ependymoma

Summary

Summary: Glioma derived from EPENDYMOGLIAL CELLS that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors. (From DeVita et al., Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2018; Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp28-9)

Top Publications

  1. Sangra M, Thorp N, May P, Pizer B, Mallucci C. Management strategies for recurrent ependymoma in the paediatric population. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:1283-91 pubmed publisher
    The management of recurrent ependymoma within the paediatric population remains a therapeutic challenge. The options available are varied and patients may have already received prior radio- or chemotherapy...
  2. Milde T, Kleber S, Korshunov A, Witt H, Hielscher T, Koch P, et al. A novel human high-risk ependymoma stem cell model reveals the differentiation-inducing potential of the histone deacetylase inhibitor Vorinostat. Acta Neuropathol. 2011;122:637-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report on the generation of a high-risk cytogenetic group 3 and molecular group C ependymoma model (DKFZ-EP1NS) which is based on primary ependymoma cells obtained from a patient with metastatic disease...
  3. Kinsman M, Callahan J, Hattab E, Cohen Gadol A. Extramedullary spinal ependymoma: a diagnostic challenge and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2011;113:661-4 pubmed publisher
    ..to be diagnosed in a male patient and discuss the pathogenesis, presentation, and treatment of this rare form of ependymoma. These cases most commonly show a similar clinical preoperative course to that of a benign meningioma...
  4. Fischer C, Haque S, Huse J, Blochin E, Souweidane M, Lis E, et al. Extraneural ependymoma: distant bone, lung, liver, and lymph node metastases following bevacizumab. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60:143-5 pubmed publisher
    Extraneural metastases of ependymoma are rare, and have been reported in the lungs, lymph nodes, pleura, mediastinum, liver, diaphragmatic muscle, and bone...
  5. Yu L, Baxter P, Voicu H, Gurusiddappa S, Zhao Y, Adesina A, et al. A clinically relevant orthotopic xenograft model of ependymoma that maintains the genomic signature of the primary tumor and preserves cancer stem cells in vivo. Neuro Oncol. 2010;12:580-94 pubmed publisher
    ..in vitro and in vivo model systems has hampered efforts to understand tumor biology and test novel therapies for ependymoma, the third most common malignant brain tumor that occurs in children...
  6. Bobola M, Jankowski P, Gross M, Schwartz J, Finn L, Blank A, et al. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease is inversely associated with response to radiotherapy in pediatric ependymoma. Int J Cancer. 2011;129:2370-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Suppressing Ap endo activity in pediatric ependymoma cells significantly increased radiation sensitivity, suggesting that the association of activity with radiation ..
  7. Pfister S, Hartmann C, Korshunov A. Histology and molecular pathology of pediatric brain tumors. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:1375-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this review focuses both on established histopathology as well as on molecular features in the most important brain tumors in children. ..
  8. Fleuret C, Dupre Goetghebeur D, Person H, Pillette Delarue M, Conan Charlet V, Meriot P, et al. [Brachioradial pruritus revealing an ependymoma]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2009;136:435-7 pubmed publisher
    ..angiography, surgery was performed and histopathological analysis of the complete lesion revealed a benign ependymoma. Four months later, this patient complained about residual pains requiring treatment with gabapentin and class 2 ..
  9. Witt H, Mack S, Ryzhova M, Bender S, Sill M, Isserlin R, et al. Delineation of two clinically and molecularly distinct subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma. Cancer Cell. 2011;20:143-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcriptional profiling of two large independent cohorts of ependymoma reveals the existence of two demographically, transcriptionally, genetically, and clinically distinct groups of ..

More Information

Publications78

  1. Hamano E, Tsutsumi S, Nonaka Y, Abe Y, Yasumoto Y, Saeki H, et al. Huge supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma presenting with massive calcification--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2010;50:150-3 pubmed
    A 15-year-old boy presented with an anaplastic supratentorial ependymoma causing massive intratumoral calcification, without contributory medical and family history, and manifesting as persistent headache for 2 months...
  2. Johnson R, Wright K, Poppleton H, Mohankumar K, Finkelstein D, Pounds S, et al. Cross-species genomics matches driver mutations and cell compartments to model ependymoma. Nature. 2010;466:632-6 pubmed publisher
    ..First, we identified subgroups of human ependymoma, a form of neural tumour that arises throughout the central nervous system (CNS)...
  3. Chamberlain M, Johnston S. Temozolomide for recurrent intracranial supratentorial platinum-refractory ependymoma. Cancer. 2009;115:4775-82 pubmed publisher
    To the authors' knowledge, there currently is no standard therapy for platinum-resistant ependymoma; hence, a need exists for new therapies...
  4. Kano H, Yang H, Kondziolka D, Niranjan A, Arai Y, Flickinger J, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for pediatric recurrent intracranial ependymomas. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;6:417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..9 years (range 2.9-17.2 years) in the patient population. All patients underwent resection of an ependymoma followed by cranial or neuraxis (if spinal metastases was confirmed) RT...
  5. Shintaku M, Sakamoto T. Tanycytic ependymoma of the filum terminale with pleomorphic giant cells. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2009;26:79-82 pubmed publisher
    A tanycytic ependymoma measuring 1.5 cm in maximal dimension, which involved the filum terminale and conus medullaris of a 55-year-old woman, is reported...
  6. Kano T, Ikota H, Wada H, Iwasa S, Kurosaki S. A case of an anaplastic ependymoma with gliosarcomatous components. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2009;26:11-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathological studies revealed a mixed glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic ependymoma. Chemotherapy (Paraplatin and VePeside-S) and focal radiation therapy at 60 Gy were administered following ..
  7. Beltran C, Naik M, Merchant T. Dosimetric effect of setup motion and target volume margin reduction in pediatric ependymoma. Radiother Oncol. 2010;96:216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..predicted tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for pediatric ependymoma. Twenty patients treated between 1998 and 2002 with a 3D plan (CTV = 1 cm, PTV = 5 mm) were selected...
  8. Rogers H, Mayne C, Chapman R, Kilday J, Coyle B, Grundy R. PI3K pathway activation provides a novel therapeutic target for pediatric ependymoma and is an independent marker of progression-free survival. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:6450-60 pubmed publisher
    Currently, there are few effective adjuvant therapies for pediatric ependymoma outside confocal radiation, and prognosis remains poor. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is one of the most commonly activated pathways in cancer...
  9. Pejavar S, Polley M, Rosenberg Wohl S, Chennupati S, Prados M, Berger M, et al. Pediatric intracranial ependymoma: the roles of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. J Neurooncol. 2012;106:367-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest the benefit of RT even in the presence of GTR. Future prospective studies with larger sample number are needed to validate our findings...
  10. Chakraborti S, Govindan A, Alapatt J, Radhakrishnan M, Santosh V. Primary myxopapillary ependymoma of the fourth ventricle with cartilaginous metaplasia: a case report and review of the literature. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2012;29:25-30 pubmed publisher
    Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE), which is a benign histological subtype of ependymoma, is found predominantly in the cauda equina region. It occurs rarely in the brain and mostly as a metastatic deposit from a spinal lesion...
  11. Saito R, Kumabe T, Kanamori M, Sonoda Y, Tominaga T. Dissemination limits the survival of patients with anaplastic ependymoma after extensive surgical resection, meticulous follow up, and intensive treatment for recurrence. Neurosurg Rev. 2010;33:185-91; discussion 191-2 pubmed publisher
    ..High resection rate, meticulous follow-up, and intensive treatment for recurrence improved the survival of patients with anaplastic ependymoma. Dissemination was the life-determining factor in this series of patients.
  12. Amirian E, Armstrong T, Aldape K, Gilbert M, Scheurer M. Predictors of survival among pediatric and adult ependymoma cases: a study using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data from 1973 to 2007. Neuroepidemiology. 2012;39:116-24 pubmed publisher
    Despite previous research, prognostic factors for ependymoma remain relatively controversial...
  13. Parker M, Mohankumar K, Punchihewa C, Weinlich R, Dalton J, Li Y, et al. C11orf95-RELA fusions drive oncogenic NF-?B signalling in ependymoma. Nature. 2014;506:451-5 pubmed publisher
    ..to the nucleus to activate NF-?B target genes, and rapidly transformed neural stem cells--the cell of origin of ependymoma--to form these tumours in mice...
  14. Macdonald S, Yock T. Proton beam therapy following resection for childhood ependymoma. Childs Nerv Syst. 2010;26:285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Proton radiation therapy is a form of radiation with physical properties that can provide an advantage in normal tissue sparing compared to the more commonly used photon therapy...
  15. Palm T, Figarella Branger D, Chapon F, Lacroix C, Gray F, Scaravilli F, et al. Expression profiling of ependymomas unravels localization and tumor grade-specific tumorigenesis. Cancer. 2009;115:3955-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Ependymomas derive from ependymal cells that cover the cerebral ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. The molecular alterations leading to ependymomal oncogenesis are not completely understood...
  16. Rousseau A, Idbaih A, Ducray F, Criniere E, Fèvre Montange M, Jouvet A, et al. Specific chromosomal imbalances as detected by array CGH in ependymomas in association with tumor location, histological subtype and grade. J Neurooncol. 2010;97:353-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, key molecular events in the pathogenesis of ependymoma are yet to be defined...
  17. Schneider D, Monoranu C, Huang B, Rutkowski S, Gerber N, Krauss J, et al. Pediatric supratentorial ependymomas show more frequent deletions on chromosome 9 than infratentorial ependymomas: a microsatellite analysis. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2009;191:90-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 48 pairs of matched normal and tumor specimens from patients with ependymoma, including 28 children (mean age, 4.4 years) and 20 adults (mean age, 44.9 years), were genotyped...
  18. Van Gompel J, Koeller K, Meyer F, Marsh W, Burger P, Roncaroli F, et al. Cortical ependymoma: an unusual epileptogenic lesion. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:1187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, their relationship with the recently described angiocentric glioma (AG) is still being debated. This study was undertaken to summarize the authors' experience with CEs...
  19. Merchant T, Pollack I, Loeffler J. Brain tumors across the age spectrum: biology, therapy, and late effects. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2010;20:58-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review of glioma, ependymoma, and medulloblastoma, we highlight the differences between adults and children, including the higher incidence ..
  20. Davis M, Hasan F, Weinreb I, Wallace M, Kiehl T. Extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma with metastasis to scalp and neck. J Neurooncol. 2011;104:599-604 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of anaplastic ependymoma with extracranial metastases in a 22-year-old female. The patient originally presented with headaches and dysarthria. Neuroimaging revealed a large solid and cystic right fronto-temporal lesion...
  21. Godfraind C, Kaczmarska J, Kocak M, Dalton J, Wright K, Sanford R, et al. Distinct disease-risk groups in pediatric supratentorial and posterior fossa ependymomas. Acta Neuropathol. 2012;124:247-57 pubmed publisher
    No reliable classification is in clinical use for the therapeutic stratification of children with ependymoma, such that disease risk might be identified and patients treated to ensure a combination of maximal cure rates and minimal ..
  22. Witt H, Korshunov A, Pfister S, Milde T. Molecular approaches to ependymoma: the next step(s). Curr Opin Neurol. 2012;25:745-50 pubmed publisher
    Effective treatment options for ependymoma apart from radical surgery and radiotherapy remain scarce, and the understanding of the molecular basis of ependymoma biology is crucial to the development of novel therapies...
  23. Shim K, Kim D, Choi J. The history of ependymoma management. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:1167-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The ependymomas are relatively not a common tumor. However, most clinicians agree that the radical removal of the tumor is the most important prognostic factor...
  24. Milde T, Hielscher T, Witt H, Kool M, Mack S, Deubzer H, et al. Nestin expression identifies ependymoma patients with poor outcome. Brain Pathol. 2012;22:848-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data implicate nestin as a useful novel marker for intracranial ependymoma risk stratification easily implementable in routine diagnostics.
  25. Rodriguez D, Cheung M, Housri N, Quinones Hinojosa A, Camphausen K, Koniaris L. Outcomes of malignant CNS ependymomas: an examination of 2408 cases through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1973-2005). J Surg Res. 2009;156:340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Determine the role of surgery and radiation therapy for patients with malignant CNS ependymomas...
  26. Shapey J, Barazi S, Bodi I, Thomas N. Myxopapillary ependymoma of the cerebellopontine angle: retrograde metastasis or primary tumour?. Br J Neurosurg. 2011;25:122-3 pubmed publisher
    Myxopapillary ependyoma (MPE) is a rare variant of ependymoma and represents a distinct subentity of tumour. It is almost exclusively restricted to the conus medullaris or filum terminale region...
  27. Magrassi L, Marziliano N, Inzani F, Cassini P, Chiaranda I, Skrap M, et al. EDG3 and SHC3 on chromosome 9q22 are co-amplified in human ependymomas. Cancer Lett. 2010;290:36-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Both proteins were co-immunoprecipitated from ependymoma and Shc3 was tyrosine phosphorylated thus presumably active...
  28. Kilday J, Rahman R, Dyer S, Ridley L, Lowe J, Coyle B, et al. Pediatric ependymoma: biological perspectives. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:765-86 pubmed publisher
    ..behavior from clinical and histological factors has shifted the focus to the molecular and cellular biology of ependymoma in order to identify new correlates of disease outcome and novel therapeutic targets...
  29. Venkatramani R, Dhall G, Patel M, Grimm J, Hawkins C, McComb G, et al. Supratentorial ependymoma in children: to observe or to treat following gross total resection?. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012;58:380-3 pubmed publisher
    The standard treatment for ependymoma is surgical resection followed by postoperative irradiation to the local site...
  30. Buccoliero A, Castiglione F, Rossi Degl Innocenti D, Sardi I, Genitori L, Taddei G. Merlin expression in pediatric anaplastic ependymomas real time PCR study. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2010;29:245-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Statistical analysis did not prove significant differences. Our results suggest that NF2 alterations are not typical of intracranial anaplastic ependymomas...
  31. Barton V, Donson A, Kleinschmidt Demasters B, Birks D, Handler M, Foreman N. Unique molecular characteristics of pediatric myxopapillary ependymoma. Brain Pathol. 2010;20:560-70 pubmed publisher
    Myxopapillary ependymoma (MEPN) generally can be cured by gross total surgical resection and usually manifest a favorable prognosis. However, surgery is less curative in tumors that are large, multifocal or extend outside the thecal sac...
  32. Aschero S, Vallero S, Morra I, Impera L, Forni M, Sandri A, et al. A complex karyotype including a t(2;11) in a paediatric ependymoma: case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol. 2010;99:141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed cytogenetic analysis of an ependymoma in an 11-year-old boy...
  33. Ogden A, Fessler R. Minimally invasive resection of intramedullary ependymoma: case report. Neurosurgery. 2009;65:E1203-4; discussion E1204 pubmed publisher
    This report illustrates the adequacy of minimally invasive exposure for the resection of an intramedullary ependymoma.
  34. Yadav Y, Chandrakar S. Pure cortical supratentorial extraventricular ependymoma. Neurol India. 2009;57:213-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a 15-year-old male with left frontal cortical ependymoma. He had gross total excision of the lesion and was not given radioptherapy.
  35. Cho H, Lee M, Takei H, Dancer J, Ro J, Zhai Q. Immunohistochemical comparison of chordoma with chondrosarcoma, myxopapillary ependymoma, and chordoid meningioma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2009;17:131-8 pubmed publisher
    ..similarities with myxoid matrix and overlapping immunohistochemical profile, chondrosarcoma, myxopapillary ependymoma, and chordoid meningioma enter in the histologic differential diagnosis at this site...
  36. Azarpira N, Rakei M, Mokhtari M. Cytologic findings in malignant ependymoma: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2010;54:1023-6 pubmed
    ..Anaplastic ependymoma is a rare tumor that causes diagnostic difficulties in imprint cytology because of variable cytomorphologic ..
  37. Nakamizo S, Sasayama T, Kondoh T, Inoue S, Shiomi R, Tanaka H, et al. Supratentorial pure cortical ependymoma. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19:1453-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Ependymoma usually occurs in the lateral or the fourth ventricle. Supratentorial extraventricular ependymoma is relatively rare. However, extraventricular ependymoma located at the cerebral cortex is extremely rare...
  38. Wong V, Morrison A, Tabori U, Hawkins C. Telomerase inhibition as a novel therapy for pediatric ependymoma. Brain Pathol. 2010;20:780-6 pubmed publisher
    ..human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)] expression is a predictor of poor outcome in pediatric ependymoma. Thus, we hypothesized that ependymomas with functional telomerase may behave more aggressively and that these ..
  39. Ellison D, Kocak M, Figarella Branger D, Felice G, Catherine G, Pietsch T, et al. Histopathological grading of pediatric ependymoma: reproducibility and clinical relevance in European trial cohorts. J Negat Results Biomed. 2011;10:7 pubmed publisher
    Histopathological grading of ependymoma has been controversial with respect to its reproducibility and clinical significance...
  40. Moreno L, Popov S, Jury A, Al Sarraj S, Jones C, Zacharoulis S. Role of platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) over-expression and angiogenesis in ependymoma. J Neurooncol. 2013;111:169-76 pubmed publisher
    New molecularly targeted therapies are needed for childhood ependymoma. Angiogenesis and the PDGFR pathway could be potential therapeutic targets...
  41. Atkinson J, Shelat A, Carcaboso A, Kranenburg T, Arnold L, Boulos N, et al. An integrated in vitro and in vivo high-throughput screen identifies treatment leads for ependymoma. Cancer Cell. 2011;20:384-99 pubmed publisher
    Using a mouse model of ependymoma-a chemoresistant brain tumor-we combined multicell high-throughput screening (HTS), kinome-wide binding assays, and in vivo efficacy studies, to identify potential treatments with predicted toxicity ..
  42. Agbahiwe H, Wharam M, Batra S, Cohen K, Terezakis S. Management of pediatric myxopapillary ependymoma: the role of adjuvant radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013;85:421-7 pubmed publisher
    Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a rare tumor in children. The primary treatment is gross total resection (GTR), with no clearly defined role for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT)...
  43. Koshy M, Rich S, Merchant T, Mahmood U, Regine W, Kwok Y. Post-operative radiation improves survival in children younger than 3 years with intracranial ependymoma. J Neurooncol. 2011;105:583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..toxicities have led to the avoidance of post-operative radiation (PORT) in young children with intracranial ependymoma. We investigated the association between post-operative radiation therapy and overall survival (OS) in children ..
  44. van Vuurden D, Hulleman E, Meijer O, Wedekind L, Kool M, Witt H, et al. PARP inhibition sensitizes childhood high grade glioma, medulloblastoma and ependymoma to radiation. Oncotarget. 2011;2:984-96 pubmed
    ..is to determine the radiosensitizing properties of the PARP inhibitor Olaparib in childhood medulloblastoma, ependymoma and high grade glioma (HGG)...
  45. Korshunov A, Witt H, Hielscher T, Benner A, Remke M, Ryzhova M, et al. Molecular staging of intracranial ependymoma in children and adults. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:3182-90 pubmed publisher
    The biologic behavior of intracranial ependymoma is unpredictable on the basis of current staging approaches...
  46. Gilbert M, Ruda R, Soffietti R. Ependymomas in adults. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2010;10:240-7 pubmed publisher
    ..in the spinal cord, where histopathologic evaluation is critical to differentiate the grade I myxopapillary ependymoma from the grade II ependymoma or grade III anaplastic ependymoma. Brain ependymomas are either grade II or III...
  47. Zacharoulis S, Moreno L. Ependymoma: an update. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:1431-8 pubmed publisher
    The authors provide an update on most issues related to biology, diagnosis, and treatment of children with ependymoma based on a literature review...
  48. Pedziwiatr K, Skowrońska Gardas A, Chojnacka M. Spinal cord ependymoma in children--results of postoperative radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol. 2013;106:181-5 pubmed publisher
    A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the results of postoperative radiation therapy of spinal cord ependymoma in children.
  49. Wani K, Armstrong T, Vera Bolanos E, Raghunathan A, Ellison D, Gilbertson R, et al. A prognostic gene expression signature in infratentorial ependymoma. Acta Neuropathol. 2012;123:727-38 pubmed publisher
    Patients with ependymoma exhibit a wide range of clinical outcomes that are currently unexplained by clinical or histological factors. Little is known regarding molecular biomarkers that could predict clinical behavior...
  50. Merchant T. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for ependymoma. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:1261-8 pubmed publisher
    The application of conformal radiation therapy in the treatment of pediatric ependymoma is a success story resulting from advances in radiation therapy planning and delivery...
  51. Amirian E, Armstrong T, Gilbert M, Scheurer M. Predictors of survival among older adults with ependymoma. J Neurooncol. 2012;107:183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and lifestyle changes that may alter the way typical prognostic factors affect survival among older ependymoma patients...
  52. Messahel B, Ashley S, Saran F, Ellison D, Ironside J, Phipps K, et al. Relapsed intracranial ependymoma in children in the UK: patterns of relapse, survival and therapeutic outcome. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45:1815-23 pubmed publisher
    Relapsed ependymoma in children poses difficult dilemmas in management...
  53. Dahlback H, Brandal P, Krossnes B, Frič R, Meling T, Meza Zepeda L, et al. Multiple chromosomal monosomies are characteristic of giant cell ependymoma. Hum Pathol. 2011;42:2042-6 pubmed publisher
    Giant cell ependymoma, a rare ependymoma subtype, was recently recognized as a separate diagnostic entity with variations both in malignant potential and course of disease...
  54. Mack S, Taylor M. The genetic and epigenetic basis of ependymoma. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:1195-201 pubmed publisher
    Although ependymoma is the third most common pediatric brain tumor, we know little about the genetic/epigenetic basis of its initiation, maintenance, or progression...
  55. Kucia E, Maughan P, Kakarla U, Bambakidis N, Spetzler R. Surgical technique and outcomes in the treatment of spinal cord ependymomas: part II: myxopapillary ependymoma. Neurosurgery. 2011;68:90-4; discussion 94 pubmed publisher
    ..Myxopapillary ependymomas usually occur in the filum terminale of the spinal cord...
  56. Aizawa T, Hasegawa K, Ohkumo T, Haga S, Ikeda K, Yoshikawa K. Neural stem cell-like gene expression in a mouse ependymoma cell line transformed by human BK polyomavirus. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:122-9 pubmed publisher
    Ependymomas often show characteristics similar to those of neural stem cells in vivo and in vitro. However, few ependymoma cell lines that exhibit neural stem cell-like properties have been reported...
  57. Lim B, Park S, Chang U, Kim M. Spinal cord tanycytic ependymoma associated with neurofibromatosis type 2. J Clin Neurosci. 2010;17:922-4 pubmed publisher
    Tanycytic ependymoma is a rare subtype of ependymoma. Reports of this tumor in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) are rare. A 16-year-old girl presented with gait disturbance and a palpable neck mass, which had been present for 2 years...
  58. Vajtai I, Kuhlen D, Kappeler A, Mariani L, Zimmermann A, Paulus W. Rapid spontaneous malignant progression of supratentorial tanycytic ependymoma with sarcomatous features - "Ependymosarcoma". Pathol Res Pract. 2010;206:493-8 pubmed publisher
    ..has recently been coined to thematize the rare phenomenon of a malignant mesenchymal component arising within an ependymoma. We report on an example of this paradigm, involving tanycytic ependymoma as the host tumor in a 40-year-old ..
  59. Donson A, Birks D, Barton V, Wei Q, Kleinschmidt Demasters B, Handler M, et al. Immune gene and cell enrichment is associated with a good prognosis in ependymoma. J Immunol. 2009;183:7428-40 pubmed publisher
    Approximately 50% of children with ependymoma will suffer from tumor recurrences that will ultimately lead to death. Development of more effective therapies and patient stratification in ependymoma mandates better prognostication...
  60. Karakoula K, Jacques T, Phipps K, Harkness W, Thompson D, Harding B, et al. Epigenetic genome-wide analysis identifies BEX1 as a candidate tumour suppressor gene in paediatric intracranial ependymoma. Cancer Lett. 2014;346:34-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify targets of epigenetic silencing in paediatric intracranial ependymoma, we used a pharmacological unmasking approach through treatment of 3 ependymoma short-term cell cultures with ..
  61. Tamburrini G, D Ercole M, Pettorini B, Caldarelli M, Massimi L, Di Rocco C. Survival following treatment for intracranial ependymoma: a review. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:1303-12 pubmed publisher
  62. Green R, Cloughesy T, Stupp R, DeAngelis L, Woyshner E, Ney D, et al. Bevacizumab for recurrent ependymoma. Neurology. 2009;73:1677-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Ependymoma is a rare type of glioma, representing 5% of all CNS malignancies. Radiotherapy (RT) is commonly administered, but there is no standard chemotherapy...
  63. Hadjipanayis C, Van Meir E. Brain cancer propagating cells: biology, genetics and targeted therapies. Trends Mol Med. 2009;15:519-30 pubmed publisher
    ..within primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors (glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), medulloblastoma (MB) and ependymoma) might be integral to tumor development and perpetuation...
  64. Gururangan S, Fangusaro J, Young Poussaint T, Onar Thomas A, Gilbertson R, Vajapeyam S, et al. Lack of efficacy of bevacizumab + irinotecan in cases of pediatric recurrent ependymoma--a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium study. Neuro Oncol. 2012;14:1404-12 pubmed publisher
    A phase II study of bevacizumab (BVZ) plus irinotecan (CPT-11) was conducted in cases of pediatric recurrent ependymoma (EPN) to estimate sustained objective response rate and progression-free survival (PFS)...
  65. Xie H, Wang M, Bonaldo M, Rajaram V, Stellpflug W, Smith C, et al. Epigenomic analysis of Alu repeats in human ependymomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6952-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, aberrant methylation of several genomic loci was confirmed to be associated with the aggressive primary tumors and the relapsed ependymomas...
  66. Peyre M, Commo F, Dantas Barbosa C, Andreiuolo F, Puget S, Lacroix L, et al. Portrait of ependymoma recurrence in children: biomarkers of tumor progression identified by dual-color microarray-based gene expression analysis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12932 pubmed publisher
    Children with ependymoma may experience a relapse in up to 50% of cases depending on the extent of resection. Key biological events associated with recurrence are unknown.
  67. Bishop A, McDonald M, Chang A, Esiashvili N. Infant brain tumors: incidence, survival, and the role of radiation based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82:341-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables...
  68. Iunes E, Stavale J, de Cássia Caldas Pessoa R, Ansai R, Onishi F, de Paiva Neto M, et al. Multifocal intradural extramedullary ependymoma. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;14:65-70 pubmed publisher
    In this paper, the authors present the case of a patient with multifocal intradural extramedullary ependymoma, and they review 18 previously reported cases...
  69. Costa F, Bischof J, Vanin E, Lulla R, Wang M, Sredni S, et al. Identification of microRNAs as potential prognostic markers in ependymoma. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25114 pubmed publisher
    ..miRNAs are non-coding RNAs that can block mRNA translation and affect mRNA stability. Changes in the expression of miRNAs have been correlated with many human cancers...