primitive neuroectodermal tumors

Summary

Summary: A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)

Top Publications

  1. Hong T, Mehta M, Boyett J, Donahue B, Rorke L, Yao M, et al. Patterns of failure in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated in Children's Cancer Group Study 921, a phase III combined modality study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;60:204-13 pubmed
    To analyze the patterns of failure in patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ST-PNETs) treated with combined modality therapy in a large, randomized, multi-institutional study.
  2. Behdad A, Perry A. Central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a clinicopathologic and genetic study of 33 cases. Brain Pathol. 2010;20:441-50 pubmed publisher
    Central nervous system (CNS) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) include supratentorial, brain stem, and spinal cord tumors with medulloblastoma-like histopathology...
  3. Inda M, Castresana J. RASSF1A promoter is highly methylated in primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. Neuropathology. 2007;27:341-6 pubmed
    ..b>Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the central nervous system can be divided into infratentorial PNET or medulloblastoma (MB), ..
  4. Johnston D, Keene D, Lafay Cousin L, Steinbok P, Sung L, Carret A, et al. Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors: a Canadian pediatric brain tumor consortium report. J Neurooncol. 2008;86:101-8 pubmed
    Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (SPNET) are rare tumors accounting for only 2.5% of childhood brain tumors...
  5. Jakacki R. Treatment strategies for high-risk medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2005;102:44-52 pubmed
    b>Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are malignant tumors with a high propensity to disseminate throughout the cerebrospinal fluid...
  6. Frühwald M, Rickert C, O DORISIO M, Madsen M, Warmuth Metz M, Khanna G, et al. Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 is expressed by supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors of childhood and can be targeted for somatostatin receptor imaging. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:2997-3006 pubmed
    ..Novel and refined imaging methodologies are urgently needed...
  7. McManamy C, Lamont J, Taylor R, Cole M, Pearson A, Clifford S, et al. Morphophenotypic variation predicts clinical behavior in childhood non-desmoplastic medulloblastomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003;62:627-32 pubmed
    ..Our study supports the concept of an anaplastic variant among MBs, demonstrating that it has clinical utility...
  8. Chang Q, Pang J, Li K, Poon W, Zhou L, Ng H. Promoter hypermethylation profile of RASSF1A, FHIT, and sFRP1 in intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Hum Pathol. 2005;36:1265-72 pubmed
    Medulloblastomas (MBs) and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (SPNETs) are histologically alike intracranial PNETs found in different anatomical locations of the brain...
  9. Law M, Kazmi K, Wetzel S, Wang E, Iacob C, Zagzag D, et al. Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion and conventional MR imaging findings for adult patients with cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumors. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25:997-1005 pubmed
    Preoperative differentiation of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) from other tumors is important for presurgical staging, intraoperative management, and postoperative treatment...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Bakish J, Hargrave D, Tariq N, Laperriere N, Rutka J, Bouffet E. Evaluation of dietetic intervention in children with medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Cancer. 2003;98:1014-20 pubmed
    ..The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dietetic intervention in a cohort of children treated for medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) over a 10-year period.
  2. Perez Martinez A, Lassaletta A, Gonzalez Vicent M, Sevilla J, Diaz M, Madero L. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue for children with high risk and recurrent medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Neurooncol. 2005;71:33-8 pubmed
    Current treatment for high risk and recurrent medulloblastoma (MB) and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (stPNET) has a very poor prognosis in children...
  3. Blom T, Roselli A, Häyry V, Tynninen O, Wartiovaara K, Korja M, et al. Amplification and overexpression of KIT, PDGFRA, and VEGFR2 in medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Neurooncol. 2010;97:217-24 pubmed publisher
    Medulloblastomas (MB) and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are the most common malignant brain tumors in children. These two tumor types are histologically similar, but have different genetic backgrounds and clinical outcomes...
  4. Lee H, Cho J, Kim S, Jung D, Kim J, Choi H. Imaging findings of primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the kidney. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2009;33:882-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to present the radiological imaging findings of a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)...
  5. Vogel H, Fuller G. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors, embryonal tumors, and other small cell and poorly differentiated malignant neoplasms of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2003;7:387-98 pubmed
    ..One basic distinction is between primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (cPNETs) and primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the peripheral nervous ..
  6. Butturini A, Jacob M, Aguajo J, Vander Walde N, Villablanca J, Jubran R, et al. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell rescue in children with recurrent medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors: the impact of prior radiotherapy on outcome. Cancer. 2009;115:2956-63 pubmed publisher
    The role of myeloablative chemotherapy in children with recurrent medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (MB/ST-PNET) is controversial, in particular in patients who develop recurrent disease after ..
  7. Zhang W, Zhao L, Huang X, Cai P, Xu G. Computed tomography imaging of anterior and middle mediastinal Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Thorac Imaging. 2010;25:168-72 pubmed publisher
    We describe the computed tomography (CT) imaging features of Ewing sarcoma (EWS)/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) arising in the anterior and middle mediastinum.
  8. Demir A, Gunluoglu M, Dagoglu N, Turna A, Dizdar Y, Kaynak K, et al. Surgical treatment and prognosis of primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the thorax. J Thorac Oncol. 2009;4:185-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare, rapidly progressive, small- round cell tumors with a poor prognosis despite multimodal therapy, including surgery and chemoradiotherapy...
  9. Bobola M, Finn L, Ellenbogen R, Geyer J, Berger M, Braga J, et al. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is associated with response to radiation and chemotherapy in medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:7405-14 pubmed
    ..We assayed apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity in medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) to establish correlates with tumor and patient characteristics and with response to adjuvant ..
  10. Jingyu C, Jinning S, Hui M, Hua F. Intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors: Report of four cases and review of the literature. Neurol India. 2009;57:661-8 pubmed publisher
    Intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are extremely rare and are aggressive with poor outcomes. Till date only 41 cases of intraspinal PNET have been reported. Here we report four new cases...
  11. Fangusaro J, Massimino M, Rutkowski S, Gururangan S. Non-cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET): summary of the Milan consensus and state of the art workshop on marrow ablative chemotherapy with hematopoietic cell rescue for malignant brain tumors of childhood and adolescents. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010;54:638-40 pubmed publisher
    CNS non-cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) represent <5% of all childhood brain tumors. Despite similar therapies, these patients have had significantly worse outcomes compared to patients with medulloblastoma...
  12. Gajjar A, Pizer B. Role of high-dose chemotherapy for recurrent medulloblastoma and other CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010;54:649-51 pubmed publisher
    ..chemotherapy (HDCT) with stem cell rescue for patients with recurrent medulloblastoma and other primitive neuroectodermal tumors as presented at an international consensus and state of the art workshop held in Milan in 2006...
  13. Wang H, Breslin M, Chen C, Akerstrom V, Zhong Q, Lan M. INSM1 promoter-driven adenoviral herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase cancer gene therapy for the treatment of primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Hum Gene Ther. 2009;20:1308-18 pubmed publisher
    ..of an adenoviral INSM1 promoter-driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) construct in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). We constructed an adenoviral INSM1 promoter-driven HSV-tk gene for therapy in PNETs...
  14. Postovsky S, Ben Arush M, Elhasid R, Davidson S, Leshanski L, Vlodavsky E, et al. A novel case of a CAT to AAT transversion in codon 179 of the p53 gene in a supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor harbored by a young girl. Case report and review of the literature. Oncology. 2003;65:46-51 pubmed
    The most common cytogenetic abnormality encountered in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET)/medulloblastoma is loss of heterozygosity in the region of the short arm of chromosome 17...
  15. Perez Martinez A, Quintero V, Vicent M, Sevilla J, Diaz M, Madero L. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue as first line of treatment in young children with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Neurooncol. 2004;67:101-6 pubmed
    ..the dismal prognosis of patients younger than 4 years old with medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (stPNET) seven young children were treated with high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem ..
  16. Massimino M, Gandola L, Spreafico F, Luksch R, Collini P, Giangaspero F, et al. Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (S-PNET) in children: A prospective experience with adjuvant intensive chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;64:1031-7 pubmed
    Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (S-PNET) are rare and have a grim prognosis, frequently taking an aggressive course with local relapse and metastatic spread. We report the results of a mono-institutional therapeutic trial.
  17. Timmermann B, Kortmann R, Kühl J, Rutkowski S, Meisner C, Pietsch T, et al. Role of radiotherapy in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor in young children: results of the German HIT-SKK87 and HIT-SKK92 trials. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:1554-60 pubmed
    ..To assess the outcome of young children with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (stPNET) treated by intensive postoperative chemotherapy alone compared with treatment with chemotherapy and delayed radiotherapy (RT)...
  18. Efird J, Holly E, Preston Martin S, Mueller B, Lubin F, Filippini G, et al. Farm-related exposures and childhood brain tumours in seven countries: results from the SEARCH International Brain Tumour Study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2003;17:201-11 pubmed
    ..0) and unprocessed wool (OR = 3.0). Our findings suggest that various farm-related exposures are positively associated with CBT and warrant further investigation into the public health importance of these associations...
  19. McCabe M, Ichimura K, Liu L, Plant K, Bäcklund L, Pearson D, et al. High-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization of medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2006;65:549-61 pubmed
    Medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors are aggressive childhood tumors...
  20. McBride S, Daganzo S, Banerjee A, Gupta N, Lamborn K, Prados M, et al. Radiation is an important component of multimodality therapy for pediatric non-pineal supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;72:1319-23 pubmed publisher
    To review a historical cohort of pediatric patients with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET), to clarify the role of radiation in the treatment of these tumors.
  21. Pizer B, Weston C, Robinson K, Ellison D, Ironside J, Saran F, et al. Analysis of patients with supratentorial primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours entered into the SIOP/UKCCSG PNET 3 study. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42:1120-8 pubmed
    ..Future treatment programs should be directed at the particular natural history of these tumours, to further define prognostic factors and to explore further biological characteristics...
  22. Haberler C, Laggner U, Slavc I, Czech T, Ambros I, Ambros P, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of INI1 protein in malignant pediatric CNS tumors: Lack of INI1 in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors and in a fraction of primitive neuroectodermal tumors without rhabdoid phenotype. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:1462-8 pubmed
    ..biopsy specimens of 289 malignant pediatric CNS tumors including medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic ependymomas, choroid plexus carcinomas, germ cell ..
  23. Pfister S, Remke M, Toedt G, Werft W, Benner A, Mendrzyk F, et al. Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system frequently harbor deletions of the CDKN2A locus and other genomic aberrations distinct from medulloblastomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2007;46:839-51 pubmed
    Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (stPNETs) and medulloblastomas have long been thought to arise from a common cell type in the subventricular germinal matrix...
  24. Fangusaro J, Finlay J, Sposto R, Ji L, Saly M, Zacharoulis S, et al. Intensive chemotherapy followed by consolidative myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) in young children with newly diagnosed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNETs): report of the Head Start I . Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;50:312-8 pubmed
    Children with newly diagnosed supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) have poor outcomes compared to medulloblastoma patients, despite similar treatments...
  25. Flannery T, Kano H, Martin J, Niranjan A, Flickinger J, Lunsford L, et al. Boost radiosurgery as a strategy after failure of initial management of pediatric primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009;3:205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to determine the outcomes of boost stereotactic radiosurgery, specifically Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), for recurrent primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) in children in whom initial multimodality management had failed.
  26. Scheurlen W, Schwabe G, Joos S, Mollenhauer J, Sorensen N, Kuhl J. Molecular analysis of childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors defines markers associated with poor outcome. J Clin Oncol. 1998;16:2478-85 pubmed
    The diagnostic and prognostic significance of well-defined molecular markers was investigated in childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET).
  27. Ganjoo K, Foster R, Michael H, Donohue J, Einhorn L. Germ cell tumor associated primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Urol. 2001;165:1514-6 pubmed
    ..This retrospective review was done to assess the prognosis and response in patients presenting with primitive neuroectodermal tumor admixed with germ cell tumor...
  28. Koch A, Waha A, Tonn J, Sorensen N, Berthold F, Wolter M, et al. Somatic mutations of WNT/wingless signaling pathway components in primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Int J Cancer. 2001;93:445-9 pubmed
    b>Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) represent the most frequent malignant brain tumors in childhood. The majority of these neoplasms occur in the cerebellum and are classified as medulloblastomas (MB)...
  29. Llombart Bosch A, Navarro S. Immunohistochemical detection of EWS and FLI-1 proteinss in Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors: comparative analysis with CD99 (MIC-2) expression. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2001;9:255-60 pubmed
    ..rearrangement involving EWS/FLI-1 genes is likely to be of diagnostic value in Ewing sarcoma (ES) and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET)...
  30. Grier H, Krailo M, Tarbell N, Link M, Fryer C, Pritchard D, et al. Addition of ifosfamide and etoposide to standard chemotherapy for Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor of bone. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:694-701 pubmed
    ..We designed a study to test whether the addition of these drugs to a standard regimen would improve the survival of patients with newly diagnosed disease...
  31. Weber R, Bridger J, Benner A, Weisenberger D, Ehemann V, Reifenberger G, et al. Centrosome amplification as a possible mechanism for numerical chromosome aberrations in cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumors with TP53 mutations. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;83:266-9 pubmed
    ..1996). Here we report on cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumors that lacked the wild-type p53 gene (TP53) and showed multiple numerical chromosome aberrations, as ..
  32. Kim J, Koralnik I, LeFave M, Segal R, Pfister L, Pomeroy S. Medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors rarely contain polyomavirus DNA sequences. Neuro Oncol. 2002;4:165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to childhood ependymomas and choroid plexus tumors, medulloblastomas and sPNETs infrequently express evidence of polyomavirus infection...
  33. Kraus J, Felsberg J, Tonn J, Reifenberger G, Pietsch T. Molecular genetic analysis of the TP53, PTEN, CDKN2A, EGFR, CDK4 and MDM2 tumour-associated genes in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours and glioblastomas of childhood. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2002;28:325-33 pubmed
    ..In addition, the patterns of genetic alterations in sPNETs and paediatric GBMs appear to be distinct from those in cerebellar medulloblastomas and adult GBMs, respectively...
  34. Craver R, Lipscomb J, Suskind D, Velez M. Malignant teratoma of the thyroid with primitive neuroepithelial and mesenchymal sarcomatous components. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2001;5:285-92 pubmed
    ..Trisomy 8 is the first cytogenetic abnormality described in malignant thyroid teratoma. Therapy should be tailored to the management of all transformed histologies...
  35. Kim D, Lee D, Paek S, Chi J, Choe G, Jung H. Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors in adults. J Neurooncol. 2002;60:43-52 pubmed
    ..Intratumoral calcifications and the Ki-67 labelling index might be prognostic factors, however, it should be considered that the sample size is too small and not all patients were evaluated...
  36. Del Valle L, Wang J, Lassak A, Peruzzi F, Croul S, Khalili K, et al. Insulin-like growth factor I receptor signaling system in JC virus T antigen-induced primitive neuroectodermal tumors--medulloblastomas. J Neurovirol. 2002;8 Suppl 2:138-47 pubmed
  37. Hader W, Drovini Zis K, Maguire J. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors in the central nervous system following cranial irradiation: a report of four cases. Cancer. 2003;97:1072-6 pubmed
    ..The development of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) following prophylactic craniospinal irradiation has been infrequently reported previously...
  38. Prados M, Wara W, Edwards M, Ater J, Rabbit J, Lamborn K, et al. Treatment of high-risk medulloblastoma and other primitive neuroectodermal tumors with reduced dose craniospinal radiation therapy and multi-agent nitrosourea-based chemotherapy. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1996;25:174-81 pubmed
    ..survival (PFS) of children and adults with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma, pineoblastoma, and other primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) with a combined modality regimen of radiation therapy and adjuvant nitrosourea-based ..
  39. Biegel J, Fogelgren B, Zhou J, James C, Janss A, Allen J, et al. Mutations of the INI1 rhabdoid tumor suppressor gene in medulloblastomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. Clin Cancer Res. 2000;6:2759-63 pubmed
    ..Detection of these mutations suggests that the child has an AT/RT, rather than a MB/PNET, a finding with important prognostic value...
  40. Reifenberger J, Wolter M, Weber R, Megahed M, Ruzicka T, Lichter P, et al. Missense mutations in SMOH in sporadic basal cell carcinomas of the skin and primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. Cancer Res. 1998;58:1798-803 pubmed
    About one-third of sporadic basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) of the skin and 10-15% of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) of the central nervous system show mutations in the PTCH tumor suppressor gene...
  41. Grotzer M, Geoerger B, Janss A, Zhao H, Rorke L, Phillips P. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 (MIB-1) proliferation index in childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2001;36:268-73 pubmed
    b>Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the central nervous system, including medulloblastomas, are the most common malignant brain tumors of childhood...
  42. Woodburn R, Azzarelli B, Montebello J, Goss I. Intense p53 staining is a valuable prognostic indicator for poor prognosis in medulloblastoma/central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors. J Neurooncol. 2001;52:57-62 pubmed
    ..Intense p53 immunostaining may predict for a poor prognosis in central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood...
  43. Cordier S, Mandereau L, Preston Martin S, Little J, Lubin F, Mueller B, et al. Parental occupations and childhood brain tumors: results of an international case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12:865-74 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the role of parental occupations in the etiology of childhood brain tumors (CBT)...
  44. Bruch L, Hill D, Cai D, Levy B, Dehner L, Perry A. A role for fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of chromosome 22q dosage in distinguishing atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors from medulloblastoma/central primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Hum Pathol. 2001;32:156-62 pubmed
    It has been postulated that infants with medulloblastomas/central primitive neuroectodermal tumors (MB/PNET) may fare worse than older patients because some of them harbor unrecognized atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT), rare ..
  45. Patti R, Gumired K, Reddanna P, Sutton L, Phillips P, Reddy C. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human primitive neuroectodermal tumors: effect of celecoxib and rofecoxib. Cancer Lett. 2002;180:13-21 pubmed
    ..Growth inhibition by celecoxib and rofecoxib was independent of Bcl-2 expression. Celecoxib suppressed the expression of Akt and activated the caspase-3 in DAOY and PFSK, whereas rofecoxib did not have such an effect...
  46. Burns A, Jaros E, Cole M, Perry R, Pearson A, Lunec J. The molecular pathology of p53 in primitive neuroectodermal tumours of the central nervous system. Br J Cancer. 2002;86:1117-23 pubmed
    ..Multivariate analyses supported the prognostic value of p53 immunostaining in central primitive neuroectodermal tumours and also of age and gender of patients...
  47. Bodey B, Siegel S, Kaiser H. Matrix metalloproteinase expression in childhood medulloblastomas/primitive neuroectodermal tumors. In Vivo. 2000;14:667-73 pubmed
    ..Expression of MMP-2, -3, -9, -10, and -13 was investigated in human childhood medulloblastomas (MEDs)/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) employing an indirect alkaline phosphatase conjugated immunohistochemical antigen detection ..
  48. Grotzer M, Janss A, Fung K, Sutton L, Zhao H, Trojanowski J, et al. Abundance of apoptotic neoplastic cells in diagnostic biopsy samples is not a prognostic factor in childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001;23:25-9 pubmed
    To assess if the abundance of apoptotic tumor cells is an independent prognostic factor in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the central nervous system.
  49. Chu W, Reznikov B, Lee E, Grant R, Cheng F, Babyn P. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of the kidney: a rare renal tumour in adolescents with seemingly characteristic radiological features. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38:1089-94 pubmed publisher
    ..While rare, one should consider the diagnosis of PNET when encountering a renal mass with aggressive features such as inferior vena cava tumour thrombus, direct intraspinal invasion and distant metastasis. ..
  50. Story E, Johnston D, Bartels U, Carret A, Crooks B, Eisenstat D, et al. Embryonal tumors in Canadian children less than 36 months of age: results from the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (CPBTC). J Neurooncol. 2017;133:581-587 pubmed publisher
    ..The proportion of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) was 16%, with 2.6 and 1...
  51. Han S, Sohn M, Yoon S, Yee G, Choi C, Lee D, et al. Extracranial metastases of a supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour. J Clin Neurosci. 2007;14:55-8 pubmed
    ..We report a 29-year-old man with a supratentorial PNET, which metastasized to his vertebral bodies and lung. ..
  52. Moftakhar P, Fan X, Hurvitz C, Black K, Danielpour M. Long-term survival in a child with a central nervous system medulloepithelioma. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2008;2:339-45 pubmed publisher
    ..system medulloepitheliomas are extremely rare and malignant (World Health Organization Grade IV) primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) that arise in childhood...
  53. Mohan D, Rao G, Swalsky P, Bakker A, Martinez A, Finkelstein S. Microdissection genotyping of mixed glial and primitive neuroectodermal central nervous system neoplasm. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004;128:1161-4 pubmed
    ..The efficacy of the approach used for molecular analysis of this complex neoplasm and the implication of the genotypic findings are discussed. ..
  54. Gorgulu A, Albayrak B, Kose T. Cervical leptomeningeal and intramedullary metastasis of a cerebral PNET in an adult. J Neurooncol. 2005;74:339-40 pubmed
  55. Guney I, Paydas S, Balli H. Super Scan Caused by Parathyroid Carcinoma Observed Both in18F-FDG PET/CT Scan and Tc-99m MDP Bone Scintigraphy. Mol Imaging Radionucl Ther. 2017;26:116-119 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, there was increased skeletal radiotracer uptake relative to soft tissue, and faint genitourinary tract activity in bone scintigraphy...
  56. Ueno Y, Ishikawa M, Tsuruta T, Wajiki M. [Case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 2008;99:560-4 pubmed
    ..She subsequently received 1 cycle chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin, resulting in no response. The metastatic lung and liver diseases progressed and she died 5 months after diagnosis. ..
  57. Nozza P, Milanaccio C, Piatelli G, Rossi A, Raso A, Cama A, et al. Cerebellar medullomyoblastoma with melanotic tubular structures. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;50:183-5 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates the occurrence of this very rare tumor in early childhood as well as the utility of a careful search for the presence of myogenic and/or melanotic features in medulloblastomas. ..
  58. Donner L, Teshima I. Peripheral medulloepithelioma: an immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and cytogenetic study of a rare, chemotherapy-sensitive, pediatric tumor. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003;27:1008-12 pubmed
    ..Because some of these rare tumors are sensitive to chemotherapy, their recognition and separation from other neuroectodermal tumors are advisable for better understanding of their biology and determination of optimal treatment. ..
  59. Kuhn S, Hanisch U, Ebmeier K, Beetz C, Brodhun M, Reichart R, et al. A paediatric supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumour associated with malignant astrocytic transformation and a clonal origin of both components. Neurosurg Rev. 2007;30:143-9; discussion 149 pubmed
    ..We discuss this very rare case and the first description of the clonal origin of distinct and distinguishable tumour components taking into consideration published literature...
  60. Huang K, Shun C, Huang S, Yu H, Chueh S, Chen J. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the urinary tract. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006;105:1008-12 pubmed
    ..The patient died of disseminated disease 1 year after the discovery of recurrence. Urinary tract PNET appears to be an aggressive malignancy. Long-term survival is possible if complete resection is performed at an early stage...
  61. Chen F, Koenig C, Heller D. A 26-year-old woman with right ovarian mass. Small cell carcinoma of ovary, hypercalcemic type. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130:e56-8 pubmed
  62. Ousadden A, Mazaz K, Amraoui A, Kettani F, Chefchaouni M, Ait Taleb K. [Primary hepatic localization of the PPNET (primitive peripheral neuroectodermal tumors). Case report]. Ann Chir. 2005;130:254-6 pubmed
    ..The treatment, in theory copied on that of the Ewing's sarcoma, is complex and not yet codified, which makes it another disappointing aspect of this disease whose prognosis remains dark...
  63. Peres E, Mattoo T, Poulik J, Warrier I. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the uterus in a renal allograft patient: a case report. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005;44:283-5 pubmed
    ..b>Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are collectively described as being a part of the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors...