ganglioneuroma

Summary

Summary: A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)

Top Publications

  1. Miura K, Mineta H, Yokota N, Tsutsui Y. Olfactory neuroblastoma with epithelial and endocrine differentiation transformed into ganglioneuroma after chemoradiotherapy. Pathol Int. 2001;51:942-7 pubmed
    ..man in whom an olfactory neuroblastoma with epithelial and endocrine differentiation transformed into a mature ganglioneuroma after chemoradiotherapy...
  2. Dubois C, Jankowski A, Gay Jeune C, Chabre O, Pasquier D, Ferretti G. [Imaging of adrenal ganglioneuroma: a case report]. J Radiol. 2005;86:659-62 pubmed
    The authors report a case of adrenal ganglioneuroma diagnosed in a young woman with melanoma. This benign hormone silent tumor arises from neural crest tissue. The imaging features at US, CT and MRI are described...
  3. Kurosaki M, Saeger W, Ludecke D. Intrasellar gangliocytomas associated with acromegaly. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2002;19:63-7 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the intrasellar gangliocytoma promoted the growth of the pituitary adenoma by chronic overstimulation from excess GH-releasing hormone...
  4. Khan A, Solomon S, Childress R. Composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma: a rare experiment of nature. Endocr Pract. 2010;16:291-9 pubmed publisher
    To present a rare case of composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma (Pheo-GN) of the adrenal medulla, review the related literature, and discuss the clinical features, pathologic findings, behavior, and management of such tumors...
  5. Zografos G, Kothonidis K, Ageli C, Kopanakis N, Dimitriou K, Papaliodi E, et al. Laparoscopic resection of large adrenal ganglioneuroma. JSLS. 2007;11:487-92 pubmed
    ..The postoperative period was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the second postoperative day. Histology was consistent with an adrenal ganglioneuroma. Two years later, there is no evidence of recurrence on abdominal CT scan.
  6. Schulte J, Pentek F, Hartmann W, Schramm A, Friedrichs N, Øra I, et al. The low-affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75, is upregulated in ganglioneuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma and reduces tumorigenicity of neuroblastoma cells in vivo. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:2488-94 pubmed publisher
  7. Nelms J, Diner E, Lack E, Patel S, Ghasemian S, Verghese M. Retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma encasing the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. ScientificWorldJournal. 2004;4:974-7 pubmed
    b>Ganglioneuroma is a rare neoplasm arising from the sympathoadrenal neuroendocrine system and has anatomic distribution paralleling the sympathetic chain ganglia and the adrenal medulla...
  8. Bernini G, Moretti A, Mannelli M, Ercolino T, Bardini M, Caramella D, et al. Unique association of non-functioning pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuroma, adrenal cortical adenoma, hepatic and vertebral hemangiomas in a patient with a new intronic variant in the VHL gene. J Endocrinol Invest. 2005;28:1032-7 pubmed
    ..This was characterized by right adrenal pheochromocytoma associated with homolateral ganglioneuroma and controlateral adrenal cortical adenoma...
  9. Gullu S, Gursoy A, Erdogan M, Dizbaysak S, Erdogan G, Kamel N. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A/localized cutaneous lichen amyloidosis associated with malignant pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma. J Endocrinol Invest. 2005;28:734-7 pubmed
    ..discrete malignant pheochromocytoma in both adrenal glands and pancreatic tail, and interestingly accompanied ganglioneuroma located in retroperitoneum in a 34-yr-old female...

More Information

Publications67

  1. Kim H, Lee H, Jeong A, Shin J, Choi C, Khang S. Supratentorial gangliocytoma mimicking extra-axial tumor: a report of two cases. Korean J Radiol. 2001;2:108-12 pubmed
    ..On contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, homogeneous enhancement was observed, while CT scanning revealed calcification in one of the two cases...
  2. Domanski H. Fine-needle aspiration of ganglioneuroma. Diagn Cytopathol. 2005;32:363-6 pubmed
    b>Ganglioneuroma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm, arising most frequently in the mediastinum or retroperitoneum in children and young adults...
  3. Srinivasan R, Koliyadan K, Krishnand G, Bhat S. Retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma with lymphnode metastasis: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2007;50:32-5 pubmed
    b>Ganglioneuroma is a benign, most differentiated tumor of neural crest origin. These tumors though benign, can very rarely metastasize to regional lymphnodes or to distant sites...
  4. Yoshida T, Saito J, Takao T, Ichimaru N, Takaha N, Nonomura N, et al. [Adrenal ganglioneuroma: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2005;51:93-6 pubmed
    A patient with an incidentally diagnosed adrenal ganglioneuroma is reported. A 37-year-old man who underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) in the course of evaluating liver dysfunction was found to have a right adrenal tumor...
  5. Ilias I, Shulkin B, Pacak K. New functional imaging modalities for chromaffin tumors, neuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2005;16:66-72 pubmed
    ..Such functional imaging can complement computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and other scintigraphic techniques to localize these tumors before surgical or medical therapeutic approaches are considered...
  6. Gupta R, Dinda A. Ganglioneuroma of the adrenal gland: a rare case. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2007;50:782-4 pubmed
    ..Currently, histopathology is the only tool to diagnose ganglioneuroma and to differentiate it from ganglioneuroblastoma and neuroblastoma...
  7. Dundr P, Dudorkinova D, Povysil C, Pesl M, Babjuk M, Dvoracek J, et al. Pigmented composite paraganglioma-ganglioneuroma of the urinary bladder. Pathol Res Pract. 2003;199:765-9 pubmed
    We report a case of a pigmented composite paraganglioma-ganglioneuroma of the urinary bladder in a 70-year-old female. Grossly, the tumor measured 6.5 cm in diameter and had arisen from the base of the urinary bladder...
  8. Chang C, Hsieh Y, Hung G, Pan C, Hwang B. Ganglioneuroma presenting as an asymptomatic huge posterior mediastinal and retroperitoneal tumor. J Chin Med Assoc. 2003;66:370-4 pubmed
    b>Ganglioneuroma is a rare, differentiated, benign and slow-growing tumor that commonly arises from sympathetic ganglion cells. Most of them are asymptomatic and found incidentally...
  9. Mezitis S, Geller M, Bocchieri E, Del Pizzo J, Merlin S. Association of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma: unusual finding in neurofibromatosis type 1. Endocr Pract. 2007;13:647-51 pubmed
    To report a rare case of association of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma in an asymptomatic patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and to discuss the importance of annual biochemical and imaging studies.
  10. Cronin E, Coffey J, Herlihy D, Romics L, Aftab F, Keohane C, et al. Massive retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma presenting with small bowel obstruction 18 years following initial diagnosis. Ir J Med Sci. 2005;174:63-6 pubmed
    b>Ganglioneuroma is a rare tumour of neural crest origin, which arises from maturation of a neuroblastoma. While previously considered to be non-functioning, they are now known to be frequently endocrinologically active.
  11. Kato M, Hara M, Ozawa Y, Shimizu S, Shibamoto Y, Shibamato Y. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of posterior mediastinal ganglioneuroma. J Thorac Imaging. 2012;27:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of posterior mediastinal ganglioneuromas...
  12. Radulovi D, Branislav D, Skender Gazibara M, Igor N. Cervical dumbbell ganglioneuroma producing spinal cord compression. Neurol India. 2005;53:370-1 pubmed
  13. Choi E, Kim W, Park K. A case of a composite adrenal medullary tumor of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma masquerading as acute pancreatitis. Korean J Intern Med. 2006;21:141-5 pubmed
    Composite adrenal medullary tumors, composed of both pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma, are extremely rare, as are pheochromocytomas masquerading as acute relapsing pancreatitis...
  14. Wilzén A, Krona C, Sveinbjörnsson B, Kristiansson E, Dalevi D, Øra I, et al. ERBB3 is a marker of a ganglioneuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma-like expression profile in neuroblastic tumours. Mol Cancer. 2013;12:70 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study we characterized these different subgroups in more detail, with a specific focus on the fourth divergent tumour subgroup (r4)...
  15. Mukai M, Takao T, Yoshida T, Inoue H, Miyagawa Y, Yoshimura K, et al. [Adrenal ganglioneuroma in a 14-year-old girl: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2006;52:619-21 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as ganglioneuroma originated from the right adrenal medulla.
  16. Maweja S, Materne R, Detrembleur N, de Leval L, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, et al. Adrenal ganglioneuroma. A neoplasia to exclude in patients with adrenal incidentaloma. Acta Chir Belg. 2007;107:670-4 pubmed
    To determinate the MRI and CT scanning appearance of adrenal ganglioneuroma and correlate the imaging with histological features.
  17. Erem C, Ucuncu O, Nuhoglu I, Cinel A, Cobanoglu U, Demirel A, et al. Adrenal ganglioneuroma: report of a new case. Endocrine. 2009;35:293-6 pubmed publisher
    Although adrenal ganglioneuroma (GN) is a rare tumor originating from the neural crest tissue of the sympathetic nervous system, detection of this tumor has increased, as imaging procedures such as ultrasonography (US) and computed ..
  18. Lamichhane N, Dhakal H. Ganglioneuroma of pelvis--an unique presentation in a young man. Nepal Med Coll J. 2006;8:288-91 pubmed
    ..Debulking surgery with preservation of organ functions is feasible in these slow growing tumors for better quality of life...
  19. Gahr N, Darge K, Hahn G, Kreher B, von Buiren M, Uhl M. Diffusion-weighted MRI for differentiation of neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroblastoma/ganglioneuroma. Eur J Radiol. 2011;79:443-6 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to assess the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of neuroblastic tumours and to evaluate if the ADC can enable differentiation of neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma/ganglioneuroblastoma.
  20. Hu J, Wu J, Cai L, Jiang L, Lang Z, Qu G, et al. Retroperitoneal composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma : a case report and review of literature. Diagn Pathol. 2013;8:63 pubmed publisher
    ..Only 4 cases in the retroperitoneum have been described in the online database PUBMED. Here, we report a case of retroperitoneal extra-adrenal composite pheochromocytoma and review the related literature...
  21. Pang B, Tchoyoson Lim C, Tan K. Giant spinal ganglioneuroma. J Clin Neurosci. 2005;12:967-72 pubmed
    ..This case report illustrates the clinical and histopathological features of two rare giant ganglioneuromas of the spinal cord...
  22. Brodeur G. Neuroblastoma: biological insights into a clinical enigma. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003;3:203-16 pubmed
    ..Future therapies will focus increasingly on the genes and biological pathways that contribute to malignant transformation or progression...
  23. Usuda H, Emura I. Composite paraganglioma-ganglioneuroma of the urinary bladder. Pathol Int. 2005;55:596-601 pubmed
    Presented herein is the case of a 73-year-old man, complaining of dysuria, who had a composite paraganglioma-ganglioneuroma of the urinary bladder (CPGUB)...
  24. Hasegawa A, Kato K, Yamamoto H, Nishi H, Hiraki Y. [A case of posterior mediastinal ganglioneuroma with fat tissue]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2001;39:792-6 pubmed
    We present a rare case of posterior mediastinal ganglioneuroma with fat tissue. A 50-year-old man visited our Department of Internal Medicine because of hypertension and fatty liver...
  25. Lonergan G, Schwab C, Suarez E, Carlson C. Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2002;22:911-34 pubmed
    Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma are tumors of the sympathetic nervous system that arise from primitive sympathogonia and are referred to collectively as neuroblastic tumors...
  26. Koch C, Brouwers F, Rosenblatt K, Burman K, Davis M, Vortmeyer A, et al. Adrenal ganglioneuroma in a patient presenting with severe hypertension and diarrhea. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2003;10:99-107 pubmed
    ..We suggest that in our patient with an adrenal GN, the combination of biochemical, scintigraphic, molecular, immunohistochemical, and histopathological findings are all consistent with the benign morphology of this tumor...
  27. Ozluoglu L, Yilmaz I, Cagici C, Bal N, Erdogan B. Ganglioneuroma of the internal auditory canal: a case report. Audiol Neurootol. 2007;12:160-4 pubmed
    b>Ganglioneuroma is a rare, benign, slow-growing tumor thought to develop from cells of neural crest origin, even though hypotheses on the pathogenesis of that lesion differ...
  28. Pytel P, Krausz T, Wollmann R, Utset M. Ganglioneuromatous paraganglioma of the cauda equina--a pathological case study. Hum Pathol. 2005;36:444-6 pubmed
    This study presents a rare case of compound paraganglioma/ganglioneuroma with comprehensive immunohistochemical studies that reveal strong cytokeratin expression in all components...
  29. Lai M, Wang C, Lin W, Liu K, Huang K. Huge adrenal ganglioneuroma. Urology. 2011;78:58-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Open tumor excision was performed. His symptoms of epigastralgia, hypertension, and chronic diarrhea had subsided after operation. He was tumor-free at 2-year follow-up...
  30. Qing Y, Bin X, Jian W, Li G, Linhui W, Bing L, et al. Adrenal ganglioneuromas: a 10-year experience in a Chinese population. Surgery. 2010;147:854-60 pubmed publisher
    Adrenal ganglioneuroma (GN) is extremely rare. The present study is to describe the largest series of this adrenal tumor treated in a single medical center to our knowledge.
  31. Erem C, Kocak M, Cinel A, Erso H, Reis A. Dopamine-secreting adrenal ganglioneuroma presenting with paroxysmal hypertension attacks. Saudi Med J. 2008;29:122-5 pubmed
    ..We report a case of dopamine-secreting adrenal ganglioneuroma associated with paroxysmal hypertensive attacks in an adult patient...
  32. Hsiao C, Huang C, Sheen J, Tai M, Chen C, Huang L, et al. Differential expression of delta-like gene and protein in neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:656-62 pubmed
    ..archival tissues from 10 patients with neuroblastoma, five with ganglioneuroblastoma, and five with ganglioneuroma. Three adrenal tissues from children died of diseases other than adrenal tumors and one from an adult with ..
  33. Adachi S, Kawamura N, Hatano K, Kakuta Y, Takada T, Hara T, et al. Lipomatous ganglioneuroma of the retroperitoneum. Pathol Int. 2008;58:183-6 pubmed publisher
    A unique case of ganglioneuroma mimicking a lipomatous tumor in a 73-year-old man is reported. The tumor was incidentally found on radiography performed for unrelated reasons...
  34. Inzani F, Rindi G, Tamborrino E, Cobelli R, Bordi C. Extra-adrenal composite paraganglioma with ganglioneuroma component presenting as a pancreatic mass. Endocr Pathol. 2009;20:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..paraganglioma with those of a neural component consisting of either neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, or ganglioneuroma. These variants are rare and generally located in the adrenal...
  35. Diab D, Faiman C, Siperstein A, Zhou M, Zimmerman R. Virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma in a woman with subclinical Cushing syndrome. Endocr Pract. 2008;14:584-7 pubmed
    To describe a patient with a virilizing adrenal ganglioneuroma and subclinical Cushing syndrome.
  36. Kamoun M, Mnif M, Rekik N, Belguith N, Charfi N, Mnif L, et al. Ganglioneuroma of adrenal gland in a patient with Turner syndrome. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2010;14:133-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor was diagnosed as left adrenal ganglioneuroma. According to literature, we report the eighth case of ganglioneuroma complicating Turner syndrome...
  37. Linos D, Tsirlis T, Kapralou A, Kiriakopoulos A, Tsakayannis D, Papaioannou D. Adrenal ganglioneuromas: incidentalomas with misleading clinical and imaging features. Surgery. 2011;149:99-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Ganglioneuromas are benign neoplasms of the neural crest, occurring rarely in the adrenal glands. This study presents our experience regarding diagnostic and therapeutic management of these neoplasms and a review of the relevant literature...
  38. Gong J, Wang X, Chen X, Chen N, Huang R, Lu C, et al. Adrenal and extra-adrenal nonfunctioning composite pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma with immunohistochemical ectopic hormone expression: comparison of two cases. Urol Int. 2010;85:368-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Both tumors were composed of typical paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma closely admixed with ganglioneuroma component...
  39. Kontogeorgos G, Mourouti G, Kyrodimou E, Liapi Avgeri G, Parasi E. Ganglion cell containing pituitary adenomas: signs of neuronal differentiation in adenoma cells. Acta Neuropathol. 2006;112:21-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of NFP in pituitary adenomas indicates neuronal differentiation in adenoma cells, suggesting a common origin for neuronal and pituitary adenoma cell elements in gangliocytomas...
  40. Yamaguchi K, Hara I, Takeda M, Tanaka K, Yamada Y, Fujisawa M, et al. Two cases of ganglioneuroma. Urology. 2006;67:622.e1-4 pubmed
    Although ganglioneuroma is a relatively rare tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, detection of this tumor has increased as imaging techniques such as computed tomography and ultrasonography have become prevalent...
  41. Sasaki S, Yasuda T, Kaneto H, Otsuki M, Tabuchi Y, Fujita Y, et al. Large adrenal ganglioneuroma. Intern Med. 2012;51:2365-70 pubmed
    We herein report the case of a 41-year-old male patient with an incidentally identified large adrenal ganglioneuroma (GN). His endocrine examinations were normal except for one episode of elevated urinary dopamine and noradrenaline levels...
  42. Papavramidis T, Michalopoulos N, Georgia K, Kesisoglou I, Valentini T, Georgia R, et al. Retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma in an adult patient: a case report and literature review of the last decade. South Med J. 2009;102:1065-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The case of a 43-year-old female who presented with a 6.5 cm primary extra-adrenal retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma (RGN) is presented, and the relevant English literature from the last decade is reviewed...
  43. Munchar M, Sharifah N, Jamal R, Looi L. CD44s expression correlated with the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (Shimada system) for neuroblastic tumours. Pathology. 2003;35:125-9 pubmed
  44. Cannon T, Brown H, Hughes B, Wenger A, Flynn S, Westfall C. Orbital ganglioneuroma in a patient with chronic progressive proptosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122:1712-4 pubmed
  45. Tohme C, Mattar W, Ghorra C. Extra-adrenal composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:1594-7 pubmed
    Composite tumors containing pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma are rare tumors typically arising in the adrenal glands. Very few were reported outside of the adrenals...
  46. De Bernardi B, Gambini C, Haupt R, Granata C, Rizzo A, Conte M, et al. Retrospective study of childhood ganglioneuroma. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:1710-6 pubmed publisher
    To review a historical cohort of childhood ganglioneuroma (GN), the benign representative of the peripheral neuroblastic tumor (PNT) family.
  47. Kouriefs C, Leris A, Mokbel K, Grossman A, Reznek R, Carpenter R. Abdominal ganglioneuromas in adults. Urol Int. 2003;71:110-3 pubmed
    ..We here report 3 cases of ganglioneuromas highlighting important points regarding the radiological assessment, management, decision making and surgical approaches...
  48. Peuchmaur M. [Peripheral neuroblastic tumors: anatomo pathological classification]. Ann Pathol. 2004;24:556-67 pubmed
    ..Histopathological classification has prognostic impact in predicting overall and event-free survival allowing the categorisation of PNT into two groups: favorable subset and unfavorable subset...
  49. Wang M, Zhou C, Cai R, Li Y, Gong L. Copy number gain of MYCN gene is a recurrent genetic aberration and favorable prognostic factor in Chinese pediatric neuroblastoma patients. Diagn Pathol. 2013;8:5 pubmed publisher
    ..But copy number analyses of MYCN gene in ganglioneuroblastoma (GNBL) and ganglioneuroma(GN) is poorly described in the literature...
  50. Urso D, Vincenzo D, Curia A, Formaro C, Sicilia S. [Retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma: a case report]. Recenti Prog Med. 2008;99:559-60 pubmed
    The ganglioneuroma is a benign neuroblastic tumor and derives from immature cells of the sympathetic nerve system. The ganglioneuroma is a very rare disease and effects newborns and infants more often than adolescents and adults...
  51. Wallace C, Hallman J, Sangueza O. Primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma: a report of two cases and literature review. Am J Dermatopathol. 2003;25:239-42 pubmed
    Primary cutaneous ganglioneuroma is a rare neoplasm first described by Collins et al. in 1972. Eight cases have been reported in the English literature to date...
  52. Hirasaki S, Kanzaki H, Okuda M, Suzuki S, Fukuhara T, Hanaoka T. Composite paraganglioma-ganglioneuroma in the retroperitoneum. World J Surg Oncol. 2009;7:81 pubmed publisher
    Paragangliomas occur most commonly in head and neck region and much less frequently, they are found in the retroperitoneum. Composite paraganglioma-ganglioneuroma of the retroperitoneum is very rare.
  53. Rafiq S, Hameer H, Sitrin M. Ganglioneuromatous polyposis associated with juvenile polyps and a tubular adenoma. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:506-8 pubmed
  54. Rha S, Byun J, Jung S, Chun H, Lee H, Lee J. Neurogenic tumors in the abdomen: tumor types and imaging characteristics. Radiographics. 2003;23:29-43 pubmed
    ..However, because most neurogenic tumors in adults are benign, CT and MR imaging can be used to develop a differential diagnosis and help determine the immediate local extent of tumor...
  55. Qamouss O, Zoubeir Y, Oukabli M, Chahdi H, Harket A, Abouchadi A, et al. [Ganglioneuroma of the zygoma]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2006;107:370-2 pubmed
    b>Ganglioneuroma is an uncommon benign tumor that arises from the sympathetic nervous system accounting for less than 1% of all soft-tissue neoplasms.
  56. Duffy S, Jhaveri M, Scudierre J, Cochran E, Huckman M. MR imaging of a posterior mediastinal ganglioneuroma: fat as a useful diagnostic sign. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26:2658-62 pubmed
    We report a case of a ganglioneuroma that was found incidentally on a CT of the abdomen in a 27-year-old woman with gastrointestinal symptoms...
  57. Cai J, Zeng Y, Zheng H, Qin Y, T K, Zhao J. Retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma in children: CT and MRI features with histologic correlation. Eur J Radiol. 2010;75:315-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To demonstrate the CT and MRI features with histologic correlation of retroperitoneal ganglioneuromas in children...
  58. Maweja S, Materne R, Detrembleur N, de Leval L, Defechereux T, Meurisse M, et al. Adrenal ganglioneuroma. Am J Surg. 2007;194:683-4 pubmed
    ..Characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested the diagnosis of adrenal ganglioneuroma or carcinoma. Pathological examination after adrenalectomy concluded it was an adrenal ganglioneuroma...