Summary: Neoplasms which originate from pineal parenchymal cells that tend to enlarge the gland and be locally invasive. The two major forms are pineocytoma and the more malignant pineoblastoma. Pineocytomas have moderate cellularity and tend to form rosette patterns. Pineoblastomas are highly cellular tumors containing small, poorly differentiated cells. These tumors occasionally seed the neuroaxis or cause obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS or Parinaud's syndrome. GERMINOMA; CARCINOMA, EMBRYONAL; GLIOMA; and other neoplasms may arise in the pineal region with germinoma being the most common pineal region tumor. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2064; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p670)

Top Publications

  1. Al Hussaini M, Sultan I, Abuirmileh N, Jaradat I, Qaddoumi I. Pineal gland tumors: experience from the SEER database. J Neurooncol. 2009;94:351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..An aggressive surgical approach should be considered with caution in this region. Further studies on different pineal tumors subtypes are needed...
  2. Korogi Y, Takahashi M, Ushio Y. MRI of pineal region tumors. J Neurooncol. 2001;54:251-61 pubmed
  3. Boscherini D, Pintucci M, Mazzucchelli L, Renella R, Pesce G. Neuroendoscopic management of a solitary pineal region tumor. Case report of an adenocarcinoma metastasis. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2006;49:247-50 pubmed
    ..The present report emphasizes the role of neuroendoscopy in pineal region tumors and reports a rare case of a solitary gastric adenocarcinoma metastasis in this location...
  4. Moll A, Imhof S, Schouten van Meeteren A, Boers M. Screening for pineoblastoma in patients with retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:1774; author reply 1774 pubmed
  5. Knierim D, Yamada S. Pineal tumors and associated lesions: the effect of ethnicity on tumor type and treatment. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2003;38:307-23 pubmed
  6. Mandera M, Marcol W, Bierzynska Macyszyn G, Kluczewska E. Pineal cysts in childhood. Childs Nerv Syst. 2003;19:750-5 pubmed
    ..Little is known about the incidence and symptomatology of pineal cysts in children. Until now, the proper management of this group of patients has not been established...
  7. Moll A, Imhof S, Schouten van Meeteren A, Boers M, van Leeuwen F, Hofman P. Chemoreduction for retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:1513 pubmed
  8. Karatza E, Shields C, Flanders A, Gonzalez M, Shields J. Pineal cyst simulating pinealoblastoma in 11 children with retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124:595-7 pubmed
  9. Das S, Chandler J, Pollack A, Biggio E, Diaz L, Raizer J, et al. Oligodendroglioma of the pineal region. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2006;105:461-4 pubmed
    ..Although the spectrum of tumors arising within the region of the pineal gland is broad, to the authors' knowledge this is the first report of an oligodendroglioma occurring in this area...

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kano H, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, Flickinger J, Lunsford D. Role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of pineal parenchymal tumors. Prog Neurol Surg. 2009;23:44-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective and safe alternative to the surgical resection of pineocytomas as well as part of multimodal therapy for more aggressive pineal parenchymal tumors...
  2. Dunkel I, Jubran R, Gururangan S, Chantada G, Finlay J, Goldman S, et al. Trilateral retinoblastoma: potentially curable with intensive chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010;54:384-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a series of 13 patients treated with intensive chemotherapy, defined as the intention to include high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue...
  3. Gururangan S, McLaughlin C, Quinn J, Rich J, Reardon D, Halperin E, et al. High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in children and adults with newly diagnosed pineoblastomas. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:2187-91 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the usefulness of a treatment regimen that included high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous stem-cell rescue (ASCR) in patients with newly diagnosed pineoblastoma (PBL)...
  4. Plowman P, Pizer B, Kingston J. Pineal parenchymal tumours: II. On the aggressive behaviour of pineoblastoma in patients with an inherited mutation of the RB1 gene. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2004;16:244-7 pubmed
    ..With the current interest in the role of RB mutations in other cancers (where the prognostic import of single genes is less easily identified), this observation may have wider relevance...
  5. Beck Popovic M, Balmer A, Maeder P, Braganca T, Munier F. Benign pineal cysts in children with bilateral retinoblastoma: a new variant of trilateral retinoblastoma?. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006;46:755-61 pubmed
    ..Patients with hereditary retinoblastoma (Rb) develop in 4%-8% a malignant midline tumor called trilateral Rb (TRb). We report in this study on benign pineal cysts observed in patients investigated for TRb...
  6. Antoneli C, Ribeiro K, Sakamoto L, Chojniak M, Novaes P, Arias V. Trilateral retinoblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007;48:306-10 pubmed
    ..Although its incidence is low, the prognosis is very poor. This article reports four cases of TRB and discusses the role of neuroimaging screening for early detection...
  7. Miyoshi Y, Omori M, Kobayashi N, Masuko T, Watanabe E, Date I. [A case of pineal pure germinoma metastasized to the lumbosacral extradural space 8 years after initial therapy. Case report and review of literature]. No Shinkei Geka. 2006;34:745-52 pubmed
    ..Regarding the route of this metastasis, we speculate that the CSF dissemination of the germinoma cells occurred first and some of those cells were trapped in the spinal nerve sleeve and extended into the epidural space...
  8. Ayyanar K, Blackman S, Chordas C, Frazier L, Kieran M. Metachronous mediastinal seminoma occurring after intracranial germinoma in an adolescent. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;31:861-4 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no evidence of recurrent central nervous system disease. The patient underwent systemic chemotherapy with the complete resolution of the mediastinal seminoma...
  9. Rodjan F, de Graaf P, Moll A, Imhof S, Verbeke J, Sanchez E, et al. Brain abnormalities on MR imaging in patients with retinoblastoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:1385-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this retrospective study, the presence of brain abnormalities on MR images in a large group of consecutive patients with retinoblastoma is evaluated...
  10. De Ioris M, Fidani P, Munier F, Serra A, Ilari I, Popovic M, et al. Successful treatment of trilateral retinoblastoma with conventional and high-dose chemotherapy plus radiotherapy: a case report. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2010;32:e343-5 pubmed publisher
    ..At 80 months from the diagnosis of TRB, the patient is alive and in complete remission, with no neuropsychologic consequences. An early and aggressive treatment may improve the prognosis of TRB...
  11. Kurisaka M, Arisawa M, Mori T, Sakamoto T, Seike M, Mori K, et al. Combination chemotherapy (cisplatin, vinblastin) and low-dose irradiation in the treatment of pineal parenchymal cell tumors. Childs Nerv Syst. 1998;14:564-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggested that combination chemotherapy with low-dose back-up radiotherapy may be the treatment of choice for primary or recurrent disease with or without dissemination in PPCTs...
  12. Shields C, Meadows A, Shields J, Carvalho C, Smith A. Chemoreduction for retinoblastoma may prevent intracranial neuroblastic malignancy (trilateral retinoblastoma). Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:1269-72 pubmed
    ..To evaluate whether neoadjuvant intravenous chemotherapy (chemoreduction) for retinoblastoma reduces the risk for associated intracranial neuroblastic tumor (trilateral retinoblastoma)...
  13. Pople I, Athanasiou T, Sandeman D, Coakham H. The role of endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy in the management of pineal region tumours. Br J Neurosurg. 2001;15:305-11 pubmed
    ..Definitive treatment for each tumour is designed according to diagnosis...
  14. Hasegawa T, Kondziolka D, Hadjipanayis C, Flickinger J, Lunsford L. The role of radiosurgery for the treatment of pineal parenchymal tumors. Neurosurgery. 2002;51:880-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this report was to clarify its role in conjunction with other surgical, radiation, and medical approaches...
  15. Amini A, Schmidt R, Salzman K, Chin S, Couldwell W. Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region. J Neurooncol. 2006;79:307-14 pubmed
    ..Glioblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the pineal region tumors, especially when evidence of leptomeningeal or ependymal metastatic disease is present...
  16. Fauchon F, Jouvet A, Paquis P, Saint Pierre G, Mottolese C, Ben Hassel M, et al. Parenchymal pineal tumors: a clinicopathological study of 76 cases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;46:959-68 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to identify factors that could lead to optimization of the management of pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT) which remains equivocal and controversial...
  17. Schulder M, Liang D, Carmel P. Cranial surgery navigation aided by a compact intraoperative magnetic resonance imager. J Neurosurg. 2001;94:936-45 pubmed
    ..In this article the authors report on a novel, compact device for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that has been developed for use in a standard neurosurgical operating room...
  18. Mawrin C, Grimm C, von Falkenhausen U, Kirches E, Scherlach C, Kanakis D, et al. Pineal epidermoid coinciding with pineocytoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2003;145:783-7 pubmed
    ..The unique finding of two different types of tumours in the pineal region is evaluated with regard to the histogenesis of epidermoid cysts and pineocytomas...
  19. Anan M, Ishii K, Nakamura T, Yamashita M, Katayama S, Sainoo M, et al. Postoperative adjuvant treatment for pineal parenchymal tumour of intermediate differentiation. J Clin Neurosci. 2006;13:965-8 pubmed
    ..Postoperative radio- and chemotherapy were administered, with a good response. Little is known about the clinical behaviour of PPTID in adults. Our treatment plan indicates one effective option for the management of such tumours...
  20. Marcol W, Kotulska K, Grajkowska W, Gołka D, Właszczuk P, Drogosiewicz M, et al. Papillary pineocytoma in child: a case report. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2007;151:121-3 pubmed
    ..Papillary pineocytoma is an extremely rare tumor usually with a poor outcome...
  21. Mori Y, Kobayashi T, Hasegawa T, Yoshida K, Kida Y. Stereotactic radiosurgery for pineal and related tumors. Prog Neurol Surg. 2009;23:106-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Intermediate prognosis was obtained in germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell and malignant GCT. GKRS is expected to be an effective and safe adjuvant treatment approach to pineal and related tumors...
  22. Silva V, Azevedo A, Costa I, Mafra M, Passos Coelho J, Bravo Marques J. Mixed testicular germ cell tumour in a patient with previous pineal germinoma. J Neurooncol. 2011;101:125-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the case of a 32-year-old man, with previously treated pineal germinoma at age 16 years, who later developed mixed GCT of the left testis...
  23. Lutterbach J, Fauchon F, Schild S, Chang S, Pagenstecher A, Volk B, et al. Malignant pineal parenchymal tumors in adult patients: patterns of care and prognostic factors. Neurosurgery. 2002;51:44-55; discussion 55-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was to analyze patterns of care and to identify prognostic factors in patients at least 18 years of age who received radiotherapy for malignant pineal parenchymal tumors...
  24. Deshmukh V, Smith K, Rekate H, Coons S, Spetzler R. Diagnosis and management of pineocytomas. Neurosurgery. 2004;55:349-55; discussion 355-7 pubmed
    ..Pineocytomas are associated with the most favorable prognosis of all pineal tumors. However, a subset of pineocytomas may have a predilection for recurrence and therefore behave aggressively...
  25. Gasparetto E, Cruz L, Doring T, Araújo B, Dantas M, Chimelli L, et al. Diffusion-weighted MR images and pineoblastoma: diagnosis and follow-up. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2008;66:64-8 pubmed
    ..The differential diagnosis of pineal region masses that could show restriction of diffusion is discussed...
  26. Gilheeney S, Saad A, Chi S, Turner C, Ullrich N, Goumnerova L, et al. Outcome of pediatric pineoblastoma after surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. J Neurooncol. 2008;89:89-95 pubmed publisher
  27. Kobayashi T, Kida Y, Mori Y. Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery for pineal and related tumors. J Neurooncol. 2001;54:301-9 pubmed
    ..Gamma knife radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel approach to pineal and related tumors, not only as an adjuvant but also as an initial treatment...
  28. Jackson A, Plowman P. Pineal parenchymal tumours: I. Pineocytoma: a tumour responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2004;16:238-43 pubmed
    ..With the recent reclassification of pineal parenchymal tumours into a grade I-IV continuum, the place of chemotherapy, previously only well-established in pineoblastoma, is discussed...
  29. Reyns N, Hayashi M, Chinot O, Manera L, Peragut J, Blond S, et al. The role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in the treatment of pineal parenchymal tumours. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006;148:5-11; discussion 11 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to document the possible role of Gamma Knife radiosurgery, suitable for the treatment of deep and well limited tumors, in the management of pineal parenchymal tumors (PPT)...
  30. Kamoshima Y, Sawamura Y, Iwasaki M, Iwasaki Y, Sugiyama K. Metachronous mature teratoma in the corpus callosum occurring 12 years after a pineal germinoma. J Neurosurg. 2008;109:126-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To the authors' knowledge, this combination of metachronous germ cell tumor has not previously been reported in the literature...
  31. van den Ameele J, Sieben A, Van den Broecke C, Boterberg T, Defreyne L, Achten E, et al. Late-onset post-irradiation vasculopathy of the posterior cerebral vasculature. Acta Neurol Belg. 2012;112:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..When a progressive clinical decline with accumulating ischemic events is observed, together with signs of atherosclerosis, radiotherapy-related vasculopathy may be considered. ..
  32. Corapcioglu F, Memet Ozek M, Sav A, Uren D. Congenital pineoblastoma and parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma: concurrent two embryonal tumors in a young infant. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:533-8 pubmed
    ..9% of congenital brain tumors. The occurrence of multiple tumors of different histopathologic types in the same individual is a rare event, most often encountered in hereditary cancer syndromes...
  33. Shibamoto Y. Management of central nervous system germinoma: proposal for a modern strategy. Prog Neurol Surg. 2009;23:119-29 pubmed publisher
    ..CNS germinoma patients should be completely cured with minimum morbidity, probably by employing appropriate doses of chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the future. ..
  34. Cerase A, Vallone I, Di Pietro G, Oliveri G, Miracco C, Venturi C. Neuroradiological follow-up of the growth of papillary tumor of the pineal region: a case report. J Neurooncol. 2009;95:433-435 pubmed publisher
    ..854 x 10(-3) mm(2)/s. Treatment included surgery followed by irradiation. Three-month MRI follow-up did not show disease relapse. ..
  35. Al Holou W, Garton H, Muraszko K, Ibrahim M, Maher C. Prevalence of pineal cysts in children and young adults. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009;4:230-6 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Pineal cyst size was similar for all age and sex groups. Pineal cysts are common in the pediatric population, with an increased prevalence in girls and in older patients. ..
  36. Husain M, Jha D, Thaman D, Husain N, Gupta R. Ventriculostomy in a tumor involving the third ventricular floor. Neurosurg Rev. 2004;27:70-2 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ETV appears worth trying, even in third ventricular tumors involving the floor region if they can be cleared from the tumor keeping the dorsum sellae as the major anatomical landmark. ..
  37. Berg S. In their own voices: families discuss end-of-life decision making--part 2. Pediatr Nurs. 2006;32:238-42, 237 pubmed
    ..Both hoped for support from their health care providers in being active in decision-making. These narratives are in their own voices, from their own points of view. ..
  38. Choi U, Cha S, Song G, Choi C, Lee S, Lim Y, et al. Recurrent intracranial germinoma along the endoscopic ventriculostomy tract. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:62-5 pubmed
    ..0 x 1.4 x 1.5 cm. An operation was performed to remove the small lesion, and pathological findings revealed it to be of the same histology as the primary tumor...
  39. Bednarek Tupikowska G, Kuliczkowska Płaksej J, Filus A, Bucyk B, Sokolska V. [A case of hypophyseal and pineal germinoma]. Endokrynol Pol. 2007;58:448-52 pubmed
    ..The case puts on the necessity of a strict endocrinologic and radiologic follow-up in patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus due to the possibility of existing potentially curable disease ie. intracranial tumor. ..
  40. Harris L, Davies N, Wilson S, MacPherson L, Natarajan K, English M, et al. Short echo time single voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis and characterisation of pineal tumours in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;57:972-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Taurine was convincingly detected in germinomas as well as PPTs. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is useful for characterising pineal region tumours, aiding the non-invasive diagnosis and giving additional biological insight. ..
  41. Lee K, Lall R, Chandler J, Bigio E, Mao Q. Pineal chordoid meningioma complicated by repetitive hemorrhage during pregnancy: case report and literature review. Neuropathology. 2013;33:192-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, there was abundant lymphoplasmacytic infiltration within the tumor. The details of this case are presented with a review of the literature. ..
  42. Suh B, Kim J, Namgung U, Han S, Kim K. Selective inhibition of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor-mediated cAMP generation by activation of the P2Y(2) receptor in mouse pineal gland tumor cells. J Neurochem. 2001;77:1475-85 pubmed
    ..We conclude that one of the functions of P2Y(2) receptors on the pineal gland is the selective inhibition of beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling pathways via the inhibitory G-proteins. ..
  43. Gudinaviciene I, Pranys D, Zheng P, Kros J. A 10-month-old boy with a large pineal tumor. Brain Pathol. 2005;15:263-4, 267 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the present case does not match strict criteria of any of the categories mentioned and therefore we have designated it as a "pineal anlage tumor (without immature components)". ..
  44. Kim T, Lee T, Kim B, Lee K, Song I, Kim J. Diurnally fluctuating frontal dysequilibrium secondary to a pineal pilocytic astrocytoma: is this symptom associated with a check-valve mechanism in a pineal region tumor?. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:367-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This result suggests that the symptoms of hydrocephalus are possibly associated with a check-valve mechanism of the pineal tumor and may be related to transient compression of the basal ganglia and frontal lobes. ..
  45. Levidou G, Korkolopoulou P, Agrogiannis G, Paidakakos N, Bouramas D, Patsouris E. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Pathol. 2010;5:59 pubmed publisher
    ..Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far...
  46. Friedrich C, Von Bueren A, von Hoff K, Gerber N, Ottensmeier H, Deinlein F, et al. Treatment of young children with CNS-primitive neuroectodermal tumors/pineoblastomas in the prospective multicenter trial HIT 2000 using different chemotherapy regimens and radiotherapy. Neuro Oncol. 2013;15:224-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Short intensive induction chemotherapy followed by tandem-HDCT in young children with CNS-PNET/pineoblastomas seems to be superior to the prolonged and less intensive induction regimen. ..
  47. Gangemi M, Maiuri F, Colella G, Buonamassa S. Endoscopic surgery for pineal region tumors. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2001;44:70-3 pubmed
    ..When a direct microsurgical approach is indicated, it may be performed in a non-emergency situation and after correction of the hydrocephalus by endoscopic third ventriculostomy. ..
  48. Schrodter S, Hakenberg O, Oehlschlager S, Frohner M, Kittner T, Wirth M. [Acute abdominal pain due to a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt metastasis of an intracranial germ cell tumor]. Aktuelle Urol. 2006;37:141-2 pubmed
    ..With an appropriate clinical history, intra-abdominal metastases via a temporary ventriculo-peritoneal shunt should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. ..
  49. Lissoni P. Biochemotherapy with immunomodulating pineal hormones other than melatonin: 5-methoxytryptamine as a new oncostatic pineal agent. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2007;55:198-200 pubmed
  50. Ramasubramanian A, Kytasty C, Meadows A, Shields J, Leahey A, Shields C. Incidence of pineal gland cyst and pineoblastoma in children with retinoblastoma during the chemoreduction era. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013;156:825-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Pineoblastoma was detected in 1% of patients and fewer patients who received systemic chemotherapy developed pineoblastoma, possibly indicating a systemic protective effect. ..
  51. Inoue A, Ohnishi T, Kohno S, Ohue S, Iwata S, Matsumoto S, et al. Identification of characteristic features of pineal germinoma that enhance accuracy of preoperative differentiation in pineal region tumors: its significance on optimum surgical treatment. Neurosurg Rev. 2018;41:197-206 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that combination of both features may become useful tools to preoperatively differentiate germinoma from other pineal tumors, resulting in achievement of the optimum treatment of pineal region tumors. ..
  52. Sato T, Kirby P, Buatti J, Moritani T. Papillary tumor of the pineal region: report of a rapidly progressive tumor with possible multicentric origin. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39:188-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In spite of intensive chemotherapy and comprehensive radiotherapy, the boy died. The neuroimaging appearance is unique with possible multicentric origin of the tumor and intense uptake of (111)In-DTPA-pentetreotide. ..
  53. Hanada T, Oyoshi T, Hirano H, Arita K. Metastatic pineal tumors treated by neuroendoscopic surgery--two case reports. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2010;50:232-6 pubmed
    ..Both patients underwent neuroendoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy through the foramen of Monro, resulting in reliable histological diagnoses and subsidence of hydrocephalus. ..
  54. Tsekov I, Ferdinandov D, Bussarsky V, Hristova S, Kalvatchev Z. Prevalence of JC polyomavirus genomic sequences from the large T-antigen and non-coding control regions among Bulgarian patients with primary brain tumors. J Med Virol. 2011;83:1608-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This may lead subsequently to malignant transformation. ..
  55. Krieg S, Slawik H, Meyer B, Wiegand M, Stoffel M. Sleep disturbance after pinealectomy in patients with pineocytoma WHO°I. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2012;154:1399-405; discussion 1405 pubmed publisher
    ..9?±?1.9 and 3.3?±?1.3 points). Pinealectomy itself did not cause specific sleep impairment, but craniotomy in general did. This interesting and clinically relevant finding needs further investigation. ..
  56. Choudhri O, Chang S. Supracerebellar infratentorial sitting craniotomy for a pinealoblastoma. Neurosurg Focus. 2016;40 Video Suppl 1:2016.1.FocusVid.15417 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgical anatomy of the third ventricle and the pineal region is illustrated in this case through the process of surgical dissection and tumor resection. The video can be found here: . ..
  57. Cenacchi G, Giangaspero F. Emerging tumor entities and variants of CNS neoplasms. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2004;63:185-92 pubmed
    ..These new, recently described lesions indicate that the complex morphologic spectrum of CNS tumors is far from being completely delineated. ..
  58. Nishibayashi H, Uematsu Y, Terada T, Itakura T. Pineal Germinoma with granulomatous reaction: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2005;45:415-7 pubmed
    ..MR imaging showed complete disappearance of the tumor after chemoradiotherapy. Neurosurgeons should be aware of this rare tumor to avoid misdiagnosis as granulomatous inflammation. ..
  59. Tirakotai W, Riegel T, Stiegel A, Hellwig D, Heinze S, Bertalanffy H, et al. Peri-operative quality of life assessment in endoscopically treated patients with pineal region tumours. Childs Nerv Syst. 2007;23:659-63 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the endoscopic approach should be considered as an alternative treatment in patients with newly diagnosed pineal tumours and/or related hydrocephalus. ..
  60. Radovanovic I, Dizdarevic K, De Tribolet N, Masic T, Muminagic S. Pineal region tumors--neurosurgical review. Med Arh. 2009;63:171-3 pubmed
    ..With the exception of germinoma where only a biopsy is needed, the role of the surgeons still remains prominent as resection of pineal tumors requires high technical skill and experience as well as precise clinical judgment. ..
  61. Clark A, Sughrue M, Aranda D, Parsa A. Contemporary management of pineocytoma. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011;22:403-7, ix pubmed publisher
    ..Although aggressive surgery in the pineal region carries the risk of neurologic injury, gross total resection should be attempted for pineocytoma. ..
  62. Idris Z, Ghani A, Idris B, Muzaimi M, Awang S, Pal H, et al. Neuronavigation-guided endoscopic management of a pineal region tumour with obscured floor of the third ventricle: case report. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2011;54:125-7 pubmed publisher
  63. Haw C, Steinbok P. Ventriculoscope tract recurrence after endoscopic biopsy of pineal germinoma. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2001;34:215-7 pubmed
    ..The potential for tract recurrence and CSF dissemination should be considered following the endoscopic biopsy of pineal germ cell tumors as this could affect the extent of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. ..
  64. Nogueira K, Liberman B, Pimentel Filho F, Goldman J, Silva M, Vieira J, et al. hCG-secreting pineal teratoma causing precocious puberty: report of two patients and review of the literature. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2002;15:1195-201 pubmed
    ..The boy is doing well 1.5 years after diagnosis. An extensive review of the literature corroborates the idea that this last treatment paradigm (surgery and chemotherapy) probably represents the best treatment regimen for these patients. ..
  65. Koziarski A, Skrobowska E, Zielinski G, Warczynska A, Podgorski J. [Own experience in surgical treatment of the pineal region and midbrain tumors via the infratentorial approach]. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2003;37:473-84 pubmed
    ..Their main initial symptoms were caused by hydrocephalus. The histopathological examination revealed anaplastic pinealoma in 2 cases, and pineocytoma, pineal cyst, mesencephalic glial cyst, protoplasmatic astrocytoma, epidermoid cyst, ..
  66. Shibahara J, Todo T, Morita A, Mori H, Aoki S, Fukayama M. Papillary neuroepithelial tumor of the pineal region. A case report. Acta Neuropathol. 2004;108:337-40 pubmed
    ..Transthyretin expression of the present case further supports the likelihood of SCO origin, as transthyretin is one of the proteins presumed to be secreted by human SCO. ..
  67. South M, Chiu J, Teh B, Bloch C, Schroeder T, Paulino A. Supine craniospinal irradiation using intrafractional junction shifts and field-in-field dose shaping: early experience at Methodist Hospital. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;71:477-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of our study have shown that supine approach for delivering craniospinal irradiation is not associated with increased relapses at the field junctions. To date, no cases of radiation myelitis have developed. ..
  68. Leston J, Mottolese C, Champier J, Jouvet A, Brun J, Sindou M, et al. Contribution of the daily melatonin profile to diagnosis of tumors of the pineal region. J Neurooncol. 2009;93:387-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The contribution of determination of melatonin profiles to the diagnosis of TPR remains limited but of interest. The evidence for melatonin deficiency could justify melatonin administration to prevent the postpinealectomy syndrome. ..
  69. Kyritsis A. Management of primary intracranial germ cell tumors. J Neurooncol. 2010;96:143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Prognosis is best for germinomas and mature teratomas and worst for choriocarcinomas and embryonal carcinomas. ..
  70. Noda M, Shoda T, Takimoto Y, Okita H. [Chronic myelogenous leukemia following therapy for pineal germinoma]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2004;45:72-4 pubmed
    ..This is the first case of secondary CML following therapy for intracranial tumors. ..
  71. Kawahara I, Tokunaga Y, Yagi N, Iseki M, Abe K, Hayashi T. Papillary tumor of the pineal region. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2007;47:568-71 pubmed
    ..PTPR should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal tumors. PTPR may have been frequently misinterpreted in the past as either ependymoma or choroid plexus papilloma due to the similar morphology. ..
  72. Murray M, Metayer L, Mallucci C, Hale J, Nicholson J, Kirollos R, et al. Intra-abdominal metastasis of an intracranial germinoma via ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in a 13-year-old female. Br J Neurosurg. 2011;25:747-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperhydration/rasburicase improved renal function, allowing chemotherapy with subsequent surgery. The patient remains event-free 34-months later. Risk of intra-abdominal metastasis from VP shunts is discussed...
  73. Jinguji S, Fukuda M, Nagasaki K, Fujii Y. A pineal region germ cell tumor with rapid enlargement after a long-term follow-up: case report. Neurosurgery. 2013;72:E687-93; discussion E693 pubmed publisher
  74. Koziarski A, Zielinski G, Podgórski J, Warczynska A. One stage removal of periaqueductal glioma in adult via infratentorial supracerebellar and transaqueductal approaches. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2004;146:169-73 pubmed
    ..They also believe it is the first described case, in whom this type of tumour was totally removed by a combined transtectal and transaqueductal route...
  75. Lewerenz J, Zurowski B, Jenicke L, Bäumer T, Lees A, Munchau A. Lesion of the dorsorostral midbrain sparing the nigrostriatal tract mimics axial rigidity seen in progressive supranuclear palsy. Mov Disord. 2005;20:1071-5 pubmed
    ..We suggest that dorsorostral midbrain pathology rather than dopamine deficiency due to degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons or basal ganglia nuclei might be responsible for axial rigidity in extension...
  76. Schaller B. Trigemino-cardiac reflex during transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2005;107:468-74 pubmed
    ..The present retrospective study was conducted to determine if TCR occurs during transsphenoidal surgery in the same way...
  77. Barron J, Morris Larkin C, Finch T, Maroun F, Hache N, Yousef G. Long survival of primary pineal melanoma with radiation treatment only. Can J Neurol Sci. 2007;34:251-3 pubmed
  78. Passarin M, Vattemi E, Musso A, Romito S, Moretto G, Ghimenton C, et al. Intracranial granulocytic sarcoma after chemotherapy for pineal germinoma and testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:4507-9 pubmed publisher
  79. Inoue T, Kumabe T, Kanamori M, Sonoda Y, Watanabe M, Tominaga T. Papillary tumor of the pineal region: a case report. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2008;25:85-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the morphological features agree with those in the original description of the PTPR, the Ki-67 LI and radiologic findings suggest the malignant nature and the necessity for adjuvant therapy...
  80. Julow J. Image fusion guided brachytherapy of brain tumors. Ideggyogy Sz. 2010;63:164-9 pubmed
    ..The observed results may be noticable at LINAC and gamma knife irradiation too...
  81. Srinivasan N, Pakala A, Mukkamalla C, Oswal A. Pineal germinoma. South Med J. 2010;103:1031-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We used key words "pineal germinoma," "pineal gland tumor," "CNS germinoma," and "extragonodal germinomas" to search for our articles...
  82. Lorenzetti M, Motta F, Campanella R, Bauer D, Assi A, Arienta C, et al. Adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy for treatment of papillary tumor of the pineal region. World Neurosurg. 2011;76:160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a personal case of papillary pineocytoma in a 42-year-old woman...
  83. Rickert C, Simon R, Bergmann M, Dockhorn Dworniczak B, Paulus W. Comparative genomic hybridization in pineal parenchymal tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2001;30:99-104 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, imbalances in higher-grade pineal parenchymal tumors mainly affect gains of 12q and losses of chromosome 22...
  84. Gorhan C, Soto Ares G, Ruchoux M, Blond S, Pruvo J. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region. Neuroradiology. 2001;43:944-7 pubmed
    ..The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed...
  85. Fang J, Luo L, Li J, Sun S, Yuan Y. [Pathological and immunohistochemical study of pineal parenchymal tumors]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2002;31:8-11 pubmed
    ..To investigate the histological typing and differentiation as well as clinical manifestation and prognosis in pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs)...
  86. Fujisawa H, Misaki K, Takabatake Y, Hasegawa M, Yamashita J. Cyclin D1 is overexpressed in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor with hSNF5/INI1 gene inactivation. J Neurooncol. 2005;73:117-24 pubmed
    ..We histologically and molecularly reviewed our pediatric brain tumors for unrecognized AT/RTs and evaluated the role of cyclin D1, a potential molecular target of hSNF5/INI1...
  87. Utsuki S, Oka H, Sagiuchi T, Shimizu S, Suzuki S, Fujii K. Malignant transformation of intracranial mature teratoma to yolk sac tumor after late relapse. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:1067-9 pubmed
    ..After resection, the patient underwent radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide but died of tumor progression 15 months after his second hospitalization...
  88. Zhu L, Ren G, Li K, Liang Z, Tang W, Ji Y, et al. Pineal parenchymal tumours: minimum apparent diffusion coefficient in prediction of tumour grading. J Int Med Res. 2011;39:1456-63 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the minADC of PPTs provide useful additional information when predicting tumour grading...
  89. Gempt J, Ringel F, Oexle K, Delbridge C, Forschler A, Schlegel J, et al. Familial pineocytoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2012;154:1413-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Their mother had developed breast cancer at the age of 43. Although not impossible, it is rather unlikely that pineocytomas occurring in siblings are pure coincidence because of the rarity of this type of tumour...
  90. Liu J. Endoscopic-assisted interhemispheric parieto-occipital transtentorial approach for microsurgical resection of a pineal region tumor: operative video and technical nuances. Neurosurg Focus. 2016;40 Video Suppl 1:2016.1.FocusVid.15450 pubmed publisher
    ..The video can be found here: . ..
  91. Tsumanuma I, Tanaka R, Washiyama K. Clinicopathological study of pineal parenchymal tumors: correlation between histopathological features, proliferative potential, and prognosis. Brain Tumor Pathol. 1999;16:61-8 pubmed
    ..With regard to the malignant potential, we emphasize that a clear distinction should be made between pineoblastomas in children and other types of pineal parenchymal tumors in adults...
  92. Endo H, Fujimura M, Kumabe T, Kanamori M, Watanabe M, Tominaga T. Application of high-definition flexible neuroendoscopic system to the treatment of primary pineal malignant B-cell lymphoma. Surg Neurol. 2009;71:344-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We applied high-definition flexible neuroendoscopic system to the initial management of primary pineal malignant B-cell lymphoma. Efficacy of this new technology as an initial treatment of pineal region tumors is discussed...