Summary: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)

Top Publications

  1. Grogan R, Mitmaker E, Duh Q. Changing paradigms in the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma. Cancer Control. 2011;18:104-12 pubmed
    ..Recently, however, the genetic and molecular changes involved in malignant pheochromocytoma have come to be understood...
  2. Welander J, Larsson C, Bäckdahl M, Hareni N, Sivlér T, Brauckhoff M, et al. Integrative genomics reveals frequent somatic NF1 mutations in sporadic pheochromocytomas. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:5406-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we elucidate some of the molecular mechanisms behind sporadic pheochromocytoma by performing a comprehensive analysis of copy number alterations, gene expression, promoter methylation and ..
  3. Dahia P. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma pathogenesis: learning from genetic heterogeneity. Nat Rev Cancer. 2014;14:108-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Hereditary pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are powerful models for recognizing cancer driver events, which can be harnessed for diagnostic purposes and for guiding the future development of targeted therapies. ..
  4. Petrak O, Haluzikova D, Kavalkova P, Strauch B, Rosa J, Holaj R, et al. Changes in energy metabolism in pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:1651-8 pubmed publisher
    Catecholamine overproduction in pheochromocytoma affects basal metabolism, resulting in weight loss despite normal food intake.
  5. Perrino C, Prall D, Calomeni E, Nadasdy T, Zynger D. Ultrastructural findings in adrenal cortical adenomas clinically mimicking pheochromocytoma: a comparison with other adrenal tumors and tissue preparation techniques. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2012;36:287-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of tissue preparation methods on electron microscopy (EM) images was assessed in ACA mimicking pheochromocytoma, pheochromocytoma, and ACA lacking pheochromocytoma-like symptoms...
  6. Gimenez Roqueplo A, Dahia P, Robledo M. An update on the genetics of paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, and associated hereditary syndromes. Horm Metab Res. 2012;44:328-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Most familial cases of pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma and 10-20% sporadic cases carry germline mutations in VHL, RET, NF1, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, ..
  7. Hondares E, Gallego Escuredo J, Flachs P, Frontini A, Cereijo R, Goday A, et al. Fibroblast growth factor-21 is expressed in neonatal and pheochromocytoma-induced adult human brown adipose tissue. Metabolism. 2014;63:312-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, human WAT expresses negligible levels of FGF21. We examined FGF21 expression in human BAT samples, including the induced BAT found in adult patients with pheochromocytoma, and interscapular and visceral BAT from newborns.
  8. Frontini A, Vitali A, Perugini J, Murano I, Romiti C, Ricquier D, et al. White-to-brown transdifferentiation of omental adipocytes in patients affected by pheochromocytoma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1831:950-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of pure white omental fat were collected from 12 patients affected by the catecholamine-secreting tumor pheochromocytoma (pheo-patients) and compared with biopsies from controls...
  9. Comino Mendez I, de Cubas A, Bernal C, Alvarez Escolá C, Sánchez Malo C, Ramirez Tortosa C, et al. Tumoral EPAS1 (HIF2A) mutations explain sporadic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in the absence of erythrocytosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the detection of a specific copy number alteration affecting chromosome 2p in EPAS1-mutated tumors may guide the genetic diagnosis of patients with this disease...

More Information


  1. Rao J, Engelke U, Rodenburg R, Wevers R, Pacak K, Eisenhofer G, et al. Genotype-specific abnormalities in mitochondrial function associate with distinct profiles of energy metabolism and catecholamine content in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:3787-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the relationships between genotype-specific differences in mitochondrial function and catecholamine content in PGL tumors...
  2. Rattenberry E, Vialard L, Yeung A, Bair H, McKay K, Jafri M, et al. A comprehensive next generation sequencing-based genetic testing strategy to improve diagnosis of inherited pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E1248-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are notable for a high frequency of inherited cases, many of which present as apparently sporadic tumors...
  3. Buffet A, Venisse A, Nau V, Roncellin I, Boccio V, Le Pottier N, et al. A decade (2001-2010) of genetic testing for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Horm Metab Res. 2012;44:359-66 pubmed publisher
    The identification of 9 susceptibility genes for paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma between 2001 and 2010 has led to the development of routine genetic tests...
  4. Burnichon N, Cascon A, Schiavi F, Morales N, Comino Mendez I, Abermil N, et al. MAX mutations cause hereditary and sporadic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:2828-37 pubmed publisher
    ..How MAX mutations contribute to PCC/PGL and associated phenotypes remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and associated phenotypic features of germline and somatic MAX mutations in PCC/PGL...
  5. Sjursen W, Halvorsen H, Hofsli E, Bachke S, Berge A, Engebretsen L, et al. Mutation screening in a Norwegian cohort with pheochromocytoma. Fam Cancer. 2013;12:529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Two new NF1 variants and one new VHL gene variant were detected...
  6. Cheng W, Zhu Z, Jin X, Chen L, Zhuang H, Li F. Intense FDG activity in the brown adipose tissue in omental and mesenteric regions in a patient with malignant pheochromocytoma. Clin Nucl Med. 2012;37:514-5 pubmed publisher
    A 39-year-old man who had a history of surgical excision of left adrenal pheochromocytoma 3 years ago underwent an FDG PET/CT scan to evaluate possible metastatic/recurrent disease...
  7. Bräcker L, Rath S, Dralle H, Bucher M. [Preoperative ?-adrenoceptor block in asymptomatic pheochromocytoma? Pro]. Chirurg. 2012;83:546-50 pubmed publisher
    In approximately 90% of all cases a pheochromocytoma causes sustained or paroxysmal hypertension. During surgical resection tumor manipulation can lead to excessive catecholamine release with the risk of life-threatening complications...
  8. Singh V, Singh M, Malhotra M, Kumar A, Agarwal A. Extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma-a case report of refractory hypertension. Indian Heart J. 2012;64:203-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma who was on adequate antihypertensive medications but remained refractory to treatment prior to the exact diagnosis...
  9. Goffredo P, Sosa J, Roman S. Malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: a population level analysis of long-term survival over two decades. J Surg Oncol. 2013;107:659-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL) are rare tumors. Aims of this study were to describe and to compare demographic, clinical, pathologic, and survival characteristics of malignant PHEO and PGL.
  10. Groeben H. [Preoperative ?-receptor block in patients with pheochromocytoma? Against]. Chirurg. 2012;83:551-4 pubmed publisher
    ..An ?-receptor block is still recommended prior to the resection of pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. However, the effect has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial...
  11. Vlenterie M, Flucke U, Hofbauer L, Timmers H, Gastmeier J, Aust D, et al. Pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis type I. Am J Med. 2013;126:174-80 pubmed publisher
    Neurofibromatosis I may rarely predispose to pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
  12. Dwight T, Mann K, Benn D, Robinson B, McKelvie P, Gill A, et al. Familial SDHA mutation associated with pituitary adenoma and pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E1103-8 pubmed publisher
    Reports of the coexistence of pituitary adenomas and pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma are uncommon. Recently germline mutations in 2 of the genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase, SDHC and SDHD, were associated with pituitary tumors.
  13. D Elia A, Grimaldi F, Pizzolitto S, De Maglio G, Bregant E, Passon N, et al. A new germline VHL gene mutation in three patients with apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013;78:391-7 pubmed publisher four genes (RET, VHL, SDHB and SDHD) are detected in about 17% of patients with apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma. Thus, genetic screening of all patients with this disease is suggested for a rational diagnostic approach ..
  14. Fishbein L, Nathanson K. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: understanding the complexities of the genetic background. Cancer Genet. 2012;205:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the known germline and somatic mutations leading to the development of PCC and PGL, as well as biochemical profiling for PCCs/PGLs and screening of mutation carriers...
  15. Hu J, Wu J, Cai L, Jiang L, Lang Z, Qu G, et al. Retroperitoneal composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma : a case report and review of literature. Diagn Pathol. 2013;8:63 pubmed publisher
    Composite pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma is a rare tumor with elements of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and neurogenic tumor. Most were located in the adrenal glands, and extra-adrenal composite pheochromocytoma is extremely rare...
  16. Imai T, Uchino S, Okamoto T, Suzuki S, Kosugi S, Kikumori T, et al. High penetrance of pheochromocytoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 caused by germ line RET codon 634 mutation in Japanese patients. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;168:683-7 pubmed publisher
    The precise penetrance of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) has not been reported in a large cohort. In this study, we aimed to clarify the codon-specific penetrance of PHEO in MEN2.
  17. Ikeda T, Ishii K, Saito Y, Miura M, Otagiri A, Kawakami Y, et al. Inhibition of autophagy enhances sunitinib-induced cytotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. J Pharmacol Sci. 2013;121:67-73 pubmed
    ..Previously, we demonstrated that sunitinib directly inhibited mTORC1 signaling in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells...
  18. Yan J, Min J, Zhou B. Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: a clinical practice guideline appraisal using AGREE II instrument. J Eval Clin Pract. 2013;19:626-32 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to assess the quality of clinical practice guidelines providing diagnostic recommendations on pheochromocytoma (PHEO) using the new Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument and to promote ..
  19. Hanji A, Rohan V, Patel J, Tankshali R. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder: a rare cause of severe hypertension. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2012;23:813-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Detailed investigations revealed a pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder, which was treated with partial cystectomy, following which her blood pressure ..
  20. Yamamoto S, Hellman P, Wassberg C, Sundin A. 11C-hydroxyephedrine positron emission tomography imaging of pheochromocytoma: a single center experience over 11 years. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:2423-32 pubmed publisher
    ..tumor and detection of metastases are essential for preoperative planning and postoperative management of pheochromocytoma. When computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging are inadequate, functional imaging adds ..
  21. Maurea S, Cuocolo A, Imbriaco M, Pellegrino T, Fusari M, Cuocolo R, et al. Imaging characterization of benign and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma: comparison between MIBG uptake and MR signal intensity ratio. Ann Nucl Med. 2012;26:670-5 pubmed publisher
    We compared metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake and magnetic resonance (MR) signal intensity ratio in differentiating benign and malignant disease in patients with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma.
  22. Unger N, Hinrichs J, Deutschbein T, Schmidt H, Walz M, Mann K, et al. Plasma and urinary metanephrines determined by an enzyme immunoassay, but not serum chromogranin A for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in patients with adrenal mass. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2012;120:494-500 pubmed publisher
    ..01). In conclusion, plasma free and urinary metanephrines measured by enzyme immunoassays are convenient and reliable parameters for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. In contrast, CgA demonstrated poor sensitivity and specificity.
  23. Shah U, Giubellino A, Pacak K. Pheochromocytoma: implications in tumorigenesis and the actual management. Minerva Endocrinol. 2012;37:141-56 pubmed
    ..The study of families with genetically inherited mutations in pheochromocytoma susceptibility genes has greatly enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanisms of ..
  24. Fernández M, Venara M, Nowicki S, Chemes H, Barontini M, Pennisi P. Igf-I regulates pheochromocytoma cell proliferation and survival in vitro and in vivo. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3724-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of IGF-I on pheochromocytoma development...
  25. Jimenez C, Rohren E, Habra M, Rich T, Jiménez P, Ayala Ramirez M, et al. Current and future treatments for malignant pheochromocytoma and sympathetic paraganglioma. Curr Oncol Rep. 2013;15:356-71 pubmed publisher
  26. Letouze E, Martinelli C, Loriot C, Burnichon N, Abermil N, Ottolenghi C, et al. SDH mutations establish a hypermethylator phenotype in paraganglioma. Cancer Cell. 2013;23:739-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, inactivating FH mutations were identified in the only hypermethylated tumor without SDHx mutations. These findings emphasize the interplay between the Krebs cycle, epigenomic changes, and cancer...
  27. Conzo G, Musella M, Corcione F, De Palma M, Ferraro F, Palazzo A, et al. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy, a safe procedure for pheochromocytoma. A retrospective review of clinical series. Int J Surg. 2013;11:152-6 pubmed publisher
    Minimally invasive adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a complex surgical procedure especially because of the haemodynamic instability due to the excessive secretion of cathecolamines, which may result in a considerable risk of ..
  28. Crona J, Delgado Verdugo A, Maharjan R, Stalberg P, Granberg D, Hellman P, et al. Somatic mutations in H-RAS in sporadic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma identified by exome sequencing. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E1266-71 pubmed publisher
    Up to 60% of pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are associated with either somatic or germline mutations in established PCC and PGL susceptibility loci...
  29. Giubellino A, Sourbier C, Lee M, Scroggins B, Bullova P, Landau M, et al. Targeting heat shock protein 90 for the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56083 pubmed publisher
    Metastatic pheochromocytoma represents one of the major clinical challenges in the field of neuroendocrine oncology. Recent molecular characterization of pheochromocytoma suggests new treatment options with targeted therapies...
  30. Ghayee H, Bhagwandin V, Stastny V, Click A, Ding L, Mizrachi D, et al. Progenitor cell line (hPheo1) derived from a human pheochromocytoma tumor. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65624 pubmed publisher
    ..To study pheochromocytomas, we developed a stable progenitor pheochromocytoma cell line derived from a primary human tumor.
  31. Korpershoek E, Pacak K, Martiniova L. Murine models and cell lines for the investigation of pheochromocytoma: applications for future therapies?. Endocr Pathol. 2012;23:43-54 pubmed publisher
    ..which chemotherapeutic options could be useful for the treatment of metastatic PCC, cell lines such as mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) and mouse tumor tissue (MTT) cells have been recently introduced and they both showed metastatic ..
  32. Kiss N, Muth A, Andreasson A, Juhlin C, Geli J, Bäckdahl M, et al. Acquired hypermethylation of the P16INK4A promoter in abdominal paraganglioma: relation to adverse tumor phenotype and predisposing mutation. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013;20:65-78 pubmed publisher
    ..methylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and LINE1 (L1RE1) repeat elements were previously reported in pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma...
  33. Ziegler C, Ullrich M, Schally A, Bergmann R, Pietzsch J, Gebauer L, et al. Anti-tumor effects of peptide analogs targeting neuropeptide hormone receptors on mouse pheochromocytoma cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;371:189-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Pheochromocytoma is a rare but potentially lethal chromaffin cell tumor with currently no effective treatment...
  34. Grouzmann E, Matter M, Bilz S, Herren A, Triponez F, Henzen C, et al. Monoamine oxidase A down-regulation contributes to high metanephrine concentration in pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:2773-81 pubmed publisher
    The high diagnostic performance of plasma-free metanephrines (metanephrine and normetanephrine) (MN) for pheochromocytoma (PHEO) results from the tumoral expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), the enzyme involved in O-..
  35. Karasek D, Shah U, Frysak Z, Stratakis C, Pacak K. An update on the genetics of pheochromocytoma. J Hum Hypertens. 2013;27:141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the latest discoveries in molecular pathogenesis of these tumors will provide an important basis for future personalized therapy...
  36. Sarathi V, Pandit R, Patil V, Lia A, Bandgar T, Shah N. Performance of plasma fractionated free metanephrines by enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in children. Endocr Pract. 2012;18:694-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To establish pediatric reference ranges for plasma fractionated free metanephrines by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and to evaluate its performance in the diagnosis of catecholamine-secreting tumors in the pediatric population...
  37. Burnichon N, Buffet A, Parfait B, Letouze E, Laurendeau I, Loriot C, et al. Somatic NF1 inactivation is a frequent event in sporadic pheochromocytoma. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:5397-405 pubmed publisher
    ..SDHA, SDHAF2, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, MAX, TMEM127, NF1 or VHL genes are identified in about 30% of patients with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma and somatic mutations in RET, VHL or MAX genes are reported in 17% of sporadic tumors...
  38. Giubellino A, Bullova P, Nölting S, Turkova H, Powers J, Liu Q, et al. Combined inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling pathways is a promising therapeutic option in inhibiting pheochromocytoma tumor growth: in vitro and in vivo studies in female athymic nude mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:646-55 pubmed publisher
    ..out an important role for the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in the development of pheochromocytoma. Analyzing a set of pheochromocytomas from patients with different genetic backgrounds, we observed and ..
  39. Mazzaglia P. Hereditary pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. J Surg Oncol. 2012;106:580-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is now clear that up to 30% of patients presenting with sporadic pheos/pgls harbor a recognizable germline mutation, and therefore directed genetic testing is recommended for many of these patients...
  40. Isosu T, Obara S, Ohashi S, Hosono A, Nakano Y, Imaizumi T, et al. Examination of the usefulness of non-invasive stroke volume variation monitoring for adjusting fluid supplementation during laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with pheochromocytoma. Fukushima J Med Sci. 2012;58:78-81 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the benefits of SVV monitoring for adjusting fluid supplementation during laparoscopic adrenalectomy under anesthesia in patients with pheochromocytoma.
  41. Taïeb D, Timmers H, Hindié E, Guillet B, Neumann H, Walz M, et al. EANM 2012 guidelines for radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012;39:1977-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Although several radionuclide imaging modalities are considered herein, considerable focus is given to PET imaging which offers high sensitivity targeted molecular imaging approaches. ..
  42. Lenders J, Duh Q, Eisenhofer G, Gimenez Roqueplo A, Grebe S, Murad M, et al. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:1915-42 pubmed publisher
    The aim was to formulate clinical practice guidelines for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL).
  43. Eisenhofer G, Vocke C, Elkahloun A, Huynh T, Prodanov T, Lenders J, et al. Genetic screening for von Hippel-Lindau gene mutations in non-syndromic pheochromocytoma: low prevalence and false-positives or misdiagnosis indicate a need for caution. Horm Metab Res. 2012;44:343-8 pubmed publisher
    Genetic testing of tumor susceptibility genes is now recommended in most patients with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma (PPGL), even in the absence of a syndromic presentation...
  44. Maurice J, Troke R, Win Z, Ramachandran R, Al Nahhas A, Naji M, et al. A comparison of the performance of ??Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT and ¹²³I-MIBG SPECT in the diagnosis and follow-up of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012;39:1266-70 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the sensitivity of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) SPECT and (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in detecting phaeochromocytomas (PCC) and paragangliomas (PGL) in the initial diagnosis and follow-up of patients with PCC and PGL disease...
  45. Lv T, Li Y, Jia J, Shi Z, Bai J. Protective effect of geranylgeranylacetone against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma cells. Pharmacology. 2013;92:131-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous study demonstrated that geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) was an inducer of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), which played a cytoprotective role against neurotoxicity...
  46. Hisano M, Vicentini F, Srougi M. Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy in pheochromocytoma. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67 Suppl 1:161-7 pubmed
    ..the technique has evolved and it has become the standard of care for many adrenal diseases, including pheochromocytoma. Two laparoscopic accesses to the adrenal have been developed: transperitoneal and retroperitoneal...
  47. de Cubas A, Leandro García L, Schiavi F, Mancikova V, Comino Mendez I, Inglada Pérez L, et al. Integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma identifies genotype-specific markers and potentially regulated pathways. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013;20:477-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, global proteomic analysis in SDHB and MAX tumors allowed us to determine that miRNA regulation occurs primarily through mRNA degradation in PCCs/PGLs, which partially confirmed our miRNA-mRNA integration results. ..
  48. Xu G, Duan Z, Chen G, Nie X, Liu J, Zhang Y, et al. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced apoptosis in neuronal pheochromocytoma cells. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2013;32:1278-91 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to identify the role of MAPK cascades in TCDD-induced neurotoxicity using differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as a model for neuronal cells...
  49. Vicha A, Musil Z, Pacak K. Genetics of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma syndromes: new advances and future treatment options. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2013;20:186-91 pubmed publisher
    To summarize the recent advances in the genetics of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL), focusing on the new susceptibility genes and dividing PHEOs/PGLs into two groups based on their transcription profile...
  50. Galan S, Kann P. Genetics and molecular pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013;78:165-75 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of the complexity and high genetic diversity of PCC and PGL may lead to more efficient diagnosis and management of the disease...
  51. Cascon A, Tennant D. From transcriptional profiling to tumor biology in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Pathol. 2012;23:15-20 pubmed publisher
    This review summarizes the way in which inherited mutations define global gene expression in pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL), and how the use of gene expression analysis has advanced our understanding of these diseases...
  52. Nölting S, Grossman A. Signaling pathways in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: prospects for future therapies. Endocr Pathol. 2012;23:21-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing understanding of the germline and somatic mutations leading to pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma development has revealed crucial insights into the molecular pathology of these tumors...
  53. Boguszewski C, Fighera T, Bornschein A, Marques F, Dénes J, Rattenbery E, et al. Genetic studies in a coexistence of acromegaly, pheochromocytoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and thyroid follicular adenoma. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2012;56:507-12 pubmed
    We report on an adult woman with rare coexistence of acromegaly, pheochromocytoma (PHEO), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), intestinal polyposis, and thyroid follicular adenoma...
  54. Li Q, Li F. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in pheochromocytoma: retroperitoneal approach versus transperitoneal approach. J Endourol. 2010;24:1441-5 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches in laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) for pheochromocytoma.