retinoblastoma

Summary

Summary: A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2104)

Top Publications

  1. Kumar A, Moulik N, Mishra R, Kumar D. Causes, outcome and prevention of abandonment in retinoblastoma in India. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60:771-5 pubmed publisher
    The high-cure rates of 90% in retinoblastoma are not replicated in developing countries due to late presentation and poor compliance to treatment...
  2. Jaradat I, Yousef Y, Mehyar M, Sultan I, Khurma S, Al Rawashded K, et al. Retinoblastoma in Jordan: an epidemiological study (2006-2010). Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2011;4:126-31 pubmed
    The epidemiological characteristics of retinoblastoma have been extensively studied in developed countries, however epidemiological data is scarce in the Middle East...
  3. de Graaf P, Pouwels P, Rodjan F, Moll A, Imhof S, Knol D, et al. Single-shot turbo spin-echo diffusion-weighted imaging for retinoblastoma: initial experience. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:110-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma may exhibit variable hyperintensities on DWI, resulting in different values in the ADC maps, depending on their histology and cellularity...
  4. Wang Z, Chauvin B, Maillard P, Hammerer F, Carez D, Croisy A, et al. Glycodendrimeric phenylporphyrins as new candidates for retinoblastoma PDT: blood carriers and photodynamic activity in cells. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2012;115:16-24 pubmed publisher
    ..therapy (PDT) has recently been proposed as a possible indication in the conservative treatment of hereditary retinoblastoma. In order to create photosensitizers with enhanced targeting ability toward retinoblastoma cells, meso-..
  5. Khetan V, Mathur G, Kumar S, Gopal L. Late recurrence of tumor necessitating enucleation in an adult onset retinoblastoma. Ophthalmic Genet. 2013;34:87-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in children. Although rare cases of adult onset retinoblastoma have been reported, the numbers are very few worldwide...
  6. Lee M, Khwarg S, Choung H, Kim N, Yu Y. Dermis-fat graft for treatment of exposed porous polyethylene implants in pediatric postenucleation retinoblastoma patients. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152:244-250.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..graft for the treatment of porous polyethylene implant exposure and volume augmentation in postenucleation retinoblastoma children. Retrospective, interventional case series...
  7. Nittner D, Lambertz I, Clermont F, Mestdagh P, Köhler C, Nielsen S, et al. Synthetic lethality between Rb, p53 and Dicer or miR-17-92 in retinal progenitors suppresses retinoblastoma formation. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:958-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Dicer1 targeting prevents retinoblastoma formation in mice by synthetic lethality with combined inactivation of p53 and Rb...
  8. Heo J, Kim J, Cho C, Jun H, Kim D, Yu Y, et al. Inhibitory activity of bevacizumab to differentiation of retinoblastoma cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33456 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we demonstrated that bevacizumab as an anti-VEGF antibody could inhibit differentiation of retinoblastoma cells without affection to cellular viability, which would be mediated via blockade of extracellular signal-..
  9. Foix L Hélias L, Aerts I, Marchand L, Lumbroso Le Rouic L, Gauthier Villars M, Labrune P, et al. Are children born after infertility treatment at increased risk of retinoblastoma?. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:2186-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most frequent eye tumour in children, with an incidence of 1 in 15-20,000 births. It accounts for 11% of all cancers in the first year of life. Except for the hereditary forms, its causes are not well-known...

More Information

Publications111 found, 100 shown here

  1. Martin A, Jones A, Bryar P, Mets M, Weinstein J, Zhang G, et al. MicroRNAs-449a and -449b exhibit tumor suppressive effects in retinoblastoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;440:599-603 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma is the most common pediatric cancer of the eye. Currently, the chemotherapeutic treatments for retinoblastoma are broad-based drugs such as vincristine, carboplatin, or etoposide...
  2. Serrano C, Alonso J, Gomez Mariano G, Aguirre E, Diez O, Gadea N, et al. Low penetrance hereditary retinoblastoma in a family: what should we consider in the genetic counselling process and follow up?. Fam Cancer. 2011;10:617-21 pubmed publisher
    Hereditary retinoblastoma (Rb) is a high penetrance autosomal dominant disease showing not only an increased risk of suffering bilateral Rb but also other second neoplasms...
  3. Francis J, Kleinerman R, Seddon J, Abramson D. Increased risk of secondary uterine leiomyosarcoma in hereditary retinoblastoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;124:254-9 pubmed publisher
    In the US, second non-ocular malignancies are the primary cause of death in retinoblastoma survivors with the germline RB1 mutation...
  4. Asadi Amoli F, Nikmanesh A, Shams H. Retinoblastoma and retinal astrocytoma: unusual double tumor in one eye. Acta Med Iran. 2011;49:189-91 pubmed
    b>Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular neoplasm in children. Glial tumor of the retina and optic nerve head are considered to be congenital and are therefore classified as hamartomas...
  5. Moulin A, Gaillard M, Balmer A, Munier F. Ultrasound biomicroscopy evaluation of anterior extension in retinoblastoma: a clinicopathological study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:337-40 pubmed publisher
    Extension of retinoblastoma cells into the posterior chamber is a criterion for group E according to the international classification of intraocular retinoblastoma...
  6. Bakhshi S, Meel R, Kashyap S, Sharma S. Bone marrow aspirations and lumbar punctures in retinoblastoma at diagnosis: correlation with IRSS staging. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2011;33:e182-5 pubmed publisher
    ..that routine bone marrow (BM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluation is not needed in all patients with retinoblastoma. Although the International Retinoblastoma Staging System was developed recently, there remain no clear stage-..
  7. Radhakrishnan V, Kashyap S, Pushker N, Sharma S, Pathy S, Mohanti B, et al. Outcome, pathologic findings, and compliance in orbital retinoblastoma (International Retinoblastoma Staging System stage III) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a prospective study. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:1470-7 pubmed publisher
    The present study prospectively evaluated outcome, pathologic findings, and compliance in orbital retinoblastoma patients (International Retinoblastoma Staging System [IRSS] stage III). Prospective study and case series...
  8. Ma B, Lei X, Guan Y, Mou L, Yuan Y, Yue H, et al. Maintenance of retinal cancer stem cell-like properties through long-term serum-free culture from human retinoblastoma. Oncol Rep. 2011;26:135-43 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have demonstrated that a small population of cancer stem cell-like cells exists in retinoblastoma. To provide a model for studying this population, we sought to establish a long-term culture from human retinoblastoma that ..
  9. Gao Y, Qian J, Yue H, Yuan Y, Xue K, Yao Y. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of children with intraocular retinoblastoma: a report from a Chinese cooperative group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;57:1113-6 pubmed publisher
    To present the characteristics and treatment outcome of patients with intraocular retinoblastoma in a Chinese cooperative group...
  10. Leal Leal C, Dilliz Nava H, Flores Rojo M, Robles Castro J. First contact physicians and retinoblastoma in Mexico. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;57:1109-12 pubmed publisher
    Early detection and timely referral are keys to improve survival in patients with retinoblastoma (Rb). In México, one of the main obstacles for an early diagnosis is the lack of knowledge of the disease...
  11. Vandhana S, Coral K, Jayanthi U, Deepa P, Krishnakumar S. Biochemical changes accompanying apoptotic cell death in retinoblastoma cancer cells treated with lipogenic enzyme inhibitors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1831:1458-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma (RB) is a malignant intra-ocular neoplasm that affects children (usually below the age of 5years)...
  12. Min H, Ghatnekar G, Ghatnekar A, You X, Bu M, Guo X, et al. 2-Methoxyestradiol induced Bax phosphorylation and apoptosis in human retinoblastoma cells via p38 MAPK activation. Mol Carcinog. 2012;51:576-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a common childhood intraocular cancer that affects approximately 300 children each year in the United States alone...
  13. Dommering C, Marees T, van der Hout A, Imhof S, Meijers Heijboer H, Ringens P, et al. RB1 mutations and second primary malignancies after hereditary retinoblastoma. Fam Cancer. 2012;11:225-33 pubmed publisher
    Survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma have a high risk of second primary malignancies, but it has not been investigated whether specific RB1 germline mutations are associated with greater risk of second primary malignancies in a large ..
  14. Wilson M, Fraga C, Rodriguez Galindo C, Hagedorn N, Leggas M, Stewart C. Expression of the multi-drug resistance proteins and the pregnane X receptor in treated and untreated retinoblastoma. Curr Eye Res. 2009;34:386-94 pubmed publisher
    To compare the expression of pregnane xenobiotic receptor and certain multi-drug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma.
  15. Burr D, Molina S, Banerjee D, Low D, Takemoto D. Treatment with connexin 46 siRNA suppresses the growth of human Y79 retinoblastoma cell xenografts in vivo. Exp Eye Res. 2011;92:251-9 pubmed publisher
    Tumors with a hypoxic component, including human Y79 retinoblastoma cells, express a specific gap junction protein, Connexin 46 (Cx46), which is usually only found in naturally hypoxic tissues such as the differentiated lens...
  16. Roberts P, Bisi J, Strum J, Combest A, Darr D, Usary J, et al. Multiple roles of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors in cancer therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104:476-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetically engineered murine models of retinoblastoma (Rb)-competent (MMTV-c-neu) and Rb-incompetent (C3-TAg) breast cancer (n = 16 MMTV-c-neu mice in the ..
  17. Ottaviani D, Parma D, Giliberto F, Ferrer M, Fandino A, Davila M, et al. Spectrum of RB1 mutations in argentine patients: 20-years experience in the molecular diagnosis of retinoblastoma. Ophthalmic Genet. 2013;34:189-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma is a hereditary cancer of childhood caused by mutations in the RB1 tumor suppressor gene...
  18. Shields C, Manjandavida F, Arepalli S, Kaliki S, Lally S, Shields J. Intravitreal melphalan for persistent or recurrent retinoblastoma vitreous seeds: preliminary results. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132:319-25 pubmed publisher
    Recurrent or persistent vitreous seeds following treatment of retinoblastoma poses difficult management and often leads to enucleation...
  19. Seigel G, Hackam A, Ganguly A, Mandell L, Gonzalez Fernandez F. Human embryonic and neuronal stem cell markers in retinoblastoma. Mol Vis. 2007;13:823-32 pubmed
    b>Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular tumor of early childhood...
  20. Mallipatna A, Dimaras H, Chan H, Heon E, Gallie B. Periocular topotecan for intraocular retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:738-45 pubmed publisher
    ..and toxicity of periocular topotecan hydrochloride in fibrin sealant (Tisseel) for the control of intraocular retinoblastoma. Retrospective medical record review of visually threatening or recurrent intraocular retinoblastoma treated ..
  21. Pajovic S, Corson T, Spencer C, Dimaras H, Orlic Milacic M, Marchong M, et al. The TAg-RB murine retinoblastoma cell of origin has immunohistochemical features of differentiated Muller glia with progenitor properties. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7618-24 pubmed publisher
    Human retinoblastoma arises from an undefined developing retinal cell after inactivation of RB1...
  22. Zhang Y, Wu J, Han F, Huang J, Shi S, Gu R, et al. Arsenic trioxide induced apoptosis in retinoblastoma cells by abnormal expression of microRNA-376a. Neoplasma. 2013;60:247-53 pubmed publisher
    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in retinoblastoma cells, however, mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are not fully understood...
  23. Anand B, Ramesh C, Appaji L, Kumari B, Shenoy A, Nanjundappa -, et al. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes in retinoblastoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011;95:1014-8 pubmed publisher
    ..0001).The association of HPV with p16(INK4a) expression was also statistically significant (p=0.0001). While the presence of HPV in a subset of RB was demonstrated, its role in carcinogenesis needs further elucidation. ..
  24. To K, Pajovic S, Gallie B, Thériault B. Regulation of p14ARF expression by miR-24: a potential mechanism compromising the p53 response during retinoblastoma development. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:69 pubmed publisher
    ..in human retinoblastomas may compromise p53 tumor surveillance so that TP53 mutations are not selected for in retinoblastoma tumorigenesis...
  25. Gobin Y, Dunkel I, Marr B, Brodie S, Abramson D. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for the management of retinoblastoma: four-year experience. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:732-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether intra-arterial chemotherapy is safe and effective in advanced intraocular retinoblastoma. Retinoblastoma often presents with advanced intraocular disease and, despite conventional treatment with intravenous ..
  26. Li Z, Wu X, Li J, Yao L, Sun L, Shi Y, et al. Antitumor activity of celastrol nanoparticles in a xenograft retinoblastoma tumor model. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:2389-98 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effect of celastrol on retinoblastoma has not yet been analyzed...
  27. Dimaras H, Kimani K, Dimba E, Gronsdahl P, White A, Chan H, et al. Retinoblastoma. Lancet. 2012;379:1436-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma is an aggressive eye cancer of infancy and childhood. Survival and the chance of saving vision depend on severity of disease at presentation...
  28. McEvoy J, Ulyanov A, Brennan R, Wu G, Pounds S, Zhang J, et al. Analysis of MDM2 and MDM4 single nucleotide polymorphisms, mRNA splicing and protein expression in retinoblastoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42739 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer of the developing retina that begins in utero and is diagnosed in the first years of life. Biallelic RB1 gene inactivation is the initiating genetic lesion in retinoblastoma...
  29. He M, An Y, Li G, Qian J, Gao Y. [Characteristics of RB1 gene mutations in Chinese patients with retinoblastoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2013;30:509-12 pubmed publisher
    To study the characteristics of RB1 gene mutations in Chinese patients with retinoblastoma. Peripheral blood samples of 35 patients with retinoblastoma were collected and genomic DNA was extracted...
  30. Palioura S, Gobin Y, Brodie S, Marr B, Dunkel I, Abramson D. Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for the management of retinoblastoma in eyes with extensive (>50%) retinal detachment. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012;59:859-64 pubmed publisher
    ..e. ophthalmic artery chemosurgery, has been used for the treatment of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma. Herein, we evaluate the efficacy of ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for retinoblastoma associated with >50% ..
  31. Kandalam M, Beta M, Maheswari U, Swaminathan S, Krishnakumar S. Oncogenic microRNA 17-92 cluster is regulated by epithelial cell adhesion molecule and could be a potential therapeutic target in retinoblastoma. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2279-87 pubmed
    ..The miR 17-92 cluster located in 13q31 locus might contribute to retinoblastoma (RB) oncogenesis as 13q31 is amplified often in RB...
  32. Gjidoda A, Henry R. RNA polymerase III repression by the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1829:385-92 pubmed publisher
    The retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor protein regulates multiple pathways that influence cell growth, and as a key regulatory node, its function is inactivated in most cancer cells...
  33. Palazzi M, Stephan C, Brandalise S, Aguiar S. Retinoblastoma diagnosis: a proposal based on the experience of Centro Infantil Boldrini, Brazil. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013;30:379-85 pubmed publisher
    Advanced disease is a risk factor for eye loss in patients with retinoblastoma (RB). We still record critical rates of enucleation, especially for unilateral RB due to advanced stages of disease at diagnosis...
  34. Wang J, Wang X, Wu G, Hou D, Hu Q. MiR-365b-3p, down-regulated in retinoblastoma, regulates cell cycle progression and apoptosis of human retinoblastoma cells by targeting PAX6. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:1779-86 pubmed publisher
    PAX6 contributes to the development and progression of retinoblastoma (RB), but the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of PAX6 expression is unclear...
  35. Parsam V, Ali M, Honavar S, Vemuganti G, Kannabiran C. Splicing aberrations caused by constitutional RB1 gene mutations in retinoblastoma. J Biosci. 2011;36:281-7 pubmed
    Analysis of RB1 mRNA from blood leukocytes of patients with retinoblastoma identified the effects of mutations involving consensus splice site, exonic substitution and whole-exon deletions identified in genomic DNA of these patients...
  36. Jeon J, Kim J. FVE, an Arabidopsis homologue of the retinoblastoma-associated protein that regulates flowering time and cold response, binds to chromatin as a large multiprotein complex. Mol Cells. 2011;32:227-34 pubmed publisher
    ..FVE is a homologue of the mammalian retinoblastoma-associated protein (RbAp), one component of a histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex involved in transcriptional ..
  37. Abramson D, Marr B, Brodie S, Dunkel I, Palioura S, Gobin Y. Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for less advanced intraocular retinoblastoma: five year review. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34120 pubmed publisher
    Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma was introduced by us 5 years ago for advanced intraocular retinoblastoma...
  38. Patel M, Paulus Y, Gobin Y, Djaballah H, Marr B, Dunkel I, et al. Intra-arterial and oral digoxin therapy for retinoblastoma. Ophthalmic Genet. 2011;32:147-50 pubmed publisher
    Preclinical studies demonstrate that cardiac glycosides such as ouabain and digoxin have antitumor effects on retinoblastoma cells in vitro and in a xenograft murine model of retinoblastoma.
  39. McEvoy J, Flores Otero J, Zhang J, Nemeth K, Brennan R, Bradley C, et al. Coexpression of normally incompatible developmental pathways in retinoblastoma genesis. Cancer Cell. 2011;20:260-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The retinoblastoma cell of origin has been debated for over a century...
  40. Gyda M, WOLMAN M, Lorent K, Granato M. The tumor suppressor gene retinoblastoma-1 is required for retinotectal development and visual function in zebrafish. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003106 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (rb1) cause both sporadic and familial forms of childhood retinoblastoma...
  41. Zhang J, Benavente C, McEvoy J, Flores Otero J, Ding L, Chen X, et al. A novel retinoblastoma therapy from genomic and epigenetic analyses. Nature. 2012;481:329-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma is an aggressive childhood cancer of the developing retina that is initiated by the biallelic loss of RB1. Tumours progress very quickly following RB1 inactivation but the underlying mechanism is not known...
  42. Sachdeva U, O Brien J. Understanding pRb: toward the necessary development of targeted treatments for retinoblastoma. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:425-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma is a pediatric retinal tumor initiated by biallelic inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1)...
  43. Marr B, Dunkel I, Linker A, Abramson D. Periocular carboplatin for retinoblastoma: long-term report (12 years) on efficacy and toxicity. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:881-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the experience of the authors with efficacy and toxicity of periocular chemotherapy over a 12-year period...
  44. Marr B, Brodie S, Dunkel I, Gobin Y, Abramson D. Three-drug intra-arterial chemotherapy using simultaneous carboplatin, topotecan and melphalan for intraocular retinoblastoma: preliminary results. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:1300-3 pubmed
    To report outcomes with selective intra-arterial chemotherapy (SIAC) using simultaneous carboplatin, topotecan, and melphalan for advanced intraocular retinoblastoma.
  45. Schaiquevich P, Ceciliano A, Millan N, Taich P, Villasante F, Fandino A, et al. Intra-arterial chemotherapy is more effective than sequential periocular and intravenous chemotherapy as salvage treatment for relapsed retinoblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60:766-70 pubmed publisher
    Treatment of eyes with retinoblastoma failing systemic chemoreduction and external beam radiotherapy is seldom efficacious...
  46. Subramanian N, Raghunathan V, Kanwar J, Kanwar R, Elchuri S, Khetan V, et al. Target-specific delivery of doxorubicin to retinoblastoma using epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2783-95 pubmed
    To study target-specific delivery of doxorubicin (Dox) using an RNA aptamer against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in retinoblastoma (RB) cells.
  47. Conkrite K, Sundby M, Mukai S, Thomson J, Mu D, Hammond S, et al. miR-17~92 cooperates with RB pathway mutations to promote retinoblastoma. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1734-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that miR-17~92 synergizes with loss of Rb family members to promote retinoblastoma. We observed miR-17~92 genomic amplifications in murine retinoblastoma and high expression of miR-17~92 in ..
  48. Shetty O, Naresh K, Banavali S, Shet T, Joshi R, Qureshi S, et al. Evidence for the presence of high risk human papillomavirus in retinoblastoma tissue from nonfamilial retinoblastoma in developing countries. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012;58:185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..HPV infection is known to cause cervical cancer and has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of retinoblastoma (RB), a common intraocular malignant tumor of childhood which can be familial or sporadic...
  49. Munier F, Soliman S, Moulin A, Gaillard M, Balmer A, Beck Popovic M. Profiling safety of intravitreal injections for retinoblastoma using an anti-reflux procedure and sterilisation of the needle track. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:1084-7 pubmed publisher
    The preservation of globe integrity has always been a major concern during the treatment of retinoblastoma for fear of extraocular or metastatic spread...
  50. Hsiao W, Tsai M, Jow G, Tien L, Lee Y. Involvement of Smac, p53, and caspase pathways in induction of apoptosis by gossypol in human retinoblastoma cells. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2033-42 pubmed
    b>Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the retina usually occurring in young children. To date, the conventional treatments for retinoblastoma have been enucleation, cryotherapy, external beam radiotherapy, or chemotherapy...
  51. Ghassemi F, Shields C. Intravitreal melphalan for refractory or recurrent vitreous seeding from retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:1268-71 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy and complications of intravitreal chemotherapy for viable vitreous seeding from retinoblastoma.
  52. Rootman D, González E, Mallipatna A, Vandenhoven C, Hampton L, Dimaras H, et al. Hand-held high-resolution spectral domain optical coherence tomography in retinoblastoma: clinical and morphologic considerations. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97:59-65 pubmed publisher
    ..OCT) has greatly expanded the imaging/diagnostic capacity for clinicians managing children with intraocular retinoblastoma. We present our early experience with HHSD OCT and conventional spectral domain OCT imaging in these patients.
  53. Brodie S, Munier F, Francis J, Marr B, Gobin Y, Abramson D. Persistence of retinal function after intravitreal melphalan injection for retinoblastoma. Doc Ophthalmol. 2013;126:79-84 pubmed publisher
    The risk/benefit profile of intravitreal melphalan injection for treatment of active vitreous seeds in retinoblastoma remains uncertain...
  54. Liu Q, Wang Y, Wang H, Liu Y, Liu T, Kunda P. Tandem therapy for retinoblastoma: immunotherapy and chemotherapy enhance cytotoxicity on retinoblastoma by increasing apoptosis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013;139:1357-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to provide an experimental basis for the clinical application of cell immunotherapy on RB in combination with chemotherapy treatment and to explore the mechanism of their combined cytotoxicity...
  55. Luna Fineman S, Barnoya M, Bonilla M, Fu L, Baez F, Rodriguez Galindo C. Retinoblastoma in Central America: report from the Central American Association of Pediatric Hematology Oncology (AHOPCA). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012;58:545-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma is highly curable in high income countries. Low income countries have poor results due to advanced disease and lack of resources...
  56. Mitra M, Mohanty C, Harilal A, Maheswari U, Sahoo S, Krishnakumar S. A novel in vitro three-dimensional retinoblastoma model for evaluating chemotherapeutic drugs. Mol Vis. 2012;18:1361-78 pubmed
    ..and porous, biodegradable, polymeric microparticles as a scaffold for three dimensional (3-D) growth of a Y79 retinoblastoma (RB) cell line...
  57. Wang Y, Kunda P, Lin J, Wang H, Chen X, Liu Q, et al. Cytokine-induced killer cells co-cultured with complete tumor antigen-loaded dendritic cells, have enhanced selective cytotoxicity on carboplatin-resistant retinoblastoma cells. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:1841-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma (RB) is a challenging disease that affects mostly young children. Chemical therapy has been shown to have limitations during clinical practice, principally because of the ability of RB to become resistant to the treatment...
  58. Tsimpida M, Thompson D, Liasis A, Smith V, Kingston J, Sagoo M, et al. Visual outcomes following intraophthalmic artery melphalan for patients with refractory retinoblastoma and age appropriate vision. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97:1464-70 pubmed publisher
    To determine the frequency and cause of visual loss following intra-arterial melphalan (IAM) in patients with retinoblastoma with age appropriate vision.
  59. Choi Y, Park C, Jin H, Choung H, Lee M, Kim N, et al. Outcome of smooth surface tunnel porous polyethylene orbital implants (Medpor SST) in children with retinoblastoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97:1530-3 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the surgical outcome after the insertion of smooth surface tunnel porous polyethylene orbital implants (Medpor SST) in children with retinoblastoma.
  60. Thériault B, Dimaras H, Gallie B, Corson T. The genomic landscape of retinoblastoma: a review. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2014;42:33-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma is a paediatric ocular tumour that continues to reveal much about the genetic basis of cancer development...
  61. Shields C, Bianciotto C, Jabbour P, Griffin G, Ramasubramanian A, Rosenwasser R, et al. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: report No. 2, treatment complications. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:1407-15 pubmed publisher
    To describe treatment complications following intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma.
  62. Eagle R, Shields C, Bianciotto C, Jabbour P, Shields J. Histopathologic observations after intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:1416-21 pubmed publisher
    To describe histopathologic observations in eyes enucleated after intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma (Rb).
  63. Munier F, Gaillard M, Balmer A, Soliman S, Podilsky G, Moulin A, et al. Intravitreal chemotherapy for vitreous disease in retinoblastoma revisited: from prohibition to conditional indications. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:1078-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumour control of vitreous seeds remains challenging owing to their resistance to radiation and systemic chemotherapy...
  64. Shields C, Fulco E, Arias J, Alarcon C, Pellegrini M, Rishi P, et al. Retinoblastoma frontiers with intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal chemotherapy. Eye (Lond). 2013;27:253-64 pubmed publisher
    In this report, we explore retinoblastoma diagnostic accuracy and review chemotherapy alternatives for retinoblastoma using intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal routes...
  65. Benavente C, McEvoy J, Finkelstein D, Wei L, Kang G, Wang Y, et al. Cross-species genomic and epigenomic landscape of retinoblastoma. Oncotarget. 2013;4:844-59 pubmed
    ..b>Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer of the developing retina that initiates with biallelic inactivation of the RB1 gene...
  66. Gustmann S, Klein Hitpass L, Stephan H, Weber S, Bornfeld N, Kaulisch M, et al. Loss at chromosome arm 16q in retinoblastoma: confirmation of the association with diffuse vitreous seeding and refinement of the recurrently deleted region. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011;50:327-37 pubmed publisher
    In addition to mutations in both alleles of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) alleles, retinoblastomas frequently show additional alterations including loss of chromosome arm 16q...
  67. Xu X, Jia R, Zhou Y, Song X, Wang J, Qian G, et al. Microarray-based analysis: identification of hypoxia-regulated microRNAs in retinoblastoma cells. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:1385-93 pubmed publisher
    Hypoxia is an essential feature of retinoblastoma and contributes to poor prognosis and resistance to conventional therapy...
  68. Mitra M, Kandalam M, Sundaram C, Verma R, Maheswari U, Swaminathan S, et al. Reversal of stathmin-mediated microtubule destabilization sensitizes retinoblastoma cells to a low dose of antimicrotubule agents: a novel synergistic therapeutic intervention. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:5441-8 pubmed publisher
    To explore the possibility of stathmin as an effective therapeutic target and to evaluate the synergistic combination of stathmin RNAi and the antimicrotubule agents paclitaxel and vincristine to retinoblastoma Y79 cells.
  69. Lee B, Kim J, Woo S, Kim J, Kim D, Yu Y. Tissue factor is involved in retinoblastoma cell proliferation via both the Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. Oncol Rep. 2011;26:665-70 pubmed publisher
    Tissue factor (TF) is known to play a role in tumor progression. In retinoblastoma, the expression and role of TF has not been determined yet...
  70. Suzuki S, Yamane T, Mohri M, Kaneko A. Selective ophthalmic arterial injection therapy for intraocular retinoblastoma: the long-term prognosis. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:2081-7 pubmed publisher
    To report the success rate, adverse events, and long-term prognosis of selective ophthalmic arterial injection (SOAI) therapy for intraocular retinoblastoma.
  71. Goldhoff P, Clarke J, Smirnov I, Berger M, Prados M, James C, et al. Clinical stratification of glioblastoma based on alterations in retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB1) and association with the proneural subtype. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2012;71:83-9 pubmed publisher
    A recent study of CDK4/6 inhibitors in glioblastoma (GBM) xenografts identified retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein RB1 status as a determinant of tumor therapeutic efficacy...
  72. Sangwan M, McCurdy S, Livne Bar I, Ahmad M, Wrana J, Chen D, et al. Established and new mouse models reveal E2f1 and Cdk2 dependency of retinoblastoma, and expose effective strategies to block tumor initiation. Oncogene. 2012;31:5019-28 pubmed publisher
    RB(+/-) individuals develop retinoblastoma and, subsequently, many other tumors. The Rb relatives p107 and p130 protect the tumor-resistant Rb(-/-) mouse retina...
  73. Marr B, Hung C, GOBIN Y, Dunkel I, Brodie S, Abramson D. Success of intra-arterial chemotherapy (chemosurgery) for retinoblastoma: effect of orbitovascular anatomy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..results of orbital angiography performed during intra-arterial chemotherapy (chemosurgery) for treatment of retinoblastoma to assess the association of angiographic variability in orbitovascular anatomy with tumor response and ..
  74. Schaiquevich P, Buitrago E, Taich P, Torbidoni A, Ceciliano A, Fandino A, et al. Pharmacokinetic analysis of melphalan after superselective ophthalmic artery infusion in preclinical models and retinoblastoma patients. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:4205-12 pubmed publisher
    To characterize melphalan pharmacokinetics after superselective ophthalmic artery infusion (SSOAI) in animals and children with retinoblastoma.
  75. Pecora Liberman P, Schultz C, Schmidt Goffi Gómez M, Antoneli C, Motoro Chojniak M, Eduardo Novaes P. Evaluation of ototoxicity in children treated for retinoblastoma: preliminary results of a systematic audiological evaluation. Clin Transl Oncol. 2011;13:348-52 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to identify the ocurrence of hearing loss in children treated for retinoblastoma using a multidisciplinary approach.
  76. de Graaf P, Göricke S, Rodjan F, Galluzzi P, Maeder P, Castelijns J, et al. Guidelines for imaging retinoblastoma: imaging principles and MRI standardization. Pediatr Radiol. 2012;42:2-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children. The diagnosis is usually established by the ophthalmologist on the basis of fundoscopy and US...
  77. Shields C, Kaliki S, Shah S, Bianciotto C, Liu D, Jabbour P, et al. Minimal exposure (one or two cycles) of intra-arterial chemotherapy in the management of retinoblastoma. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:188-92 pubmed publisher
    To assess the efficacy of less than 3 cycles of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma.
  78. Kaliki S, Shields C, Shah S, Eagle R, Shields J, Leahey A. Postenucleation adjuvant chemotherapy with vincristine, etoposide, and carboplatin for the treatment of high-risk retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:1422-7 pubmed publisher
    Analysis of 52 eyes with high-risk retinoblastoma managed with postenucleation adjuvant chemotherapy using vincristine sulfate, etoposide phosphate, and carboplatin showed no evidence of systemic metastasis in any case during a mean (..
  79. Abidi O, Knari S, Sefri H, Charif M, Sénéchal A, Hamel C, et al. Mutational analysis of the RB1 gene in Moroccan patients with retinoblastoma. Mol Vis. 2011;17:3541-7 pubmed
    b>Retinoblastoma (RB), the most common intraocular tumor occurring in infancy and early childhood, is most often related to mutations in the RB1 gene...
  80. Livide G, Epistolato M, Amenduni M, Disciglio V, Marozza A, Mencarelli M, et al. Epigenetic and copy number variation analysis in retinoblastoma by MS-MLPA. Pathol Oncol Res. 2012;18:703-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in children...
  81. Mitra M, Kandalam M, Harilal A, Verma R, Krishnan U, Swaminathan S, et al. EpCAM is a putative stem marker in retinoblastoma and an effective target for T-cell-mediated immunotherapy. Mol Vis. 2012;18:290-308 pubmed
    ..In this study we characterized the EpCAM+ retinoblastoma (RB) cells for their cancer stem-like properties in vitro...
  82. Smith S, Pulido J, Salomao D, Smith B, Mohney B. Combined intravitreal and subconjunctival carboplatin for retinoblastoma with vitreous seeds. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:1073-7 pubmed publisher
    To describe the technique of intravitreal chemotherapy preceded by subconjunctival chemotherapy for the treatment of vitreous seeds in advanced stage retinoblastoma.
  83. Sreenivasan S, Thirumalai K, Danda R, Krishnakumar S. Effect of curcumin on miRNA expression in human Y79 retinoblastoma cells. Curr Eye Res. 2012;37:421-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular malignancy in children. Deregulation of several miRNAs has been identified in RB, suggesting a potential role in tumorigenesis...
  84. Orjuela M, Cabrera Muñoz L, Paul L, Ramirez Ortiz M, Liu X, Chen J, et al. Risk of retinoblastoma is associated with a maternal polymorphism in dihydrofolatereductase (DHFR) and prenatal folic acid intake. Cancer. 2012;118:5912-9 pubmed publisher
    The incidence of unilateral retinoblastoma varies globally, suggesting possible environmental contributors to disease incidence...
  85. Zhang Q, Jiang Y, Toutounchian J, Wilson M, Morales Tirado V, Miller D, et al. Novel quinic acid derivative KZ-41 prevents retinal endothelial cell apoptosis without inhibiting retinoblastoma cell death through p38 signaling. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:5937-43 pubmed publisher
    ..a novel NF-?B inhibitor, KZ-41, can inhibit melphalan's actions on retinal endothelial cell (REC) inflammation and apoptosis, without eliminating the chemotherapeutic efficacy of melphalan on cell death of retinoblastoma cells (Y79).
  86. Ali A, Elsheikh S, Elhaj A, Osman N, Abuidris D, Eltayeb E, et al. Clinical presentation and outcome of retinoblastoma among children treated at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Gezira, Sudan: a single Institution experience. Ophthalmic Genet. 2011;32:122-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma (RB) is a rare and unique cancer that affects the eyes of very young children. There are few reports on RB in Sudan.
  87. Brennan R, Federico S, Bradley C, Zhang J, Flores Otero J, Wilson M, et al. Targeting the p53 pathway in retinoblastoma with subconjunctival Nutlin-3a. Cancer Res. 2011;71:4205-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoblastoma is a rare childhood cancer of the retina that begins in utero and is diagnosed in the first years of life...
  88. Houston S, Pina Y, Clarke J, Koru Sengul T, Scott W, Nathanson L, et al. Regional and temporal differences in gene expression of LH(BETA)T(AG) retinoblastoma tumors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:5359-68 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate by microarray the hypothesis that LH(BETA)T(AG) retinoblastoma tumors exhibit regional and temporal variations in gene expression.
  89. Shields C, Bianciotto C, Jabbour P, Ramasubramanian A, Lally S, Griffin G, et al. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: report No. 1, control of retinal tumors, subretinal seeds, and vitreous seeds. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:1399-406 pubmed publisher
    To describe tumor control following intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma.
  90. Abdu L, Malami S. Clinicopathological pattern and management of retinoblastoma in Kano, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 2011;10:214-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study is to evaluate the pattern of presentation and the mode of management of retinoblastoma seen in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano from 2001 to 2005.
  91. Bianciotto C, Shields C, Iturralde J, Sarici A, Jabbour P, Shields J. Fluorescein angiographic findings after intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:843-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate fluorescein angiography (FA) findings after intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for retinoblastoma.
  92. Klufas M, Gobin Y, Marr B, Brodie S, Dunkel I, Abramson D. Intra-arterial chemotherapy as a treatment for intraocular retinoblastoma: alternatives to direct ophthalmic artery catheterization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33:1608-14 pubmed publisher
    Intra-arterial chemotherapy is a very effective treatment option for intraocular retinoblastoma. However, direct catheterization of the OA is not always possible...