placental site trophoblastic tumor

Summary

Summary: An uncommon variant of CHORIOCARCINOMA. It is composed almost entirely of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). Because its secretion of hCG (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN) is low, a large tumor may develop before the hCG can be detected.

Top Publications

  1. Cheung A. Pathology of gestational trophoblastic diseases. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;17:849-68 pubmed
    ..Alternative biological markers may be explored for better patient management...
  2. Guvendag Guven E, Guven S, Esinler I, Ayhan A, Kucukali T, Usubutun A. Placental site trophoblastic tumor in a patient with brain and lung metastases. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004;14:558-63 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor is a rare neoplasm that arises from intermediate trophoblasts and shows diversity of biological behaviors, resulting in the absence of consistency in treatment modalities...
  3. Aoki Y, Kodama S, Kurata H, Kase H, Tanaka K. Failure of high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell support for refractory placental site trophoblastic tumor. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1999;47:214-6 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease. The metastatic and refractory cases have a very poor prognosis...
  4. Piura B, Rabinovich A, Meirovitz M, Shaco Levy R. Placental site trophoblastic tumor: report of four cases and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007;17:258-62 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare variant of gestational trophoblastic disease that originates from the implantation site intermediate trophoblast. We report four patients with PSTT and review pertinent literature...
  5. Feltmate C, Genest D, Wise L, Bernstein M, Goldstein D, Berkowitz R. Placental site trophoblastic tumor: a 17-year experience at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;82:415-9 pubmed
    ..We reviewed cases of placental site trophoblastic tumors from the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC) database from 1982-1999 in an effort to identify prognostic factors for recurrent disease...
  6. Ohmaru T, Yamakawa H, Netsu S, Nokubi M, Konno R. Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with multiple metastases and extremely poor prognosis. Int J Clin Oncol. 2009;14:452-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic disease. There is a wide clinical spectrum of presentation and behavior ranging from a benign condition to an aggressive disease with a fatal outcome...
  7. Behtash N, Karimi Zarchi M. Placental site trophoblastic tumor. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2008;134:1-6 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare neoplasm that rises from intermediate trophoblasts and commonly presents with low and variable concentration of HCG immunoactivity in serum, which can be difficult to differentiate from ..
  8. Ayas S, Gurbuz A, Karateke A, Cetiner H. Placental site trophoblastic tumor with multiple metastases and complete response to salvage BEP regimen: a case report and review of the literature. Med Oncol. 2009;26:96-100 pubmed publisher
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease, derived from invasive implantation site (intermediate) trophoblastic cells. It is frequently resistant to chemotherapy...
  9. Wright J, Powell M, Horowitz N, Huettner P, White F, Herzog T. Placental site trophoblastic tumor presenting with a pneumothorax during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100:1141-4 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease that commonly presents with vaginal bleeding and amenorrhea after pregnancy.

More Information

Publications90

  1. Cole L, Khanlian S, Muller C. Blood test for placental site trophoblastic tumor and nontrophoblastic malignancy for evaluating patients with low positive human chorionic gonadotropin results. J Reprod Med. 2008;53:457-64 pubmed
    ..of proportions of free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in diagnosis of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and nontrophoblastic neoplasm in patients with persistent low hCG levels and patients with ..
  2. Feltmate C, Genest D, Goldstein D, Berkowitz R. Advances in the understanding of placental site trophoblastic tumor. J Reprod Med. 2002;47:337-41 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is the least common form of gestational trophoblastic disease...
  3. Gari A. Placental site trophoblastic tumor and choriocarcinoma: an unusual presentation. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:703 pubmed publisher
    Mixed trophoblastic tumor composed of choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor was diagnosed on histopathology slides review, is a very rare mixed tumor and cured after adjuvant chemotherapy...
  4. Baergen R, Rutgers J, Young R. Extrauterine lesions of intermediate trophoblast. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2003;22:362-7 pubmed
    ..trophoblast arising in the uterus include exaggerated placental site, placental site nodule, placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor...
  5. Shi Y, Li J, Zheng W, Chen X, Qiao Y, Hao M, et al. [Survey of gestational trophoblastic disease incidence among 3.6 million pregnancies in China]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2005;40:76-8 pubmed
    ..The incidences of GTD decreased significantly compared with 1950s'. It is important to take pathological examination for GTD and to diagnose complate mole and partial mole correctly. ..
  6. Dotto J, Jorge D, Hui P. Lack of genetic association between exaggerated placental site reaction and placental site trophoblastic tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008;27:562-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Sharing similar cytological and immunohistochemical features with the tumor cells of placental site trophoblastic tumor, a biological link between the 2 lesions can be speculated...
  7. Giordano G, Manuguerra R, Varotti E, Brigati F. A case of placental site nodule associated with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016;37:259-61 pubmed
    ..from curettage, can microscopically mimic aggressive lesions of intermediate trophoblast, such as placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT), and in an unusual location can pose problems in ..
  8. Mak V, Wong O, Siu M, Wong E, Ng W, Wong R, et al. FBI-1 Is Overexpressed in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease and Promotes Tumor Growth and Cell Aggressiveness of Choriocarcinoma via PI3K/Akt Signaling. Am J Pathol. 2015;185:2038-48 pubmed publisher
    ..increased nuclear expression of FBI-1, including hydatidiform moles, choriocarcinoma (CCA), and placental site trophoblastic tumor, in GTD...
  9. Mangili G, Bergamini A, Giorgione V, Picchio M, Petrone M, Mapelli P, et al. [¹⁸F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and trophoblastic disease: the gynecologist perspective. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016;60:103-16 pubmed
    ..diseases that includes hydatidiform mole (HM), invasive mole, gestational choriocarcinoma (CC), placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT)...
  10. Chiofalo B, Palmara V, Laganà A, Triolo O, Vitale S, Conway F, et al. Fertility Sparing Strategies in Patients Affected by Placental Site Trophoblastic Tumor. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2017;18:58 pubmed publisher
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is the least common and the most ambiguous gestational trophoblastic tumor...
  11. Chan H, Siu M, Zhang H, Wong E, Ngan H, Chan K, et al. Activated Stat3 expression in gestational trophoblastic disease: correlation with clinicopathological parameters and apoptotic indices. Histopathology. 2008;53:139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..034), respectively. p-Stat3-Ser(727) plays a role in the pathogenesis of GTD, probably through the regulation of apoptosis. p-Stat3-Ser(727) immunoreactivity is a potential marker in predicting GTN in HM. ..
  12. Gulati D, Bahal A, Tevatia M, Mehta A, Muttagikar M. Placental site trophoblastic tumour--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006;49:281-3 pubmed
    ..Its characterization is thus important for treatment and further management. We present an unusual case who presented with ascites of non-neoplastic origin and was found to have metastases to the lymph node. ..
  13. Santoro G, Laganà A, Micali A, Barresi V, Giacobbe V, Palmara V. Historical, morphological and clinical overview of placental site trophoblastic tumors: from bench to bedside. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;295:173-187 pubmed publisher
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a form of gestational trophoblastic disease that originates from the implantation of an intermediate trophoblast. It was described for the first time by Von F...
  14. Desai S, Dombale V, Jadhav A. Placental site trophoblastic tumor. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2005;48:505-7 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor is very rare. It is a gestational trophoblastic neoplasm which follows normal or molar pregnancy. It is usually confined to uterus & 15-20% behave in a malignant fashion...
  15. Agarwal N, Parul -, Kriplani A, Vijayaraghavan M. Placental site trophoblastic tumour. J Postgrad Med. 2002;48:211-2 pubmed
  16. Chiu P, Ngan Y, Khoo U, Cheung A. Apoptotic activity in gestational trophoblastic disease correlates with clinical outcome: assessment by the caspase-related M30 CytoDeath antibody. Histopathology. 2001;38:243-9 pubmed
    ..034). We conclude that apoptosis is important in the pathogenesis of GTD. Assessment of apoptotic activity in HM by the M30 index may be considered as an alternative prognostic indicator for predicting the clinical behaviour. ..
  17. Condous G, Thomas J, Okaro E, Bourne T. Placental site trophoblastic tumor masquerading as an ovarian ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2003;21:504-6 pubmed
    ..This case shows that a misinterpretation of signs of EP can result in a delay in accurate diagnosis. ..
  18. Leow W, Loh H, Lee L, Goh C. A rare case of combined placental site trophoblastic tumour with mature cystic teratoma and mixed germ cell tumour in the testis. Malays J Pathol. 2015;37:145-7 pubmed
    ..lactogen and inhibin, while negative for Melan-A, p63 and alpha-fetoprotein, consistent with placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT)...
  19. Gadducci A, Lanfredini N, Cosio S. Reproductive outcomes after hydatiform mole and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2015;31:673-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Fertility-sparing treatment for placental site trophoblastic tumor is a therapeutic option reserved to highly selected, young women who do not present markedly ..
  20. Zhao J, Xiang Y, Wan X, Cui Q, Yang X. Clinical and pathologic characteristics and prognosis of placental site trophoblastic tumor. J Reprod Med. 2006;51:939-44 pubmed
    To analyze the clinical and pathologic characteristics of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) cases and to discuss the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of PSTT...
  21. Xue W, Guan X, Ngan H, Shen D, Khoo U, Cheung A. Malignant placental site trophoblastic tumor: a cytogenetic study using comparative genomic hybridization and chromosome in situ hybridization. Cancer. 2002;94:2288-94 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm composed predominantly of intermediate trophoblast...
  22. al Hussaini M, Lioe T, McCluggage W. Placental site nodule of the ovary. Histopathology. 2002;41:471-2 pubmed
  23. Yang X. [The necessity of attaching importance to canonical treatment of gestationcal trophoblastic tumors]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2005;40:73-5 pubmed
  24. Palmieri C, Fisher R, Sebire N, Smith J, Newlands E. Placental-site trophoblastic tumour: an unusual presentation with bilateral ovarian involvement. Lancet Oncol. 2005;6:59-61 pubmed
  25. Fulop V, Vegh G, Doszpod J. [The c-erbB-related oncoproteins in normal placenta and in gestational trophoblastic diseases (in vitro study)]. Orv Hetil. 2001;142:1147-54 pubmed
    ..The EGFR-related family of oncogenes may be important in the pathogenesis and prognosis of gestational trophoblastic diseases...
  26. Batra V, Kalra O, Mathur P, Kavita -, Dev G. Membranous glomerulopathy associated with placental site trophoblastic tumour: a case report. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:1766-8 pubmed
  27. Newlands E. The management of recurrent and drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;17:905-23 pubmed
    ..The late side-effects of more intensive treatment are a small risk of inducing second tumours and also of bringing forward the age of menopause. ..
  28. Li X, Feng F, Xiang Y, Wan X, Ren T, Yang J. [Value of laparoscopic surgery in the diagnosis of suspected gestational trophoblastic neoplasia cases with uterine mass]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2015;50:910-4 pubmed
    ..them, 17 cases were definitely diagnosed as GTN, including 8 choriocarcinoma, 5 invasive mole and 4 placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT)...
  29. Zhang X, Zhou C, Yu M, Chen X. Coexisting epithelioid trophoblastic tumor and placental site trophoblastic tumor of the uterus following a term pregnancy: report of a case and review of literature. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:7254-9 pubmed
  30. Petersson F, Grossmann P, Vanecek T, Coric M, Cacic M, Hes O, et al. Testicular germ cell tumor composed of placental site trophoblastic tumor and teratoma. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:1046-50 pubmed publisher
    ..examination showed a malignant germ cell tumor with a unique and hitherto unpublished combination of placental site trophoblastic tumor and teratoma. Testicular tubules adjacent to the tumor contained intratubular germ cell neoplasia...
  31. Sivanesaratnam V. Management of gestational trophoblastic disease in developing countries. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;17:925-42 pubmed
    ..7% respectively. Surgery and radiotherapy have a limited role...
  32. Allison K, Love J, Garcia R. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: review of a rare neoplasm of the chorionic-type intermediate trophoblast. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130:1875-7 pubmed
    ..The clinical behavior of this rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease is difficult to predict. Although most cases follow a benign course following resection, there is a potential for metastatic disease...
  33. Khan S, Dancey G, Lindsay I, Sebire N, Fisher R, Seckl M, et al. Placental site trophoblastic tumour derived from an oocyte donation pregnancy. BJOG. 2006;113:344-6 pubmed
  34. Köbel M, Pohl G, Schmitt W, Hauptmann S, Wang T, Shih I. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for migration and invasion of placental site trophoblastic tumor. Am J Pathol. 2005;167:879-85 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a gestational neoplasm derived from the extravillous (intermediate) trophoblast of the implantation site...
  35. Kelly T, Alvis C, Abedalthagafi M, Barnes W. Diagnostic evaluation of metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:465-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor, a type of gestational trophoblastic disease, is a rare tumor composed of intermediate trophoblasts.
  36. Lin H, Shieh C, Chen L, Yang Y, Han C. Spontaneous uterine perforation mimicking ectopic pregnancy as the initial presentation of placental site trophoblastic tumor. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei). 2001;64:545-50 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), with only 100 cases reported in the literature...
  37. Ichikawa Y, Nakauchi T, Sato T, Oki A, Tsunoda H, Yoshikawa H. Ultrasound diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous fistula associated with placental site trophoblastic tumor. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2003;21:606-8 pubmed
    We report a case of a woman with abnormal vaginal bleeding who had a placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) detected following hysterectomy...
  38. Le Vaillant C, Tremouilhac C, Boog G. [Luteinized cystic ovarian hyperplasia during a normal pregnancy]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2003;32:368-74 pubmed
    ..A positive ovarian stimulation test with hCG, recommended three months after delivery may detect a recurrence risk for further pregnancies. Conservative treatment is advised and surgery must be reserved for maternal complications...
  39. Benjapibal M, Wataganara T, Senawong S, Boriboonhirunsarn D, Suphanit I. The correlation of beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin level in the serum and first morning urine of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001;84:1000-5 pubmed
    ..Determination of beta-hCG level using first morning urine samples can be used as an effective mean in the follow-up of patients with GTD...
  40. Palmieri C, Fisher R, Sebire N, Lindsay I, Smith J, McCluggage W, et al. Placental site trophoblastic tumour arising from a partial hydatidiform mole. Lancet. 2005;366:688 pubmed
  41. Whitney K. Placental site trophoblastic tumor. Am J Nurs. 2009;109:32-7; quiz 38 pubmed publisher
    ..tests can result from medical conditions other than pregnancy, including various cancers, such as placental site trophoblastic tumor, the focus of this article...
  42. Arroyo M, Podda A, Cao D, Rodriguez M. Placental site trophoblastic tumor in the ovary of a young child with isosexual precocious puberty. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2009;12:73-6 pubmed publisher
    The authors report a unique case of a primary ovarian placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in a 30-month-old girl who presented with isosexual precocious puberty of 1 month duration...
  43. Nieves L, Hoffman J, Allen G, Currie J, Sorosky J. Placental-site trophoblastic tumor with PET scan-detected surgically treated lung metastasis. Int J Clin Oncol. 2008;13:263-5 pubmed publisher
    ..She is currently in clinical remission. Surgery may have a role in salvaging a patient with persistent PET-positive disease after chemotherapy...
  44. Cole M, Broaddus R, Thaker P, Landen C, Freedman R. Placental-site trophoblastic tumors: a case of resistant pulmonary metastasis. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2008;5:171-5 pubmed publisher
  45. Noal S, Joly F, Leblanc E. [Management of gestational trophoblastic disease]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2010;38:193-8 pubmed publisher
    Gestational trophoblastic diseases comprise of hydatiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor. Most of those pathologies are chemosensitive and have excellent prognosis, allowing preserving women's ..
  46. Milingos D, Doumplis D, Savage P, Seckl M, Lindsay I, Smith J. Placental site trophoblastic tumor with an ovarian metastasis. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007;17:925-7 pubmed
    ..The case highlights the possibility of ovarian metastases despite normal preoperative imaging and confirms the value of multidisciplinary management of this rare illness...
  47. Monclair T, Abeler V, Kaern J, Walaas L, Zeller B, Hilstrøm C. Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in mother and child: first report of PSTT in infancy. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2002;38:187-91; discussion 192 pubmed
    ..To the authors' knowledge, placental site trophoblastic tumors occurring simultaneously in mother and infant have not previously been reported...
  48. Nagai Y, Kamoi S, Matsuoka T, Hata A, Jobo T, Ogasawara T, et al. Impact of p53 immunostaining in predicting advanced or recurrent placental site trophoblastic tumors: a study of 12 cases. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;106:446-52 pubmed
    ..To identify an indicator that can predict tumor cell spread beyond the uterine corpus...
  49. Kim S, Chang A, Ratts V. Radiographic and hysteroscopic findings of a placental site nodule. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:213-5 pubmed
    ..To report a case of placental site nodule discovered on hysterosalpingogram and evaluated by sonohysterography and hysteroscopy in a patient presenting with infertility...
  50. Hassadia A, Gillespie A, Tidy J, Everard R G N J, Wells M, Coleman R, et al. Placental site trophoblastic tumour: clinical features and management. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;99:603-7 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical features, treatment and outcome of all consecutive patients with placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT) treated at the Sheffield Trophoblast Centre and to compare these findings to other reports...
  51. Gupta N, Mittal S, Misra R, Vimala N, Das A. Placental site trophoblastic tumor originating in a tubal ectopic pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006;129:92-4 pubmed
  52. Bruni R, Nigita G, Pagani Guazzugli Bonaiuti V, Petrocca S, Terenzi A. Adrenal metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor. Case report. Chir Ital. 2003;55:257-60 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor is a rare disease. Since its first description in the literature only about 100 cases have been reported...
  53. Nigam S, Singhal N, Kumar Gupta S, Chhabra D, Manaktala U. Placental site trophoblastic tumor in a postmenopausal female--a case report. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;93:550-3 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is tumor of intermediate trophoblast, seen commonly in reproductive age group.
  54. Jeremic K, Gojnic M, Milenkovic V, Boskovic V, Berisavac M, Zecevic N. Placental site trophoblastic tumor: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2006;27:98-100 pubmed
    ..Patient K.N., age 30, nulliparous deliveries and with one miscarriage, was admitted to the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Center of Serbia, in December 2000 with the following diagnosis: Uterine myoma and adnexal mass...
  55. Dainty L, Winter W, Maxwell G. The clinical behavior of placental site trophoblastic tumor and contemporary methods of management. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2003;46:607-11 pubmed
  56. Went P, Dirnhofer S, Stallmach T, Taverna C, Singer G. Placental site trophoblastic tumor of the mediastinum. Hum Pathol. 2005;36:581-4 pubmed
    ..We report a unique case of a placental site trophoblastic tumor, which developed in the mediastinum of a 14-year-old boy 2 years after the resection of a mature ..
  57. Zhao Y, Zhang W, Duan W. Management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia with 5-fluorouracil and actinomycin D in northern China. J Reprod Med. 2009;54:88-94 pubmed
  58. Harvey R, Pursglove H, Schmid P, Savage P, Mitchell H, Seckl M. Human chorionic gonadotropin free beta-subunit measurement as a marker of placental site trophoblastic tumors. J Reprod Med. 2008;53:643-8 pubmed
    ..the utility of free human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit (hCGbeta) proportion of total hCG measurement to distinguish placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) from more common forms of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).
  59. Karabakhtsian R, Heller D. Pathologic quiz case: a 26-year-old woman with profuse vaginal bleeding. Metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004;128:e50-1 pubmed
  60. Aggarwal N, Sawhney H, Vasishta K, Pathak N, Saran R, Nijhawan R. Metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor: a case report. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2001;27:49-52 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is very rare. It is an unusual variant of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia usually confined to the uterus, although 10% of patients have metastases...
  61. Hui P, Riba A, Pejovic T, Johnson T, Baergen R, Ward D. Comparative genomic hybridization study of placental site trophoblastic tumour: a report of four cases. Mod Pathol. 2004;17:248-51 pubmed
    ..The recurrent chromosomal gain involving chromosomal 21q observed in two of our cases deserves additional studies to ascertain whether it carries any pathobiological significance...
  62. El Hag I, Ramesh K, Kollur S, Salem M. Extrauterine placental site trophoblastic tumour in association with a lithopedion. Histopathology. 2002;41:446-9 pubmed
    ..We describe an unusual case of extrauterine placental site trophoblastic tumour located in pouch of Douglas in association with a lithopedion...
  63. Abramowicz J, Sheiner E. Ultrasound of the placenta: a systematic approach. Part I: Imaging. Placenta. 2008;29:225-40 pubmed publisher
  64. Moore Maxwell C, Robboy S. Placental site trophoblastic tumor arising from antecedent molar pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;92:708-12 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease. Little is known about its pathogenesis and natural history.
  65. Pfeffer P, Sebire N, Lindsay I, McIndoe A, Lim A, Seckl M. Fertility-sparing partial hysterectomy for placental-site trophoblastic tumour. Lancet Oncol. 2007;8:744-6 pubmed
  66. Mao T, Kurman R, Huang C, Lin M, Shih I. Immunohistochemistry of choriocarcinoma: an aid in differential diagnosis and in elucidating pathogenesis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007;31:1726-32 pubmed
    ..including placenta, complete mole, placental site nodule, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor, and placental site trophoblastic tumor were analyzed. The antibodies included Mel-CAM, HLA-G, MUC-4, and beta-catenin...
  67. Hemalatha A, Kumar D, Sumanth D, Abhishek M, Shashidhar H. Placental site trophoblastic tumour: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2007;50:581-3 pubmed
  68. Kim K, Jun S, Kim J, Ro J. Implantation site intermediate trophoblasts in placenta cretas. Mod Pathol. 2004;17:1483-90 pubmed
  69. Machtinger R, Gotlieb W, Korach J, Fridman E, Apter S, Goldenberg M, et al. Placental site trophoblastic tumor: outcome of five cases including fertility preserving management. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;96:56-61 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare variant of gestational trophoblastic disease that has been re-described during the 1970s.
  70. Yeasmin S, Nakayama K, Katagiri A, Ishikawa M, Iida K, Nakayama N, et al. Exaggerated placental site mimicking placental site trophoblastic tumor: case report and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2010;31:586-9 pubmed
    ..reactive exaggerated placental site seven months following normal pregnancy that clinically mimicked placental site trophoblastic tumor. Few reports have described the clinical course, histopathology and differential diagnosis of ..
  71. Shen D, Liao X, Liu Y, Wang H, Yu Y. [Clinicopathological study of intermediate trophoblastic non-tumor lesions: exaggerated placental site and placental site nodule]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2004;33:441-4 pubmed
    ..To investigate the clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic non-tumor lesions, and to evaluate the position of immunohistochemistry in differential diagnoses...
  72. Shih I. The role of CD146 (Mel-CAM) in biology and pathology. J Pathol. 1999;189:4-11 pubmed
  73. Sakhel K, Khalil A, Kaspar H, Azar G, Mansour A, Nassar A. Placental site trophoblastic tumor in a patient with secondary infertility and radiological findings consistent with a leiomyoma: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004;14:694-6 pubmed
    b>Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is the rarest form of gestational trophoblastic diseases. We report a 40-year-old woman who presented initially after a year of secondary infertility with prolonged menstrual flow...
  74. Xiang Y, Wan X, Sun Z, Yang X. [Etopside, methotrexate, kengshengmycin/etopside, cisplatin chemotherapy for chemorefractory gestational trophoblastic tumour]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2005;40:79-82 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the results of etopside, methotrexate, kengshengmycin/etopside, cisplatin (EMA/EP) chemotherapy in patients with chemorefractory gestational trophoblastic tumour...
  75. Schmid P, Nagai Y, Agarwal R, Hancock B, Savage P, Sebire N, et al. Prognostic markers and long-term outcome of placental-site trophoblastic tumours: a retrospective observational study. Lancet. 2009;374:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess the long-term outcome of stage-adapted management by surgery, chemotherapy, or both for patients with the disorder...
  76. Baergen R, Rutgers J, Young R, Osann K, Scully R. Placental site trophoblastic tumor: A study of 55 cases and review of the literature emphasizing factors of prognostic significance. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;100:511-20 pubmed
    The placental site trophoblastic tumor is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease. Fifteen percent of reported cases have been fatal, but predicting behavior in individual patients has been challenging.
  77. Li H, Tsao S, Cheung A. Current understandings of the molecular genetics of gestational trophoblastic diseases. Placenta. 2002;23:20-31 pubmed
    ..The significance of these alterations in the pathogenesis and malignant transformation of gestational trophoblastic diseases is reviewed in this paper...
  78. Xue Y, Zhang J, Wu T, An R. Combination chemotherapy for high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;:CD005196 pubmed
    ..The efficacy of these drugs has not been systematically reviewed...
  79. Gudipudi D, Hartzfeld K, Montemarano N, Del Priore G. Decreased breast cancer rates among women with choriocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;110:202-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that exposure to high levels of hCG in women diagnosed with choriocarcinoma would decrease future breast cancer risk...
  80. Stolnicu S, Radulescu D, González Rocha T, Timar I, Puscasiu L, Nogales F. Exaggerated placental site lesion with unusual presentation in the cervix of a perimenopausal patient. APMIS. 2008;116:160-2 pubmed publisher
  81. Shih I, Kurman R. The pathology of intermediate trophoblastic tumors and tumor-like lesions. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2001;20:31-47 pubmed
    ..lesions are thought to arise: exaggerated placental site (EPS), placental site nodule (PSN), placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT)...