. We report a unique experience of successful immunotherapy to treat a pituitary macroprolactinoma...
  18. Ali S, Miller K, Freudenreich O. Management of psychosis associated with a prolactinoma: case report and review of the literature. Psychosomatics. 2010;51:370-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Psychosis is treated with dopamine-receptor blockers that may result in elevated serum prolactin and symptomatic hyperprolactinemia...
  19. Saranac L, Zivanovic S, Radovanovic Z, Kostic G, Markovic I, Miljkovic P. Hyperprolactinemia: different clinical expression in childhood. Horm Res Paediatr. 2010;73:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperprolactinemia is the most common disturbance in pituitary gland secretion. Functional diversity of prolactin action is responsible for different initial clinical expressions of hyperprolactinemia...
  20. Lv H, Li C, Gui S, Sun M, Li D, Zhang Y. Effects of estrogen receptor antagonist on biological behavior and expression of growth factors in the prolactinoma MMQ cell line. J Neurooncol. 2011;102:237-45 pubmed publisher
    The relationship between estrogen and pituitary prolactinoma is well documented. The biological effects of estrogen are mainly mediated by estrogen receptor ? (ER?)...
  21. Dos Santos Silva C, Barbosa F, Lima G, Warszawski L, Fontes R, Domingues R, et al. BMI and metabolic profile in patients with prolactinoma before and after treatment with dopamine agonists. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:800-5 pubmed publisher
    ..objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of obesity, overweight, MS, and IR in patients with prolactinoma before and after therapy with DA and to evaluate the relation between prolactin (PRL), body weight, fat ..
  22. Recouvreux M, Camilletti M, Rifkin D, Becu Villalobos D, Diaz Torga G. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) analogs ABT-510 and ABT-898 inhibit prolactinoma growth and recover active pituitary transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). Endocrinology. 2012;153:3861-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results place these synthetic TSP-1 analogs as potential alternative or complementary treatments in dopamine agonist-resistant prolactinomas...
  23. Tamer G, Telci A, Mert M, Uzum A, Aral F, Tanakol R, et al. Prevalence of pituitary adenomas in macroprolactinemic patients may be higher than it is presumed. Endocrine. 2012;41:138-43 pubmed publisher
    ..048). Prevalence of pituitary adenomas in macroprolactinemic patients is lower compared with the true hyperprolactinemic patients, but may be higher than that found in other recent studies and in the general population...
  24. Berinder K, Nystrom T, Hoybye C, Hall K, Hulting A. Insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in prolactinoma patients before and after normalization of prolactin by dopamine agonist therapy. Pituitary. 2011;14:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..85, P = 0.034). In conclusion, beneficial metabolic changes were seen in prolactinoma patients after treatment with DA agonists, underscoring the importance of an active treatment approach and to ..
  25. Lee E, Ahn J, Noh T, Kim S, Kim T, Kim S. Tumor tissue identification in the pseudocapsule of pituitary adenoma: should the pseudocapsule be removed for total resection of pituitary adenoma?. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:ons62-9; discussion ons69-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the precise histology of the pseudocapsule. Furthermore, we evaluated the remission rate, the changes in pituitary function, and the recurrence rate after intensive resection of the pseudocapsule...
  26. Herring N, Szmigielski C, Becher H, Karavitaki N, Wass J. Valvular heart disease and the use of cabergoline for the treatment of prolactinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mitral valve tenting area, a subclinical index of leaflet stiffening, has also been correlated with the cumulative dose of cabergoline and severity of valvular regurgitation...
  27. Lania A, Ferrero S, Pivonello R, Mantovani G, Peverelli E, Di Sarno A, et al. Evolution of an aggressive prolactinoma into a growth hormone secreting pituitary tumor coincident with GNAS gene mutation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, the occurrence of a prolactinoma evolving into clinically and biochemically active acromegaly is a rare phenomenon.
  28. Kars M, Delgado V, Holman E, Feelders R, Smit J, Romijn J, et al. Aortic valve calcification and mild tricuspid regurgitation but no clinical heart disease after 8 years of dopamine agonist therapy for prolactinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3348-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of valvular heart disease in patients treated with dopamine agonists for prolactinomas...
  29. Naliato E, Violante A, Caldas D, Farias M, Bussade I, Lamounier Filho A, et al. Bone density in women with prolactinoma treated with dopamine agonists. Pituitary. 2008;11:21-8 pubmed
    1) to evaluate bone density in women with prolactinoma treated with dopamine agonists and healthy controls, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), (2) to classify the results according to the current International Society for ..
  30. Sheldrick A, Grunder G. Aripiprazole reduces serum prolactin in a woman with prolactinoma and acute psychosis. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2008;41:160 pubmed publisher
  31. Bhansali A, Walia R, Dutta P, Khandelwal N, Sialy R, Bhadada S. Efficacy of cabergoline on rapid escalation of dose in men with macroprolactinomas. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:530-5 pubmed
    ..This possibly results in delayed normalization of serum prolactin and slow reduction in tumour size. This study was planned to assess the efficacy and safety of rapid escalation of cabergoline doses in men with macroprolactinomas...
  32. Kars M, van der Klaauw A, Onstein C, Pereira A, Romijn J. Quality of life is decreased in female patients treated for microprolactinoma. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;157:133-9 pubmed
    ..We evaluated this topic in female patients with microprolactinoma, because other pituitary adenomas are associated with decreased quality of life...
  33. Naliato E, Violante A, Caldas D, Lamounier Filho A, Loureiro C, Fontes R, et al. Body fat in nonobese women with prolactinoma treated with dopamine agonists. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007;67:845-52 pubmed
    To evaluate body fat in nonobese women with prolactinoma treated with dopamine agonists, using whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to correlate DXA results with biochemical data and clinical aspects of the prolactinoma.
  34. Drori Herishanu L, Horvath A, Nesterova M, Patronas Y, Lodish M, Bimpaki E, et al. An Intronic mutation is associated with prolactinoma in a young boy, decreased penetrance in his large family, and variable effects on MEN1 mRNA and protein. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:630-4 pubmed publisher
    Prolactinomas are rare tumors in prepubertal children. A prolactinoma in a young child may be due to sequence variants in genes that are known to cause these tumors ( MEN1, PRKAR1A, AIP)...
  35. Freeman B, Levy W, Gorman J. Successful monotherapy treatment with aripiprazole in a patient with schizophrenia and prolactinoma. J Psychiatr Pract. 2007;13:120-4 pubmed
  36. Vilar L, Naves L, Freitas M, Lima M, Canadas V, Albuquerque J, et al. Clinical and laboratory features greatly overlap in patients with macroprolactinemia or monomeric hyperprolactinemia. Minerva Endocrinol. 2007;32:79-86 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory features of 64 patients with macroprolactinemia and to compare them to those of individuals with monomeric hyperprolactinemia...
  37. Dekkers O, Lagro J, Burman P, Jørgensen J, Romijn J, Pereira A. Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia after withdrawal of dopamine agonists: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:43-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Dopamine agonists are the treatment of choice for prolactinomas and symptomatic idiopathic hyperprolactinemia. However, the optimal treatment strategy and treatment duration is not clear in all details...
  38. Melmed S, Casanueva F, Hoffman A, Kleinberg D, Montori V, Schlechte J, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:273-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperprolactinemia...
  39. Broekhof R, Gosselink M, Pijl H, Giltay E. The effect of aripiprazole and quinagolide, a dopamine agonist, in a patient with symptomatic pituitary prolactinoma and chronic psychosis. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2012;34:209.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, drugs for the treatment of prolactinoma may activate dopamine D2 receptors, which can induce or aggravate psychosis...
  40. Kars M, Pereira A, Bax J, Romijn J. Cabergoline and cardiac valve disease in prolactinoma patients: additional studies during long-term treatment are required. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;159:363-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the safety of treatment with ergot-derived dopamine agonists in patients with endocrine diseases, especially prolactinoma. Six cross-sectional studies have been published recently, of which five studies do not show an association ..
  41. Beda Maluga K, Pisarek H, Komorowski J, Pawlikowski M, Swiętosławski J, Winczyk K. The detection of macroprolactin by precipitation and ultrafiltration methods. Endokrynol Pol. 2011;62:529-36 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of MaPRL in hyperprolactinaemic patients and to compare the results obtained by precipitation and ultrafiltration...
  42. Jezkova J, Hana V, Krsek M, Weiss V, Vladyka V, Liscak R, et al. Use of the Leksell gamma knife in the treatment of prolactinoma patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;70:732-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgical and radiation treatment is also indicated in certain situations. We describe our 12-year experience in treating prolactinomas with the Leksell gamma knife (LGK)...
  43. Acharya S, Gopal R, Bandgar T, Joshi S, Menon P, Shah N. Clinical profile and long term follow up of children and adolescents with prolactinomas. Pituitary. 2009;12:186-9 pubmed publisher
    ..presentation, response to medical treatment, and long-term follow-up of 39 children and adolescents with prolactinoma (F:M; 30:9) (30 macro and 9 microadenoma) diagnosed at the age of 9-20 years...
  44. Molitch M. Medical treatment of prolactinomas. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1999;28:143-69, vii pubmed
    ..For other indications, however, cabergoline appears to be more efficacious and better tolerated. Transsphenoidal surgery remains an option, especially for patients with microadenomas, when medical therapy is ineffective. ..
  45. Colao A, Vitale G, Cappabianca P, Briganti F, Ciccarelli A, De Rosa M, et al. Outcome of cabergoline treatment in men with prolactinoma: effects of a 24-month treatment on prolactin levels, tumor mass, recovery of pituitary function, and semen analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1704-11 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that cabergoline treatment is as effective and safe in men as in women with prolactinoma and can be successfully used as primary therapy even in men bearing large macroprolactinomas.
  46. Cristina C, Garcia Tornadú I, Diaz Torga G, Rubinstein M, Low M, Becu Villalobos D. Dopaminergic D2 receptor knockout mouse: an animal model of prolactinoma. Front Horm Res. 2006;35:50-63 pubmed
    ..The D2R knockout mouse represents a unique animal model to study dopamine-resistant prolactinomas, and VEGF-A may be an alternative therapeutic target in this pathology. ..
  47. Gillam M, Molitch M, Lombardi G, Colao A. Advances in the treatment of prolactinomas. Endocr Rev. 2006;27:485-534 pubmed
  48. Cannavo S, Curto L, Squadrito S, Almoto B, Vieni A, Trimarchi F. Cabergoline: a first-choice treatment in patients with previously untreated prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma. J Endocrinol Invest. 1999;22:354-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study confirms the effectiveness and safety of CAB for patients with PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma and suggests that it can be considered a first choice treatment. ..
  49. Howe F, Robinson S, Rodrigues L, Griffiths J. Flow and oxygenation dependent (FLOOD) contrast MR imaging to monitor the response of rat tumors to carbogen breathing. Magn Reson Imaging. 1999;17:1307-18 pubmed
    ..FLOOD contrast may therefore be of value in assessing the magnitude and heterogeneity of response of individual tumors to blood flow modifiers for both chemotherapy, antiangiogenesis therapy in particular, and radiotherapy. ..
  50. Thomson J, Gray C, Teasdale G. Relapse of hyperprolactinemia after transsphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma: lessons from long-term follow-up. Neurosurgery. 2002;50:36-9; discussion 39-40 pubmed
    ..The recurrence of hyperprolactinemia after transsphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma is not necessarily a permanent feature and does not inevitably indicate operative failure. ..
  51. Shrivastava R, Arginteanu M, King W, Post K. Giant prolactinomas: clinical management and long-term follow up. J Neurosurg. 2002;97:299-306 pubmed
    ..Checking prolactin levels in suspicious sellar and/or suprasellar lesions may be diagnostic and prevent unnecessary surgery. ..
  52. Levy M, Matharu M, Goadsby P. Prolactinomas, dopamine agonists and headache: two case reports. Eur J Neurol. 2003;10:169-73 pubmed
    ..We present two cases of prolactinoma-associated headache...
  53. Kaptain G, Simmons N, Alden T, Lopes M, Vance M, Laws E. Estrogen receptors in prolactinomas: a clinico-pathological study. Pituitary. 1999;1:91-8 pubmed
    ..The use of antiestrogen therapy in pituitary adenomas, however, has not been explored. This study attempted to identify a population who may benefit from antiestrogen therapy...
  54. Colao A, Di Sarno A, Cappabianca P, Di Somma C, Pivonello R, Lombardi G. Withdrawal of long-term cabergoline therapy for tumoral and nontumoral hyperprolactinemia. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:2023-33 pubmed
    ..We performed an observational, prospective study of cabergoline (a dopamine-receptor agonist) withdrawal in such patients...
  55. Matharu M, Levy M, Merry R, Goadsby P. SUNCT syndrome secondary to prolactinoma. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74:1590-2 pubmed
    ..We report a case of SUNCT syndrome secondary to a prolactinoma. Administration of dopamine agonists led to complete resolution of the SUNCT attacks...
  56. Schlechte J. Clinical practice. Prolactinoma. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:2035-41 pubmed
  57. Kristof R, Schramm J, Redel L, Neuloh G, Wichers M, Klingmuller D. Endocrinological outcome following first time transsphenoidal surgery for GH-, ACTH-, and PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2002;144:555-61; discussion 561 pubmed
    ..To study remission rates and pituitary functions following transsphenoidal surgery of newly diagnosed GH-, ACTH-, and PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas...
  58. Massiou H, Launay J, Levy C, El Amrani M, Emperauger B, Bousser M. SUNCT syndrome in two patients with prolactinomas and bromocriptine-induced attacks. Neurology. 2002;58:1698-9 pubmed
  59. Shimon I, Benbassat C, Hadani M. Effectiveness of long-term cabergoline treatment for giant prolactinoma: study of 12 men. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;156:225-31 pubmed
    ..To review our experience with cabergoline, a D2-selective dopamine agonist, for the treatment of giant prolactinomas...
  60. Horner K, Guieu R, Magnan J, Chays A, Cazals Y. Prolactinoma in some Ménière's patients--is stress involved?. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;26:135-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of prolactinoma was confirmed by MRI in six cases out of six investigated and the others have not yet been followed up in this ..
  61. Colao A, Vitale G, Di Sarno A, Spiezia S, Guerra E, Ciccarelli A, et al. Prolactin and prostate hypertrophy: a pilot observational, prospective, case-control study in men with prolactinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:2770-5 pubmed
    ..prostate enlargement in humans, we designed this open, prospective, case-control study enrolling 20 men with prolactinoma (aged 34 +/- 10 yr) and 20 age-matched healthy men...
  62. Zhang X, Horwitz G, Heaney A, Nakashima M, Prezant T, Bronstein M, et al. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) expression in pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:761-7 pubmed
    ..The ubiquitous and prevalent expression of pituitary adenoma PTTG suggests that PTTG plays a role in pituitary tumorigenesis and invasiveness...