hydatidiform mole

Summary

Summary: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.

Top Publications

  1. Sebire N, Fisher R, Foskett M, Rees H, Seckl M, Newlands E. Risk of recurrent hydatidiform mole and subsequent pregnancy outcome following complete or partial hydatidiform molar pregnancy. BJOG. 2003;110:22-6 pubmed
    To determine pregnancy outcome, including the rate of repeat molar pregnancy, following histologically confirmed complete or partial hydatidiform mole.
  2. Hancock B, Nazir K, Everard J. Persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after partial hydatidiform mole incidence and outcome. J Reprod Med. 2006;51:764-6 pubmed
    To report the Sheffield experience with persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) after partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and to review worldwide experience.
  3. Sita Lumsden A, Short D, Lindsay I, Sebire N, Adjogatse D, Seckl M, et al. Treatment outcomes for 618 women with gestational trophoblastic tumours following a molar pregnancy at the Charing Cross Hospital, 2000-2009. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:1810-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the rarity of the diagnosis, detailed structured information on prognosis, treatment escalations and outcome is limited...
  4. Er T, Jong Y, Tsai E, Huang C, Chou H, Zheng B, et al. False-negative pregnancy test in hydatidiform mole. Clin Chem. 2006;52:1616-8 pubmed
  5. Piura B, Rabinovich A, Hershkovitz R, Maor E, Mazor M. Twin pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole and surviving co-existent fetus. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;278:377-82 pubmed publisher
    Twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and co-existent fetus (CHMF) resulting in a healthy take-home baby is rare, with only 30 cases documented in detail in the literature.
  6. Petignat P, Laurini R, Goffin F, Bruchim I, Bischof P. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and mutant p53 is increased in hydatidiform mole as compared with normal placenta. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:1679-84 pubmed
    ..MMP-2 and mutp53 are overexpressed in HM as compared with normal trophoblast and might participate in the invasive behavior of the HM...
  7. Hoffner L, Surti U. The genetics of gestational trophoblastic disease: a rare complication of pregnancy. Cancer Genet. 2012;205:63-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the current understanding of the morphology, epidemiology and genetics of gestational trophoblastic disease that followed the milestone findings by Kajii and Ohama...
  8. Savage P, Williams J, Wong S, Short D, Casalboni S, Catalano K, et al. The demographics of molar pregnancies in England and Wales from 2000-2009. J Reprod Med. 2010;55:341-5 pubmed
    ..To analyze the overall incidence of molar pregnancies and that of complete and partial molar pregnancies across the reproductive age range for England and Wales for the period 2000-2009...
  9. Slim R, Mehio A. The genetics of hydatidiform moles: new lights on an ancient disease. Clin Genet. 2007;71:25-34 pubmed
    b>Hydatidiform mole (HM) is a human pregnancy with no embryo but cystic degeneration of chorionic villi...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Sebire N, Seckl M. Gestational trophoblastic disease: current management of hydatidiform mole. BMJ. 2008;337:a1193 pubmed publisher
  2. Hou J, Wan X, Xiang Y, Qi Q, Yang X. Changes of clinical features in hydatidiform mole: analysis of 113 cases. J Reprod Med. 2008;53:629-33 pubmed
    To investigate the changes of the clinical features of hydatidiform mole.
  3. Koga K, Osuga Y, Tajima T, Hirota Y, Igarashi T, Fujii T, et al. Elevated serum soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) level in women with hydatidiform mole. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:305-8 pubmed publisher
    To show soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) levels in sera from patients with hydatidiform mole, which is known to predispose women to severe early-onset preeclampsia.
  4. Savage P, Seckl M, Short D. Practical issues in the management of low-risk gestational trophoblast tumors. J Reprod Med. 2008;53:774-80 pubmed
    ..National or regional organization of follow-up and treatment is simple, economic and associated with enhanced outcomes when appropriate treatment policies are followed...
  5. Li A, Siu M, Zhang H, Wong E, Chan K, Ngan H, et al. Hypermethylation of SOX2 gene in hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Reprod Sci. 2008;15:735-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Epigenetic mechanisms may play important role on the transcriptional regulation of SOX2 and contribute to pathogenesis of gestational trophoblastic disease...
  6. Kirk E, Papageorghiou A, Condous G, Bottomley C, Bourne T. The accuracy of first trimester ultrasound in the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;29:70-5 pubmed
    Previous studies have examined ultrasound findings in histopathologically confirmed cases of hydatidiform mole. The aim of this study was to assess the first-trimester ultrasonographic findings in all women suspected of having ..
  7. Wang C, Dixon P, Decordova S, Hodges M, Sebire N, Ozalp S, et al. Identification of 13 novel NLRP7 mutations in 20 families with recurrent hydatidiform mole; missense mutations cluster in the leucine-rich region. J Med Genet. 2009;46:569-75 pubmed publisher
    NLRP7 (NALP7) has recently been identified as the causative gene for familial recurrent hydatidiform mole (FRHM), a rare autosomal recessive condition in which affected women have recurrent molar pregnancies of diploid biparental origin...
  8. Bolat F, Haberal N, Tunali N, Aslan E, Bal N, Tuncer I. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha), and transforming growth factors beta1 (TGFbeta1) and beta3 (TGFbeta3) in gestational trophoblastic disease. Pathol Res Pract. 2010;206:19-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that higher levels of VEGF, HIF-1alpha, and TGFbeta3 expression in choriocarcinoma might be involved in the development of trophoblastic diseases...
  9. Moskovitz J, Bond M. Molar pregnancy-induced thyroid storm. J Emerg Med. 2010;38:e71-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Molar pregnancy is a rare form of pregnancy, affecting approximately 1 in 1000 pregnancies in the United States. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of molar pregnancy; thyroid storm occurs even less frequently...
  10. Basta P, Galazka K, Mach P, Jozwicki W, Walentowicz M, Wicherek L. The immunohistochemical analysis of RCAS1, HLA-G, and B7H4-positive macrophages in partial and complete hydatidiform mole in both applied therapeutic surgery and surgery followed by chemotherapy. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011;65:164-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study has been to gain information about the expression of RCAS1, B7H4, and HLA-G within the macrophages present in the microenvironment of the molar lesion...
  11. Higasa K, Miyatake K, Kukita Y, Tahira T, Hayashi K. D-HaploDB: a database of definitive haplotypes determined by genotyping complete hydatidiform mole samples. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:D685-9 pubmed
    ..This is demonstrated by the absence of long extended shared haplotypes (ESHs). The D-HaploDB is freely accessible via the Internet at http://orca.gen.kyushu-u.ac.jp...
  12. Deng S, Ding Z, Qian J, Lu W, Wan X, Xie X. [Study on parental origin of complete hydatidiform mole detected by polymorphisms of microsatellite]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2007;42:468-71 pubmed
    Through detection of 9 loci of polymorphisms of microsatellite to investigate the parental origin of complete hydatidiform mole.
  13. Niemann I, Sunde L, Petersen L. Evaluation of the risk of persistent trophoblastic disease after twin pregnancy with diploid hydatidiform mole and coexisting normal fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197:45.e1-5 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to evaluate the risk of persistent trophoblastic disease and obstetric complications related to a multiple pregnancy comprising a diploid hydatidiform mole and normal cofetus(es).
  14. Erturk E, Bostan H, Geze S, Saracoglu S, Erciyes N, Eroglu A. Total intravenous anesthesia for evacuation of a hydatidiform mole and termination of pregnancy in a patient with thyrotoxicosis. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2007;16:363-6 pubmed
    Clinical hyperthyroidism is found in approximately 5% of women with a hydatidiform mole, as human chorionic gonadotropin secreted by molar tissue is structurally similar to thyroid-stimulating hormone...
  15. Parry D, Logan C, Hayward B, Shires M, Landolsi H, Diggle C, et al. Mutations causing familial biparental hydatidiform mole implicate c6orf221 as a possible regulator of genomic imprinting in the human oocyte. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;89:451-8 pubmed publisher
    Familial biparental hydatidiform mole (FBHM) is the only known pure maternal-effect recessive inherited disorder in humans...
  16. Chiniwala N, Woolf P, Bruno C, Kaur S, Spector H, Yacono K. Thyroid storm caused by a partial hydatidiform mole. Thyroid. 2008;18:479-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This case highlights the importance of including partial mole in the differential of hCG-mediated hyperthyroidism...
  17. Mangili G, Garavaglia E, Cavoretto P, Gentile C, Scarfone G, Rabaiotti E. Clinical presentation of hydatidiform mole in northern Italy: has it changed in the last 20 years?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:302.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the current clinical presentation of hydatidiform mole changed in the recent years compared with an historic group.
  18. Kim S, Lee S, Lee C, Kim I, An H, Kim J, et al. Differential expression profiling of genes in a complete hydatidiform mole using cDNA microarray analysis. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;103:654-60 pubmed
    ..the genes involved in the pathogenesis of gestational trophoblastic diseases, we evaluated the genome-wide expression levels of genes in complete hydatidiform mole (H-mole) as compared to normal placenta using cDNA microarray technique.
  19. Lurain J. Gestational trophoblastic disease I: epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease, and management of hydatidiform mole. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203:531-9 pubmed publisher
    Gestational trophoblastic disease includes hydatidiform mole (complete and partial) and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor)...
  20. Sahraoui W, Hajji S, Haouas N, Ladib N, Essafi A, Hmissa S, et al. [Recurrent hydatidiform mole. Case report of 9 successive molar pregnancies]. Tunis Med. 2006;84:506-8 pubmed
    ..The etiologic balance in particular the caryotypes of parents is normal. The authors debate the étiopathogénic and prognostic factors of this pathology...
  21. Roman E, Doyle P, Lightfoot T, Ansell P, Simpson J, Allan J, et al. Molar pregnancy, childhood cancer and genomic imprinting - is there a link?. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2006;9:171-4 pubmed
    ..This is the first time that an association between childhood cancer and hydatidiform mole has been reported...
  22. Popiolek D, Yee H, Mittal K, Chiriboga L, Prinz M, Caragine T, et al. Multiplex short tandem repeat DNA analysis confirms the accuracy of p57(KIP2) immunostaining in the diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole. Hum Pathol. 2006;37:1426-34 pubmed
    Detailed histopathologic examination remains to be the basis for the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole (HM). However, poor sampling, necrosis, and earlier uterine evacuation can lead to uncertainty in the diagnosis...
  23. Niemann I, Hansen E, Sunde L. The risk of persistent trophoblastic disease after hydatidiform mole classified by morphology and ploidy. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;104:411-5 pubmed
    b>Hydatidiform mole can be classified by histopathologic characteristics and by genetic constitutions and most complete moles are diploid, whereas most partial moles are triploid...
  24. Sebire N, Foskett M, Short D, Savage P, Stewart W, Thomson M, et al. Shortened duration of human chorionic gonadotrophin surveillance following complete or partial hydatidiform mole: evidence for revised protocol of a UK regional trophoblastic disease unit. BJOG. 2007;114:760-2 pubmed
    Following hydatidiform mole, women are at increased risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (pGTN) and are therefore monitored using serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) concentration measurements...
  25. Massardier J, Golfier F, Journet D, Frappart L, Zalaquett M, Schott A, et al. Twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and coexistent fetus: obstetrical and oncological outcomes in a series of 14 cases. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;143:84-7 pubmed publisher
    Twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and coexistent fetus (CHM&CF) is a rare situation and a challenge for diagnosis...
  26. Fallahian M, Sebire N, Savage P, Seckl M, Fisher R. Mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L confer a complete hydatidiform mole phenotype on digynic triploid conceptions. Hum Mutat. 2013;34:301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..identified two digynic triploid conceptions presenting with histopathological features of classical complete hydatidiform mole (CHM). Both cases occurred in women with a history of previous molar pregnancies and no normal pregnancies...
  27. Niemann I, Petersen L, Hansen E, Sunde L. Differences in current clinical features of diploid and triploid hydatidiform mole. BJOG. 2007;114:1273-7 pubmed
    ..To describe and compare the current clinical features of diploid and triploid molar pregnancy and to evaluate whether the presenting clinical features can predict the ploidy of a molar pregnancy...
  28. Hayward B, De Vos M, Talati N, Abdollahi M, Taylor G, Meyer E, et al. Genetic and epigenetic analysis of recurrent hydatidiform mole. Hum Mutat. 2009;30:E629-39 pubmed publisher
    Familial biparental hydatidiform mole (FBHM) is a maternal-effect autosomal recessive disorder in which recurrent pregnancy failure with molar degeneration occurs...
  29. Boufettal H, Feige J, Benharouga M, Aboussaouira T, Nadifi S, Mahdaoui S, et al. [Potential role of the angiogenic factor "EG-VEGF" in gestational trophoblastic diseases]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2013;61:178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Only an unfavorable plasma hCG monitoring after evacuation of hydatidiform mole is used to diagnose a TTG. The causes of the development of this cancer are still poorly understood...
  30. Fan J, Surti U, Taillon Miller P, Hsie L, Kennedy G, Hoffner L, et al. Paternal origins of complete hydatidiform moles proven by whole genome single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotyping. Genomics. 2002;79:58-62 pubmed
  31. Seckl M, Fisher R, Salerno G, Rees H, Paradinas F, Foskett M, et al. Choriocarcinoma and partial hydatidiform moles. Lancet. 2000;356:36-9 pubmed
    ..Our results show that PMs can transform into choriocarcinoma. All patients with suspected PM should be reviewed centrally and, if confirmed, need hCG follow-up. ..
  32. Gillespie A, Kumar S, Hancock B. Treatment of persistent trophoblastic disease later than 6 months after diagnosis of molar pregnancy. Br J Cancer. 2000;82:1393-5 pubmed
  33. Judson H, Hayward B, Sheridan E, Bonthron D. A global disorder of imprinting in the human female germ line. Nature. 2002;416:539-42 pubmed
    ..The resulting conception is phenotypically indistinguishable from an androgenetic complete hydatidiform mole, in which abnormal extra-embryonic tissue proliferates while development of the embryo is absent or nearly ..
  34. Palmieri C, Fisher R, Sebire N, Lindsay I, Smith J, McCluggage W, et al. Placental site trophoblastic tumour arising from a partial hydatidiform mole. Lancet. 2005;366:688 pubmed
  35. Murdoch S, Djuric U, Mazhar B, Seoud M, Khan R, Kuick R, et al. Mutations in NALP7 cause recurrent hydatidiform moles and reproductive wastage in humans. Nat Genet. 2006;38:300-2 pubmed
    b>Hydatidiform mole (HM) is an abnormal human pregnancy with no embryo and cystic degeneration of placental villi. We report five mutations in the maternal gene NALP7 in individuals with familial and recurrent HMs...
  36. Koc S, Ozdegirmenci O, Tulunay G, Ozgul N, Kose M, Bulbul D. Recurrent partial hydatidiform mole: a report of a patient with three consecutive molar pregnancies. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:940-3 pubmed
    b>Hydatidiform mole (HM) is the most common form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and is characterized by atypical hyperplastic trophoblasts and hydropic villi. Recurrence of HM is extremely rare...
  37. Vaisbuch E, Ben Arie A, Dgani R, Perlman S, Sokolovsky N, Hagay Z. Twin pregnancy consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole and co-existent fetus: report of two cases and review of literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;98:19-23 pubmed
    b>Hydatidiform mole with co-existing live fetus is a rare entity. Two cases are reported. In the first, complete mole with a co-existing live fetus was suspected on ultrasound examination at 16 weeks of gestation...
  38. Han B, Kim M, Karl E, Hong S, Choi S. A case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with a hydatidiform mole. Yonsei Med J. 2000;41:407-10 pubmed
    ..woman who was suffering from membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with a complete type of hydatidiform mole. The renal manifestations were proteinuria and hematuria...
  39. Harma M, Kocyigit A, Demir N. Role of plasma nitric oxide in complete hydatidiform mole. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2004;25:333-5 pubmed
    This prospective study aimed to evaluate any relationship between development of complete hydatidiform mole and plasma levels of nitric oxide (a biologically active mediator derived from L-arginine), and human chorionic gonadotropin beta ..
  40. Wongweragiat S, Searle R, Bulmer J. Expression of Fas/Fas ligand by decidual leukocytes in hydatidiform mole. Biol Reprod. 2001;64:784-9 pubmed
    ..designed to characterize and quantitate Fas/FasL expression by decidual leukocytes in complete and partial hydatidiform mole compared with that in normal early pregnancy using single and double immunohistochemical labeling (i.e...
  41. Lehner R, Bobak J, Kim N, Shroyer A, Shroyer K. Localization of telomerase hTERT protein and survivin in placenta: relation to placental development and hydatidiform mole. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;97:965-70 pubmed
    ..To find if a difference in telomerase or survivin expression exists between non-neoplastic tissues and hydatidiform moles, and explore expression of those proteins in normal placental development, post-term gestation, and preeclampsia...
  42. Nomura M, Tsukahara S, Ando H, Katsumata Y, Okada M, Itakura A, et al. Differential distribution of placental leucine aminopeptidase/oxytocinase and aminopeptidase A in human trophoblasts of normal placenta and complete hydatidiform mole. Placenta. 2002;23:631-9 pubmed
    ..of P-LAP and AP-A proteins and messenger RNAs in human trophoblasts in normal placenta and complete hydatidiform mole by immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization techniques...
  43. Fowler D, Lindsay I, Seckl M, Sebire N. Routine pre-evacuation ultrasound diagnosis of hydatidiform mole: experience of more than 1000 cases from a regional referral center. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006;27:56-60 pubmed
    ..of routine ultrasound examinations in patients with a proven histological diagnosis of complete or partial hydatidiform mole referred to a supra-regional referral center, and to examine the relationship of sonographic findings to ..
  44. Nishi H, Ohyashiki K, Fujito A, Yahata N, Ohyashiki J, Isaka K, et al. Expression of telomerase subunits and localization of telomerase activation in hydatidiform mole. Placenta. 1999;20:317-23 pubmed
    ..Upregulation of TERT expression may thus play an important role in telomerase reactivation...
  45. Burton J, Lidbury E, Gillespie A, Tidy J, Smith O, Lawry J, et al. Over-diagnosis of hydatidiform mole in early tubal ectopic pregnancy. Histopathology. 2001;38:409-17 pubmed
    ..We investigated the apparently high incidence of tubal ectopic hydatidiform moles in women referred for treatment to a Supraregional Trophoblastic Tumour Screening and Treatment Centre between 1986 and 1996...
  46. Genest D. Partial hydatidiform mole: clinicopathological features, differential diagnosis, ploidy and molecular studies, and gold standards for diagnosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2001;20:315-22 pubmed
    Partial hydatidiform mole is optimally diagnosed histopathologically when four microscopic features coexist: 1) two populations of villi, 2) enlarged villi (> or = 3-4 mm) with central captivation, 3) irregular villi with geographic, ..
  47. Fishman D, Padilla L, Keh P, Cohen L, Frederiksen M, Lurain J. Management of twin pregnancies consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole and normal fetus. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;91:546-50 pubmed
    To report the clinical features, management, and outcome of twin pregnancies consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole and a coexisting normal fetus.
  48. Sebire N, Foskett M, Fisher R, Rees H, Seckl M, Newlands E. Risk of partial and complete hydatidiform molar pregnancy in relation to maternal age. BJOG. 2002;109:99-102 pubmed
    ..This study provides, for the first time, data regarding specific risk of partial versus complete hydatidiform mole with maternal age.
  49. Sebire N, Foskett M, Paradinas F, Fisher R, Francis R, Short D, et al. Outcome of twin pregnancies with complete hydatidiform mole and healthy co-twin. Lancet. 2002;359:2165-6 pubmed
    We assessed 77 twin pregnancies, comprising complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) and healthy co-twin, to ascertain the risks to the mother and baby of continuing the pregnancy, versus termination...
  50. Lai C, Chan K, Khoo U, Ngan H, Xue W, Chiu P, et al. Analysis of gestational trophoblastic disease by genotyping and chromosome in situ hybridization. Mod Pathol. 2004;17:40-8 pubmed
    b>Hydatidiform mole is classified into partial and complete subtypes according to histopathological and genetic criteria. Distinction between the two by histology alone may be difficult...
  51. Seckl M, Dhillon T, Dancey G, Foskett M, Paradinas F, Rees H, et al. Increased gestational age at evacuation of a complete hydatidiform mole: does it correlate with increased risk of requiring chemotherapy?. J Reprod Med. 2004;49:527-30 pubmed
    To assess whether a complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) carries an increased risk of later requiring chemotherapy in pregnancies continued to term.
  52. Harma M, Harma M, Kocyigit A. Comparison of protein carbonyl and total plasma thiol concentrations in patients with complete hydatidiform mole with those in healthy pregnant women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004;83:857-60 pubmed
    ..Normal pregnant women are known to have increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (which can be estimated by protein carbonyl concentration) but offsetting antioxidant protection (of which plasma thiols are an important component)...
  53. Cui J, Shi Y, Zhou H, Li J. The changes of gene expression profiles in hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma with hyperplasia of trophoblasts. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004;14:984-97 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that altered expression of genes exist in HM and choriocarcinoma. Trophoblastic hyperplasia may be involved in the overexpression of DNA synthetic enzymes...
  54. Xue W, Chan K, Feng H, Chiu P, Ngan H, Tsao S, et al. Promoter hypermethylation of multiple genes in hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. J Mol Diagn. 2004;6:326-34 pubmed
    The methylation status of genes in hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma and its significance is relatively unexplored...
  55. Fukunaga M, Katabuchi H, Nagasaka T, Mikami Y, Minamiguchi S, Lage J. Interobserver and intraobserver variability in the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29:942-7 pubmed
    ..in products of conception at the first trimester and must determine whether the villi represent complete hydatidiform mole (CM), partial hydatidiform mole (PM), or hydropic abortion (HA)...
  56. Sebire N, Fisher R, Rees H. Histopathological diagnosis of partial and complete hydatidiform mole in the first trimester of pregnancy. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2003;6:69-77 pubmed
    ..Pathophysiological issues relevant to molar pregnancies, such as genetic abnormalities, will be briefly summarized, but nonhistopathological aspects of molar disease will not be covered in detail in this review...
  57. Saxena A, Frank D, Panichkul P, Van den Veyver I, Tycko B, Thaker H. The product of the imprinted gene IPL marks human villous cytotrophoblast and is lost in complete hydatidiform mole. Placenta. 2003;24:835-42 pubmed
    ..IPL protein was absent in both of two cases of androgenetic complete hydatidiform mole examined by immunostaining, and IPL mRNA was absent in an additional three cases of this neoplasm examined ..
  58. Knoeller S, Lim E, Aleta L, Hertwig K, Dudenhausen J, Arck P. Distribution of immunocompetent cells in decidua of controlled and uncontrolled (choriocarcinoma/hydatidiform mole) trophoblast invasion. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2003;50:41-7 pubmed
    ..In choriocarcinoma (CC) and hydatidiform mole (HM), a dysregulation of invasive (malignant/benign) trophoblast cells is present...
  59. Moglabey Y, Kircheisen R, Seoud M, El Mogharbel N, Van den Veyver I, Slim R. Genetic mapping of a maternal locus responsible for familial hydatidiform moles. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8:667-71 pubmed
    b>Hydatidiform mole (HM) is the product of an aberrant human pregnancy in which there is an abnormal embryonic development and proliferation of placental villi...