trophoblastic neoplasms


Summary: Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691)

Top Publications

  1. Bower M, Newlands E, Holden L, Short D, Brock C, Rustin G, et al. EMA/CO for high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumors: results from a cohort of 272 patients. J Clin Oncol. 1997;15:2636-43 pubmed
  2. Rustin G, Newlands E, Lutz J, Holden L, Bagshawe K, Hiscox J, et al. Combination but not single-agent methotrexate chemotherapy for gestational trophoblastic tumors increases the incidence of second tumors. J Clin Oncol. 1996;14:2769-73 pubmed
    ..More patient years at risk enabled a further analysis of the risk of second tumors to be performed in the 1,377 women treated in this until up to 1990...
  3. Dobson L, Lorigan P, Coleman R, Hancock B. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease: results of MEA (methotrexate, etoposide and dactinomycin) as first-line chemotherapy in high risk disease and EA (etoposide and dactinomycin) as second-line therapy for low risk disease. Br J Cancer. 2000;82:1547-52 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the MEA and EA chemotherapy regimens for persistent trophoblastic disease are very well tolerated, do not appear to affect future fertility and are associated with excellent, sustained complete response rates...
  4. Cole L, Shahabi S, Butler S, Mitchell H, Newlands E, Behrman H, et al. Utility of commonly used commercial human chorionic gonadotropin immunoassays in the diagnosis and management of trophoblastic diseases. Clin Chem. 2001;47:308-15 pubmed
    ..False-positive hCG immunoreactivity has also been detected, leading to needless therapy for trophoblastic diseases. Here we compare seven commonly used hCG assays...
  5. McNeish I, Strickland S, Holden L, Rustin G, Foskett M, Seckl M, et al. Low-risk persistent gestational trophoblastic disease: outcome after initial treatment with low-dose methotrexate and folinic acid from 1992 to 2000. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:1838-44 pubmed
  6. Kohorn E. Persistent low-level "real" human chorionic gonadotropin: a clinical challenge and a therapeutic dilemma. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;85:315-20 pubmed
    ..Four cases of low-level "real" hCG are described to illustrate the problems encountered, the management, and the resolution achieved...
  7. Shigematsu T, Hirakawa T, Yahata H, Sonoda T, Kinukawa N, Nakano H. Identification of chemotherapeutic refractory cases based on human chorionic gonadotropin values among patients with low-risk persistent trophoblastic disease treated with 8-day methotrexate-folinic acid. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2003;24:113-6 pubmed
  8. van Trommel N, Massuger L, Schijf C, ten Kate Booij M, Sweep F, Thomas C. Early identification of resistance to first-line single-agent methotrexate in patients with persistent trophoblastic disease. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:52-8 pubmed
  9. Dorreen M, Pennington G, Millar D, Hill A, Neal F. Results of low-dose methotrexate treatment of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease in Sheffield 1980-1987. Acta Oncol. 1988;27:551-6 pubmed

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Ren T, Xiang Y, Yang X, Wan X, Zhang Z. [Evaluation of surgical resection of pulmonary metastasis of trophoblastic tumour]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2003;25:418-21 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the role of lung lobectomy in the patients of tumor with lung metastases...
  2. Iwase K, Okamoto T, Nui R, Mizutani S. Expression of nm23-H1 in hydatidiform mole and its relationship with the development of postmolar disease. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2001;51:228-32 pubmed
    ..The present data suggest an association of nm23-H1 for the proliferation activity of trophoblast, and its increased expression may influence the development of persistent trophoblastic disease. ..
  3. Kikkawa F, Shibata K, Suzuki T, Kajiyama H, Ino K, Nomura S, et al. Signal pathway involved in increased expression of neutral endopeptidase 24.11 by gonadotropin releasing hormone in choriocarcinoma cells. Placenta. 2004;25:176-83 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, GnRH induces NEP expression by PKC delta and p38MAPK, and increased NEP expression may be involved in antiproliferative effect in BeWo cells. ..
  4. Zhang X, Lu W, Lu B. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: an outcome-based literature review of 78 reported cases. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013;23:1334-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, both gynecologists and pathologists should be alert to the potential misdiagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma when ETT is present in the lower uterine segment/cervix. ..
  5. Ariel I, de Groot N, Hochberg A. Imprinted H19 gene expression in embryogenesis and human cancer: the oncofetal connection. Am J Med Genet. 2000;91:46-50 pubmed
    ..H19 is abundantly expressed in the fetal bladder mucosa and in carcinoma of the urinary bladder. It is a marker of early recurrence and may be used as a potential basis for gene therapy. ..
  6. Yingna S, Yang X, Xiuyu Y, Hongzhao S. Clinical characteristics and treatment of gestational trophoblastic tumor with vaginal metastasis. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;84:416-9 pubmed
    ..5-Fu combined chemotherapy is still a reliable method for treating vaginal metastases. Angiographic embolization is emerging as a successful procedure to control the severe hemorrhage of vaginal tumors. ..
  7. Dolcini G, Derrien M, Chaouat G, Barre Sinoussi F, Menu E. Cell-free HIV type 1 infection is restricted in the human trophoblast choriocarcinoma BeWo cell line, even with expression of CD4, CXCR4 and CCR5. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003;19:857-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, BeWo is an interesting human placental cell line that is resistant to HIV-1, even if CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5 are expressed. ..
  8. Rasool N, Rose P. Fertility-preserving surgical procedures for patients with gynecologic malignancies. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2010;53:804-14 pubmed publisher
  9. Kohorn E. The new FIGO 2000 staging and risk factor scoring system for gestational trophoblastic disease: description and critical assessment. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2001;11:73-7 pubmed
    ..This presentation outlines the new system and provides a critical evaluation of the issues that have been resolved and those that are still outstanding. ..
  10. Kohorn E. Problems with nomenclature and pharmacodynamics in trophoblastic disease. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:203-4; author reply 204 pubmed
  11. Van Mello N, Mol F, Opmeer B, de Bekker Grob E, Essink Bot M, Ankum W, et al. Salpingotomy or salpingectomy in tubal ectopic pregnancy: what do women prefer?. Reprod Biomed Online. 2010;21:687-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The risk of additional treatment in the case of persistent trophoblast after salpingotomy was acceptable if compensated by a small rise in intrauterine pregnancy rate. ..
  12. Lurain J. Management of high-risk gestational trophoblastic disease. J Reprod Med. 1998;43:44-52 pubmed
  13. Zalel Y, Gamzu R, Lidor A, Goldenberg M, Achiron R. Color Doppler imaging in the sonohysterographic diagnosis of residual trophoblastic tissue. J Clin Ultrasound. 2002;30:222-5 pubmed
    ..The detection of color Doppler signals, especially with low-resistance flow, within an intrauterine lesion should increase the confidence of the sonologist in the diagnosis of residual trophoblastic tissue. ..
  14. Vencken P, Ewing P, Zweemer R. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour: a case report and review of the literature. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59:1307-8 pubmed
  15. Kohorn E. Regional centers for trophoblastic disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;196:95-6 pubmed
  16. Abarzua S, Szewczyk M, Gailus S, Richter D, Ruth W, Briese V, et al. Effects of phytoestrogen extracts from Linum usitatissimum on the Jeg3 human trophoblast tumour cell line. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:2053-8 pubmed
    ..It was shown that the roots of L. usitatissimum contain measurable concentrations of lignans and isoflavones. ..
  17. Veras E, Kurman R, Wang T, Shih I. PD-L1 Expression in Human Placentas and Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2017;36:146-153 pubmed publisher
    ..The intermediate trophoblastic neoplasms, placental site trophoblastic tumors, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors showed variable PD-L1 ..
  18. Gillespie A, Siddiqui N, Coleman R, Hancock B. Gestational trophoblastic disease: does central nervous system chemoprophylaxis have a role?. Br J Cancer. 1999;79:1270-2 pubmed
    ..This experience supports our current policy of not treating patients with pulmonary metastases, without clinical evidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, with prophylactic intrathecal therapy. ..
  19. Palmer J, Driscoll S, Rosenberg L, Berkowitz R, Lurain J, Soper J, et al. Oral contraceptive use and risk of gestational trophoblastic tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91:635-40 pubmed
    ..2 (95% CI, 0.8-6.4) and 1.8 (95% CI, 1.0-3.0), respectively. This study, the largest to date, suggests that a long duration of OC use before conception does, indeed, increase the risk of gestational trophoblastic tumors. ..
  20. Xu G, Chakraborty C, Lala P. Expression of TGF-beta signaling genes in the normal, premalignant, and malignant human trophoblast: loss of smad3 in choriocarcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;287:47-55 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that loss of smad3 may account for a functional disruption in the TGF-beta signaling pathway in choriocarcinomas, but not in the premalignant trophoblast. ..
  21. Shahib N, Martaadisoebrata D, Kondo H, Zhou Y, Shinkai N, Nishimura C, et al. Genetic origin of malignant trophoblastic neoplasms analyzed by sequence tag site polymorphic markers. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;81:247-53 pubmed
    To study the causative conception of malignant gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTNs), we analyzed malignant GTNs by microsatellite PCR markers...
  22. Ngan H, Kohorn E, Cole L, Kurman R, Kim S, Lurain J, et al. Trophoblastic disease. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012;119 Suppl 2:S130-6 pubmed publisher
  23. Shaarawy M, Darwish N. Serum cytokines in gestational trophoblastic diseases. Acta Oncol. 1995;34:177-82 pubmed
    ..Moreover, normal values of these cytokines may rule out high-risk GTD, whereas markedly elevated values may indicate poor prognosis. ..
  24. Soma H, Okada T, Yoshinari T, Furuno A, Yaguchi S, Tokoro K, et al. Placental site trophoblastic tumor of the uterine cervix occurring from undetermined antecedent pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2004;30:113-6 pubmed
    ..Serum beta-hCG and urinary hCG titers were both low, which rapidly fell to 0.8 mIU/mL after a total hysterectomy and remained 0.2 mIU/mL after dismission. She has been uneventful for 3 years. ..
  25. Schulz Bischof K, Scheidel P. [Metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor. Diagnosis after pneumothorax]. Pathologe. 2007;28:229-34 pubmed
    ..This finding was incidental in an atypical lung-resection due to pneumothorax. The literature on this rare tumor entity is reviewed especially in terms of differential diagnosis, biological behavior and association with a pneumothorax. ..
  26. Jeschke U, Richter D, Möbius B, Briese V, Mylonas I, Friese K. Stimulation of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol in trophoblast tumor bewo cells by glycodelin A N-glycans. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:2101-8 pubmed
    ..Estradiol, cortisol and progesterone are hormone markers for BeWo trophoblast tumor cells. The results suggest that GdA with its distinct glycosylation modulates the hormone production of trophoblast tumours. ..
  27. Horigome H, Hamada H, Sohda S, Igari M, Nagata M, Okuno S, et al. Large placental chorioangiomas as a cause of cardiac failure in two fetuses. Fetal Diagn Ther. 1997;12:241-3 pubmed
    ..Monitoring the fetal cardiac size with ultrasonography is recommended to determine the optimal time of delivery in cases of large placental angioma that are diagnosed prenatally. ..
  28. Feng H, Tsao S, Ngan H, Xue W, Chiu P, Cheung A. Differential expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 and ferritin light polypeptide in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: combined cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray study. Cancer. 2005;104:2409-16 pubmed
    ..The potential application of FTL and IGFBP1 in management of patients with HM should be explored. ..
  29. Ebina Y, Katabuchi H, Mikami M, Nagase S, Yaegashi N, Udagawa Y, et al. Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines 2013 for the treatment of uterine body neoplasms. Int J Clin Oncol. 2016;21:419-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the objective of these guidelines is to clearly delineate the standard of care for uterine body neoplasms in Japan with the goal of ensuring a high standard of care for all Japanese women diagnosed with uterine body neoplasms. ..
  30. Cheung A, Shen D, Khoo U, Wong L, Ngan H. p21WAF1/CIP1 expression in gestational trophoblastic disease: correlation with clinicopathological parameters, and Ki67 and p53 gene expression. J Clin Pathol. 1998;51:159-62 pubmed
    ..p21WAF1/CIP1 expression is not an accurate prognostic indicator of gestational trophoblastic disease. ..
  31. Birken S, Yershova O, Myers R, Bernard M, Moyle W. Analysis of human choriogonadotropin core 2 o-glycan isoforms. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;204:21-30 pubmed
    ..Unlike B152, which binds only the core 2 isoform, CTP104 recognizes both glycan moieties. By measuring hCG with CTP104 in the presence and absence of B152, one can quantify both isoforms using the same readily available standard. ..
  32. Noh H, Lee K, Lee M, Ko Y, Hwang S, Son S. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of paracervix and parametrium. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2008;18:843-6 pubmed
    ..ETT has a distinctive growth pattern and immunohistochemical profile. The difficulties and clues in distinguishing ETT from nontrophoblastic lesions are discussed. ..
  33. Palmer J, Macdonald M, Wells M, Hancock B, Tidy J. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: a review of the literature. J Reprod Med. 2008;53:465-75 pubmed
    ..Data centralization in these rare tumors may be beneficial in identifying relevant prognostic parameters. ..
  34. Homesley H. Single-agent therapy for nonmetastatic and low-risk gestational trophoblastic disease. J Reprod Med. 1998;43:69-74 pubmed
    ..The optimal single-agent chemotherapy for nonmetastatic and low-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors has not yet been identified and can be best determined through a prospective, randomized trial. ..
  35. Liu Q, Shi Q, Zhang J, Li Y, DU Y, Shen S, et al. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the uterus: a report of. Chin Med J (Engl). 2007;120:729-30 pubmed
  36. Suman P, Shembekar N, Gupta S. Leukemia inhibitory factor increases the invasiveness of trophoblastic cells through integrated increase in the expression of adhesion molecules and pappalysin 1 with a concomitant decrease in the expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprote. Fertil Steril. 2013;99:533-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of novel molecules associated with a LIF-mediated increase in trophoblastic cell invasion may facilitate our understanding of implantation biology. ..
  37. Lok C, Donker M, Calff M, Massuger L, Ansink A. Psychologic impact of follow-up after low-risk gestational trophoblastic disease. J Reprod Med. 2011;56:47-52 pubmed
    ..Therefore, women tend to accept the offered surveillance and refrain from pregnancy. Women with GTD should be counseled about the minor risk of recurrence and the consequences of follow-up. ..
  38. Triratanachat S, Nakaporntham P, Tantbirojn P, Shuangshoti S, Lertkhachonsuk R. Role of P57KIP2 Immunohistochemical Expression in Histological Diagnosis of Hydatidiform Moles. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:2061-6 pubmed
    ..Histopathological diagnosis alone has certain limitations in accurately defining types of hydatidiform mole; P57KIP2 immunohistochemistry is practical and can be a useful adjunct to histopathology to distinguish CHM from non-CHM. ..
  39. Smith D, Rustin G, Bagshawe K. Don't ignore a positive pregnancy test. BMJ. 1988;297:1119-20 pubmed
    ..In most cases this will be due to a pregnancy that ends in a 1st trimester abortion, but in a small minority it will be due to the hormone producing a tumor such as choriocarcinoma. ..
  40. Xiang Y. [Coexistence of normal pregnancy and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2003;38:593-4 pubmed
  41. Kohorn E. Letter in response to "The management and outcome of healthy women with a persistently elevated beta-hCG" by Palmieri et al. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;108:659; author reply 659-60 pubmed publisher
  42. Miyoshi J, Ohba T, Fukunaga M, Katabuchi H. Clinical features of early-stage nonhydropic mole for diagnosis of persistent trophoblastic disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118:847-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Follow-up studies of serum hCG levels 4 weeks after abortion and after the third postabortion menstruation may aid in detecting impending persistent trophoblastic disease. II. ..
  43. Kohorn E, Kacinski B, Stanley E. Serum levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in trophoblastic disease. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;80:383-6 pubmed
    ..The measurement of CSF-1 does not appear to be useful in managing trophoblastic disease as it does not correlate with the level of hCG. Occasionally, high levels of CSF-1 were found in patients with trophoblastic disease. ..
  44. Dukovski A, Apostolova M. [Hemodynamic assessment of early pregnancy. Part three--complications]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2008;47:13-5 pubmed
  45. Almarzooqi S, Ahmad Al Safi R, Fahad Al Jassar W, Akhter S, Chiab Rassou Y, Albawardi A. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: report of two cases in postmenopausal women with literature review and emphasis on cytological findings. Acta Cytol. 2014;58:198-210 pubmed publisher
    ..A high index of suspicion is needed to make the correct diagnosis or to raise the consideration of ETT, especially in cases with an increased ?-human chorionic gonadotropin. ..
  46. Fulop V, Vegh G, Doszpod J. [The c-erbB-related oncoproteins in normal placenta and in gestational trophoblastic diseases (in vitro study)]. Orv Hetil. 2001;142:1147-54 pubmed
    ..The EGFR-related family of oncogenes may be important in the pathogenesis and prognosis of gestational trophoblastic diseases...
  47. Petignat P, Vassilakos P, Campana A. Are fertility drugs a risk factor for persistent trophoblastic tumour?. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:1610-5 pubmed
    ..We assessed the potential association between exposure to fertility drugs and the risk of developing persistent trophoblastic tumour (PTT)...
  48. Ordi J, Romagosa C, Tavassoli F, Nogales F, Palacin A, Condom E, et al. CD10 expression in epithelial tissues and tumors of the gynecologic tract: a useful marker in the diagnosis of mesonephric, trophoblastic, and clear cell tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003;27:178-86 pubmed
  49. Gillespie A, Kumar S, Hancock B. Treatment of persistent trophoblastic disease later than 6 months after diagnosis of molar pregnancy. Br J Cancer. 2000;82:1393-5 pubmed
  50. Durand S, Dumur C, Flury A, Abadie P, Patrito L, Podhajcer O, et al. Altered mitochondrial gene expression in human gestational trophoblastic diseases. Placenta. 2001;22:220-6 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that a significant change in mitochondrial transcription is associated with the phenotypic alteration present in GTDs...
  51. Lurain J. Treatment of gestational trophoblastic tumors. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2002;3:113-24 pubmed
  52. van der Houwen C, Rietbroek R, Lok C, ten Kate Booij M, Lammes F, Ansink A. Feasibility of central co-ordinated EMA/CO for gestational trophoblastic disease in the Netherlands. BJOG. 2004;111:143-7 pubmed
    ..Our purpose was to evaluate whether this policy is a satisfactory alternative to complete centralisation...
  53. Giusti A, Terron A, Belluco S, Scanziani E, Carcangiu M. Ovarian epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a cynomolgus monkey. Vet Pathol. 2005;42:223-6 pubmed
    ..On the basis of morphology and immunohistochemical reactivity, tumor cells were identified as intermediate trophoblast...
  54. Nomura S, Ino K, Kikkawa F. [Trophoblastic disease]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;Suppl 2:453-7 pubmed
  55. Thomas C, Kerkmeijer L, Ariaens H, van der Steen R, Massuger L, Sweep F. Pre-evacuation hCG glycoforms in uneventful complete hydatidiform mole and persistent trophoblastic disease. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;117:47-52 pubmed publisher
  56. Khaskheli M, Baloch S, Baloch A. Risk factors in early pregnancy complications. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2010;20:744-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the underlying risk factors in early pregnancy complications and outcome...
  57. Mak V, Lee L, Siu M, Wong O, Lu X, Ngan H, et al. Downregulation of ASPP1 in gestational trophoblastic disease: correlation with hypermethylation, apoptotic activity and clinical outcome. Mod Pathol. 2011;24:522-32 pubmed publisher
    ..lower ASPP1 immunoreactivity was shown in hydatidiform moles that progressed to persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasms than in those that regressed (P=0.045)...
  58. McNair O, Polk O. Pulmonary disease in gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. J Natl Med Assoc. 1992;84:713-6 pubmed
    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms can present as pulmonary nodules without significant disease of the reproductive organs. This article describes a case of metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease to the lungs...
  59. Goldstein D. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia in the 1990s. Yale J Biol Med. 1991;64:639-51 pubmed
    ..It is anticipated that during the decade of the nineties the scientific work in progress will lead to earlier diagnosis and improved survival in resistant cases...
  60. DeCherney A, Silverman B, Mastroianni L. Abortions and unrecognized trophoblastic disease. N Engl J Med. 1971;285:407-8 pubmed
  61. Gillespie A, Lorigan P, Radstone C, Waterhouse J, Coleman R, Hancock B. Pulmonary function in patients with trophoblastic disease treated with low-dose methotrexate. Br J Cancer. 1997;76:1382-6 pubmed
    ..Low-dose MTX is an effective therapy but may cause troublesome pulmonary toxicity...
  62. Somers G, Bradbury R, Trute L, Conigrave A, Venter D. Expression of the human P2Y6 nucleotide receptor in normal placenta and gestational trophoblastic disease. Lab Invest. 1999;79:131-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, P2Y6 may play an important role in trophoblastic development, differentiation, and neoplasia...
  63. Gerulath A, Ehlen T, Bessette P, Jolicoeur L, Savoie R. Gestational trophoblastic disease. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2002;24:434-46 pubmed
    ..To provide standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with hydatidiform mole and gestational trophoblastic tumours (GTT)...
  64. Ajithkumar T, Abraham E, Rejnishkumar R, Minimole A. Placental site trophoblastic tumor. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2003;58:484-8 pubmed
    ..Chemotherapy has an established role in loco-regionally advanced and metastatic disease. Many studies indicate that mitotic index is an important prognostic indicator. This article reviews the literature on this rare disease...
  65. Bonazzi C, Urso M, Dell Anna T, Sacco S, Buda A, Cantú M. Placental site trophoblastic tumor: an overview. J Reprod Med. 2004;49:585-8 pubmed
    ..To analyze 15 consecutive cases of placental site trophoblastic tumor seen in a single reference institution for gestational trophoblastic disease, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy...
  66. Duc H, van Trommel N, Sweep F, Massuger L, Thomas C. Clinical utility of hyperglycosylated hCG in serum taken before hydatidiform mole evacuation to predict persistent trophoblastic disease. Int J Biol Markers. 2006;21:45-9 pubmed
  67. Bayram I, Senol S, Ozen S, Sahin G. Placental site trophoblastic tumor and concomitant primary ovarian leiomyoma in a postmenopausal woman. Am J Clin Oncol. 2007;30:97-8 pubmed
  68. Song D, Jang S, Kim K. Villotrophoblastic pulmonary nodule with implantation site intermediate trophoblasts after induced abortion. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2007;26:305-9 pubmed
    ..Our case indicates that villotrophoblastic pulmonary emboli have the potential to implant after migration from their original sites through the invasive property of ISITs...
  69. Taran A, Ignatov A, Smith B, Bischoff J, Costa S. Methotrexate monotherapy for high-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia after therapy with etoposide, methotrexate, and dactinomycin: a case report. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:e6-8 pubmed publisher
  70. Liszka L, Wilk M, Wodolazski A, Palen P, Sikora J. Successful treatment of placental site trophoblastic tumor in twin pregnancy without hysterectomy. Tumori. 2009;95:108-11 pubmed
    ..In the material resected in hysteroscopy there was necrotic decidual tissue. Another 30 months of observation revealed no abnormalities. Even though PSTT is rarely diagnosed, it may cause significant diagnostic and therapeutic problems...
  71. Miliaras D, Anagnostou E, Papoulidis I, Miliara X. Non-trophoblastic tumor of the placenta with combined histologic features of chorangioma and leiomyoma. Placenta. 2011;32:102-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic studies by means of PCR excluded maternal and confirmed placental origin of the lesion...
  72. Olson M, Gocke C, Giuntoli R, Shih I. Evolution of a trophoblastic tumor from an endometrioid carcinoma--a morphological and molecular analysis. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2011;30:117-20 pubmed publisher
  73. Bolis G, Belloni C, Bonazzi C, Mangili G, Presti M, Zanaboni F, et al. Analysis of 309 cases after hydatidiform mole: different follow-up program according to biologic behavior. Tumori. 1988;74:93-6 pubmed
    ..Considering these data, the authors suggest different follow-up times for partial and complete moles and confirm the necessity of selection criteria in a diagnosis of GTT...
  74. Piela A, Lewandowska M. [The beta-hCG subunit, CA 125 and CA 19-9 antigen in the women with non-trophoblastic malignancy of genital tract]. Ginekol Pol. 2001;72:629-33 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was preoperative estimation of serum level glicoprotein--CA 125, CA 19-9 and beta-hCG in ovarian tumors and comparison obtained values in groups divided according to postoperative pathologic examination...
  75. Tews G, Yaman C, Ebner T. Fatal trophoblastic embolism during cesarean section. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002;76:179-80 pubmed
  76. Butler S, Cole L. Falsely elevated human chorionic gonadotropin leading to unnecessary therapy. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99:516-7 pubmed
  77. Pietrzak K, Drabik M, Ziółkowska Seta I, Bidzinski M, Tulimowski J. [The clinical analysis and results of treatment of the patients with gestational trophoblastic disease]. Ginekol Pol. 2002;73:390-5 pubmed
    ..The aim of this work was to establish the dependence between the results of treatment and clinical stage and prognostic factors of the patients with gestational trophoblastic disease...
  78. Jeschke U, Stahn R, Goletz C, Wang X, Briese V, Friese K. hCG in trophoblast tumour cells of the cell line Jeg3 and hCG isolated from amniotic fluid and serum of pregnant women carry oligosaccharides of the sialyl Lewis X and sialyl Lewis a type. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:1087-92 pubmed
    ..This could play a role in the prevention of leukocyte adhesion on the foetal syncytiotrophoblast. Glycosylation of hCG in trophoblast tumour cells, on the other hand, could increase the metastatic activity of these cells...
  79. Stenman U, Alfthan H, Hotakainen K. Human chorionic gonadotropin in cancer. Clin Biochem. 2004;37:549-61 pubmed
    ..However, the reference range for hCG is 5-8 fold higher than that for hCGbeta and thus moderately elevated levels can be identified only with a specific and sensitive hCGbeta assay...
  80. An R, Wang S, Zhang Y, Bai X. [Expression of laminin and laminin receptor in gestational trophoblastic tumor and its significance]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005;36:344-6, 350 pubmed
    ..This study was conducted to detect the expression of laminin (LN) and laminin receptor (LN-R) in the specimens of hydatidiform mole (HM), invasive mole (IM) and choriocarcinoma(CC), respectively...
  81. Krah X, Klose E, Atanassov G, Eschholz G, Kosmehl H, Weber H. [Urothelium cancer with trophoblastic differentiation. An unusual case of a 77 year old patient]. Urologe A. 2006;45:81-4 pubmed
    ..In comparison with beta HCG negative transitional cell carcinoma, the prognosis is bad for beta HCG positive carcinoma. For this reason, a radical operation should be taken into consideration as early as possible...
  82. Dhillo W, Savage P, Murphy K, Chaudhri O, Patterson M, Nijher G, et al. Plasma kisspeptin is raised in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and falls during treatment. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;291:E878-84 pubmed
    ..0001). Plasma kisspeptin IR strongly positively correlated with plasma hCG levels (r(2) = 0.99, P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that measurement of plasma kisspeptin IR may be a novel tumor marker in patients with malignant GTN...
  83. Kubota S, Amino N. [Thyrotoxicosis due to trophoblastic tumor]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;Suppl 1:282-4 pubmed
  84. Mao T, Seidman J, Kurman R, Shih I. Cyclin E and p16 immunoreactivity in epithelioid trophoblastic tumor--an aid in differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:1105-10 pubmed
    ..The majority of other types of trophoblastic lesions showed diffuse and intense nuclear immunoreactivity for cyclin E whereas none were positive for p16...
  85. Shih I. Trophogram, an immunohistochemistry-based algorithmic approach, in the differential diagnosis of trophoblastic tumors and tumorlike lesions. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2007;11:228-34 pubmed
    ..The trophogram may prove to be useful in assisting the differential diagnosis of various trophoblastic diseases in diagnostic pathology...
  86. Mao T, Kurman R, Jeng Y, Huang W, Shih I. HSD3B1 as a novel trophoblast-associated marker that assists in the differential diagnosis of trophoblastic tumors and tumorlike lesions. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:236-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, as compared with other trophoblastic markers, HSD3B1 is highly specific and sensitive, being expressed in all types of trophoblastic lesions but not in a variety of nontrophoblastic tumors of the uterus, lung, and breast...
  87. Hagemann I, Hagemann A, LiVolsi V, Montone K, Chu C. Risk of occult malignancy in morcellated hysterectomy: a case series. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2011;30:476-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Even with a complete workup, however, morcellation of occult uterine malignancy remains a possibility. This risk should be discussed as part of informed consent before morcellation...
  88. Milenković V, Lazović B. [Gestational trophoblastic disease--literature review]. Med Pregl. 2011;64:188-93 pubmed
    ..This review covers various aspects of gestational trophoblastic disease: its development, epidemiology, aetiology and pathogenesis, as well as its classification, clinical manifestations and diagnostic methods...
  89. Richter D, Abarzua S, Chrobak M, Vrekoussis T, Weissenbacher T, Kuhn C, et al. Effects of phytoestrogen extracts isolated from pumpkin seeds on estradiol production and ER/PR expression in breast cancer and trophoblast tumor cells. Nutr Cancer. 2013;65:739-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The above results after properly designed animal studies could highlight a potential role of pumpkin seed's lignans in breast cancer prevention and/or treatment. ..
  90. Park S, Park M, Ko H, Cha E, Sohn J, Kim C. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor presenting as an ovarian mass in a postmenopausal woman. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2014;33:35-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There was focal staining for ?-hCG. Ki-67 proliferative index was about 80%. This case indicates that ETT can rarely occur in postmenopausal women and to the best of our knowledge, our patient is the oldest reported case of ETT to date. ..
  91. Kageyama S, Kanoto M, Sugai Y, Suto T, Nagase S, Osakabe M, et al. MR Imaging of Uterine Epithelioid Trophoblastic Tumor: A Case Report. Magn Reson Med Sci. 2016;15:411-415 pubmed
    ..While it is difficult to distinguish between ETT and uterine carcinomas, recognition of certain tumor shapes and necrosis could enable more accurate diagnosis before treatment...
  92. Okamoto T, Matsuo K, Niu R, Osawa M, Suzuki H. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) beta-core fragment is produced by degradation of hCG or free hCG beta in gestational trophoblastic tumors: a possible marker for early detection of persistent postmolar gestational trophoblastic disease. J Endocrinol. 2001;171:435-43 pubmed