neuroendocrine carcinoma

Summary

Summary: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Top Publications

  1. Moran C, Suster S. Neuroendocrine carcinomas (carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell carcinoma, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma): current concepts. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2007;21:395-407; vii pubmed
    ..Close clinical correlation and appropriate treatment are important to improve the survival rate in this group of patients. ..
  2. Qvigstad G, Kolbjørnsen Ø, Skancke E, Waldum H. Gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma associated with atrophic gastritis in the norwegian lundehund. J Comp Pathol. 2008;139:194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The Norwegian Lundehund may therefore represent a further animal model for the study of the role of gastrin in the induction of gastric neoplasia...
  3. Selvakumar E, Rajendran S, Balachandar T, Kannan D, Jeswanth S, Ravichandran P, et al. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater: a clinicopathologic evaluation. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2008;7:422-5 pubmed
    ..This study was to determine the relative incidence and clinicopathological characteristics of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (small cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma) of the ampulla of Vater at a single institution.
  4. Chenevert J, Bessette P, Plante M, Tetu B, Dube V. Mixed ovarian large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, and teratoma: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract. 2009;205:657-61 pubmed publisher
    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary is a rare recently established entity. Few cases have been reported in the literature, and they are usually associated with another type of surface epithelial tumor...
  5. Fujiwara Y, Sekine I, Tsuta K, Ohe Y, Kunitoh H, Yamamoto N, et al. Effect of platinum combined with irinotecan or paclitaxel against large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2007;37:482-6 pubmed
    The efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung (LCNEC) remains unclear.
  6. Lindboe C. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary. APMIS. 2007;115:169-76 pubmed
    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary is a recently described tumour entity that is now included in the WHO classification of primary ovarian neoplasms...
  7. Haga T, Nakajima Y, Kitamura A, Kuroda F, Takiguchi Y, Tatsumi K. [A rare case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thymus]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2010;48:755-8 pubmed
    ..CT-guided percutaneous tumor biopsy demonstrated large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thymus. He was referred to our hospital in August 2007...
  8. Mattavelli F, Collini P, Pizzi N, Gervasoni C, Pennacchioli E, Mazzaferro V. Thyroid as a target of metastases. A case of foregut neuroendocrine carcinoma with multiple abdominal metastases and a thyroid localization after 21 years. Tumori. 2008;94:110-3 pubmed
    ..e., a medullary thyroid carcinoma. This case report is peculiar because of the multiple sites of abdominal relapses, the long time interval between relapses (21 years), and the positive outcome after surgical treatment...
  9. Gollard R, Jhatakia S, Elliott M, Kosty M. Large cell/neuroendocrine carcinoma. Lung Cancer. 2010;69:13-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We review treatment data, and suggest that as in more common types of lung cancer, multi-modality therapy may be the most promising course of treatment...

More Information

Publications71

  1. Fellegara G, D Adda T, Pilato F, Froio E, Ampollini L, Rusca M, et al. Genetics of a combined lung small cell carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with adenocarcinoma. Virchows Arch. 2008;453:107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The second part showed morphological and immunohistochemical phenotype of a neuroendocrine carcinoma composed of a small cell lung carcinoma and a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma...
  2. Kim J, Woo O, Cho K, Seo B, Yong H, Kim A, et al. Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: radiologic and pathologic findings. J Korean Med Sci. 2008;23:1118-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast can only be made if nonmammary sites are confidently excluded or if an in situ component ..
  3. Horne G, Ming Lum C, Kirkpatrick A, Parker R. High-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma arising in a gastric duplication cyst: a case report with literature review. Int J Surg Pathol. 2007;15:187-91 pubmed
    ..Herein, the authors report the first case of a high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma arising in a gastric duplication cyst in a 40-year-old Asian male...
  4. Li W, Yau T, Leung C, Pong W, Chan M. Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix complicating pregnancy. Hong Kong Med J. 2009;15:69-72 pubmed
    ..The patient received concurrent chemotherapy and radiation after termination of pregnancy and remained in complete remission 21 months after completion of treatment...
  5. Arora R, Gupta R, Sharma A, Dinda A. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of thymus: a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010;53:148-51 pubmed publisher
    Thymomas constitute majority of the thymic neoplasms. In contrast, neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid and neuroendocrine carcinoma) of thymus are extremely rare...
  6. Lopez Barcons L. Small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate: are heterotransplants a better experimental model?. Asian J Androl. 2010;12:308-14 pubmed publisher
    Small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate (SCNCP) is an uncommon type of prostate cancer. However, it is of clinical importance because it is one of the most aggressive tumors of the prostate with a very poor prognosis...
  7. Tsuji T, Togami S, Shintomo N, Fukamachi N, Douchi T, Taguchi S. Ovarian large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2008;34:726-30 pubmed publisher
    Ovarian large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNC) is a rare disease that is commonly associated with a surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasm component. A 46-year-old woman presented with a pelvic mass measuring 15 cm in diameter...
  8. Fujimoto Y, Yagyu R, Murase K, Kawajiri H, Ohtani H, Arimoto Y, et al. A case of solid neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast in a 40-year-old woman. Breast Cancer. 2007;14:250-3 pubmed
    We report a case of neuroendocrine carcinoma in a 40-year-old woman who presented with two lumps in her left breast...
  9. Takezawa K, Okamoto I, Fukuoka J, Tanaka K, Kaneda H, Uejima H, et al. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mediastinum with alpha-fetoprotein production. J Thorac Oncol. 2008;3:187-9 pubmed publisher
    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a relatively new category of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor. Although it was first detected in the lung, LCNEC has since been found in a variety of extrapulmonary sites...
  10. Akhtar K, Zaheer S, Ahmad S, Hassan M. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2009;52:71-3 pubmed
    Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast is rare-only about 30 cases have been reported in literature...
  11. Hiroshima K, Iyoda A, Shida T, Shibuya K, Iizasa T, Kishi H, et al. Distinction of pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma from small cell lung carcinoma: a morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis. Mod Pathol. 2006;19:1358-68 pubmed
    The distinction between pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell carcinoma is difficult in some cases. Some propose that these carcinomas should be classified as one high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma...
  12. Punpale A, Shrikhande S, Sumeet G, Shukla P. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma presenting as mesenteric cyst. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2007;26:137-8 pubmed
    Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma occurring in the mesentery is extremely rare. Surgical resection is the best treatment modality, with a chance of cure...
  13. Wang K, Yang Y, Wang T, Chen J, Chen T, Chen H, et al. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix: A clinicopathologic retrospective study of 31 cases with prognostic implications. J Chemother. 2006;18:209-16 pubmed
    ..There are two cases of atypical carcinoid tumor (ACT), four cases of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), and 25 cases of small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC)...
  14. Iyoda A, Hiroshima K, Nakatani Y, Fujisawa T. Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: its place in the spectrum of pulmonary carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2007;84:702-7 pubmed
    In 1999, the World Health Organization categorized large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) as a variant of large cell carcinoma...
  15. Kuo K, Liang C, Hsiao C, Lin C, Chen C, Sheu B, et al. Downregulation of BRG-1 repressed expression of CD44s in cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2006;19:1570-7 pubmed
    ..stains in the paraffin-embedded cervical neoplasm tissue of 17 cases of primary cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma, 28 cases of cervical adenocarcinoma, and 50 cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma...
  16. Wei B, Ding T, Xing Y, Wei W, Tian Z, Tang F, et al. Invasive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: a distinctive subtype of aggressive mammary carcinoma. Cancer. 2010;116:4463-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the breast, a pathologic entity newly defined in the 2003 World Health Organization classification of tumors, is a rare type of tumor that is not well recognized or studied...
  17. Iyoda A, Hiroshima K, Moriya Y, Takiguchi Y, Sekine Y, Shibuya K, et al. Prospective study of adjuvant chemotherapy for pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;82:1802-7 pubmed
    Patients with pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) have a very poor prognosis, but the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for these patients has not been established...
  18. Iwasa S, Morizane C, Okusaka T, Ueno H, Ikeda M, Kondo S, et al. Cisplatin and etoposide as first-line chemotherapy for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the hepatobiliary tract and pancreas. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2010;40:313-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there were no prior reports limited to the hepatobiliary tract and pancreas as the primary sites...
  19. Meyronet D, Massoma P, Thivolet F, Chalabreysse L, Rogemond V, Schlama A, et al. Extensive expression of collapsin response mediator protein 5 (CRMP5) is a specific marker of high-grade lung neuroendocrine carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:1699-708 pubmed publisher
    ..6% of high-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors, including small cell lung carcinoma and large cell lung neuroendocrine carcinoma, but not in any of the squamous cell carcinomas or lung adenocarcinomas in our series...
  20. Dutta R, Kumar A, Jindal T, Mathur S. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thymus gland with sternal invasion. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2009;8:694-6 pubmed publisher
    Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thymus is a rare cancer that is more aggressive than other thymic epithelial tumors with poorer prognosis...
  21. Scott A, Abbassi Ghadi N, Archer C, Swamy R, Gupta S. Neuroendocrine carcinoma arising within a retroperitoneal mature teratoma. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2010;92:W5-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Histological analysis confirmed a mature teratoma of the retroperitoneum with neuroendocrine carcinoma arising within it. To our knowledge this is only the second reported case of its kind.
  22. Lin C, Chiang T, Shum W, Hsu C, Tsai Y, Tsao T, et al. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the nasal cavity after successful curative therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2009;25:145-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) mainly occurs in the lung, and is rarely found in the head and neck region...
  23. Iyoda A, Hiroshima K, Moriya Y, Iwadate Y, Takiguchi Y, Uno T, et al. Postoperative recurrence and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;138:446-53 pubmed publisher
    The prognosis for patients with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is generally very poor...
  24. Huang S, Jan Y, Cheng S, Yeh D, Wu C, Liu T, et al. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of vater: Report of a case. Surg Today. 2006;36:1032-5 pubmed
    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in the ampulla of Vater is rare and very different from the common ampullary adenocarcinoma. A 59-year-old man was admitted with obstructive jaundice...
  25. Lee K, Ryu S, Lee M, Park C, Juhng S, Choi C. Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Pathol Int. 2006;56:688-93 pubmed
    ..In spite of three cycles of chemotherapy, the patient developed multiple metastases in the lung and liver 10 months postoperatively. LCNEC of the urinary bladder are uncommon entities, which have a possible fatal outcome...
  26. Boo Y, Park S, Kim J, Mok Y, Kim S, Kim C. Gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma: clinicopathologic review and immunohistochemical study of E-cadherin and Ki-67 as prognostic markers. J Surg Oncol. 2007;95:110-7 pubmed
    Gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is an uncommon cancer of the stomach. The classification of NEC and its clinical behavior remains controversial, and prognostic markers and their therapeutic guidelines have not been clearly defined...
  27. Jang K, Moon W, Lee H, Kim C, Park H. Gastric collision tumor of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma--a case report. Pathol Res Pract. 2010;206:387-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The other lesion was a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of early gastric cancer type IIa located adjacent mucosa of the main lesion. We diagnosed this lesion as gastric LCNEC concurrent with focal adenocarcinoma, collision type...
  28. Sato K, Imai T, Shirota Y, Ueda Y, Katsuda S. Combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. Pathol Res Pract. 2010;206:397-400 pubmed publisher
    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a high-grade malignant neuroendocrine tumor that was first defined in the lungs...
  29. Yoo J, Lee J, Kim E, Hong Y, Lee Y, Jeong H. Prostatic metastasis of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung. Respirology. 2009;14:772-5 pubmed publisher
    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung is a rare and aggressive tumour with a poor prognosis. Lung cancer metastases to the prostate are also uncommon, and are usually found incidentally during autopsy...
  30. Choi Y, Lee J, Choi C, Park C, Nam J. Ovarian neuroendocrine carcinoma, non-small cell type, associated with serous carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;104:747-52 pubmed
    b>Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the non-small cell type of the ovary is a rare aggressive tumor, interestingly associated with either a surface epithelial tumor or teratoma.
  31. Terada T. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with sarcomatous changes of the endometrium: a case report with immunohistochemical studies and molecular genetic study of KIT and PDGFRA. Pathol Res Pract. 2010;206:420-5 pubmed publisher
    The author herein reports a very rare case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) with sarcomatous changes of the endometrium. A 40-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of abnormal uterine bleeding...
  32. Hwang H, Hou K, Schiller C, Wayne J, Mendelson E, Susnik B. Neuroendocrine carcinoma metastatic to the breast. Breast J. 2008;14:201-2 pubmed publisher
  33. Kinoshita S, Hirano A, Komine K, Kobayashi S, Kyoda S, Takeyama H, et al. Primary small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: report of a case. Surg Today. 2008;38:734-8 pubmed publisher
    Primary small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare and aggressive neoplasm without an established treatment protocol because so few cases have been described...
  34. Dundr P, Fischerova D, Povysil C, Cibula D. Primary pure large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary. Pathol Res Pract. 2008;204:133-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The ovarian tumor was a primary pure large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Grossly, the left ovary was enlarged by a solid tumor that measured 9 x 7 x 7 cm...
  35. Akamatsu S, Kanamaru S, Ishihara M, Sano T, Soeda A, Hashimoto K. Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Int J Urol. 2008;15:1080-3 pubmed publisher
    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the urinary bladder is rare. It is a type of neuroendocrine carcinoma morphologically distinct from small cell carcinoma. We report here a case of primary LCNEC of the urinary bladder...
  36. La Rosa S, Bernasconi B, Micello D, Finzi G, Capella C. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the kidney: morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and cytogenetic study of a case and review of the literature. Endocr Pathol. 2009;20:24-34 pubmed publisher
  37. Kasami M, Muramatsu K, Kawahata K, Yoshikawa S, Kiyohara Y. Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin, with lymphoid stroma. Am J Dermatopathol. 2007;29:578-80 pubmed
    We report two cases of a large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin as a distinct histological category...
  38. Lee J, Lee K, Nam J, Ryu S, Bae D, Park J, et al. Prognostic factors in FIGO stage IB-IIA small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated surgically: results of a multi-center retrospective Korean study. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:321-6 pubmed
    To determine the clinical and pathologic prognostic factors in surgically treated patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB-IIA small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCNEC).
  39. Ahn J, Byun J, Ko M, Park S, Lee M. Case report: neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder causing hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. Clin Radiol. 2007;62:391-4 pubmed
  40. Kajiwara H, Hirabayashi K, Miyazawa M, Nakamura N, Hirasawa T, Muramatsu T, et al. Immunohistochemical expression of somatostatin type 2A receptor in neuroendocrine carcinoma of uterine cervix. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;279:521-5 pubmed publisher
    ..SSTR2A-positive neuroendocrine tumors may be treatable by SS analogues. Uterine cervical neuroendocrine carcinoma is generally associated with poor prognosis...
  41. Saji H, Tsuboi M, Matsubayashi J, Miyajima K, Shimada Y, Imai K, et al. Clinical response of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung to perioperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Anticancer Drugs. 2010;21:89-93 pubmed publisher
    Patients with large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung are considered to have poor prognosis. However, the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for these patients has not been established...
  42. Mendis D, Malik N. Sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma: a case report. Ear Nose Throat J. 2008;87:280-2, 293 pubmed
    b>Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) is rare. We report a case of probable sinonasal NEC in a 73-year-old man who had presented with a history of right nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, and recurrent epistaxis...
  43. Shibata T, Kokubu A, Miyamoto M, Hosoda F, Gotoh M, Tsuta K, et al. DEK oncoprotein regulates transcriptional modifiers and sustains tumor initiation activity in high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung. Oncogene. 2010;29:4671-81 pubmed publisher
    ..carcinoma show similar histological features and clinical behaviors, and can be classified as high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (HGNEC) of the lung...
  44. Rund C, Fischer E. Perinuclear dot-like cytokeratin 20 staining in small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ovary (pulmonary-type). Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2006;14:244-8 pubmed
    ..Since the authors' conclusions are based on two cases of this rare entity, additional cases will need to be studied in the future...
  45. Hainsworth J, Spigel D, Litchy S, Greco F. Phase II trial of paclitaxel, carboplatin, and etoposide in advanced poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma: a Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network Study. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:3548-54 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy with paclitaxel, carboplatin, and etoposide in advanced adult poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas...
  46. Fernandez F, Battafarano R. Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung. Cancer Control. 2006;13:270-5 pubmed
    Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung displays morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics common to neuroendocrine tumors and morphologic features of large-cell carcinomas...
  47. Franko J, Feng W, Yip L, Genovese E, Moser A. Non-functional neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas: incidence, tumor biology, and outcomes in 2,158 patients. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010;14:541-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This population-based analysis evaluated the hypothesis that long-term survival benefit is greater with aggressive, rather than limited, surgical therapy...
  48. Shimono C, Suwa K, Sato M, Shirai S, Yamada K, Nakamura Y, et al. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder: long survival achieved by multimodal treatment. Int J Clin Oncol. 2009;14:351-5 pubmed publisher
    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gall-bladder is a rare disease in which the prognosis worsens with size...
  49. Sun L, Sakurai S, Sano T, Hironaka M, Kawashima O, Nakajima T. High-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: comparative clinicopathological study of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma. Pathol Int. 2009;59:522-9 pubmed publisher
    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) are high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas...
  50. Veras E, Deavers M, Silva E, Malpica A. Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007;31:774-82 pubmed
    Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms...
  51. McIntire M, Siziopikou K, Patil J, Gattuso P. Synchronous metastases to the liver and pancreas from a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol. 2008;36:54-7 pubmed
    Extrapulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma is uncommon. Cases of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast have been reported, though rare...
  52. Mega S, Oguri M, Kawasaki R, Hazama K, Iwai K, Kondo S. Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in the thymus. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008;56:566-9 pubmed publisher
    Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in the thymus is a rare cancer that is more aggressive and leads to a poorer prognosis than other thymic epithelial tumors. A 67-year-old woman presented with an anterior mediastinal mass in the thymus...
  53. Ferreira Neves P, Lezmi S, Lejeune T, Rakotovao F, Dally C, Fontaine J, et al. Immunohistochemical characterization of a hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in a cat. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:110-4 pubmed
    ..All these features were consistent with a hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma and emphasized the importance of using a panel of antibodies to diagnose such rare tumors.
  54. Rossi P, Suissa J, Bagneres D, Martin F, Edy E, Demoux A, et al. [Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion disclosing a sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma: case report]. Rev Med Interne. 2007;28:426-8 pubmed
    We report a 74-year-old woman with histologically confirmed neuroendocrine carcinoma of the nasal cavity disclosing a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)...
  55. Matsumoto T, Kawashima Y, Nagashio R, Kageyama T, Kodera Y, Jiang S, et al. A new possible lung cancer marker: VGF detection from the conditioned medium of pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma-derived cells using secretome analysis. Int J Biol Markers. 2009;24:282-5 pubmed
    ..neuroendocrine tumors in early stages and also differential diagnostic markers between large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell lung cancer, we comprehensively analyzed peptides which were secreted into conditioned ..
  56. Spigel D, Hainsworth J, Greco F. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown primary site. Semin Oncol. 2009;36:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumor grade/differentiation currently is an important determinant of the management of these patients, and therapy in the future will be based on a more precise knowledge of the unique biology of these tumors...
  57. Agarwal N, Kumar S, Dass J, Arora V, Rathi V. Diffuse pancreatic serous cystadenoma associated with neuroendocrine carcinoma: a case report and review of literature. JOP. 2009;10:55-8 pubmed
    ..The management of these tumors poses a challenge due to their rarity and uncertain malignant potential. We report a case of diffuse serous cystadenoma associated with neuroendocrine carcinoma in a 35-year-old woman.
  58. Oshiro H, Gomi K, Nagahama K, Nagashima Y, Kanazawa M, Kato J, et al. Urinary cytologic features of primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2010;54:303-10 pubmed
    Little is known about urine cytology of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the bladder. We report a case of primary LCNEC of the bladder, focusing on urinary cytology...
  59. Zivanovic O, Leitao M, Park K, Zhao H, Diaz J, Konner J, et al. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: Analysis of outcome, recurrence pattern and the impact of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;112:590-3 pubmed publisher
    To analyze progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix (SCNEC), and to determine whether platinum-based combination chemotherapy is beneficial for this population.
  60. Maricic A, Katunarić M, Sutalo N, Tomic S, Jurisic D, Petkovic M, et al. Primary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the scrotum. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2010;122:360-2 pubmed publisher
    ..2 cm of normal skin. Examination of the specimen revealed a confined poorly differentiated large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with a metastasis to the inguinal lymph nodes...
  61. Squillaci S, Marchione R, Piccolomini M, Colombo F, Bucci F, Bruno M, et al. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (malignant carcinoid) of the extrahepatic biliary tract: report of two cases and literature review. APMIS. 2010;118:543-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This study emphasizes the necessity of complete surgical resection as the gold standard treatment for these lesions, and the importance of a correct pathologic diagnosis for prognostic implications...
  62. Bertaccini A, Marchiori D, Cricca A, Garofalo M, Giovannini C, Manferrari F, et al. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder: case report and review of the literature. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:1369-72 pubmed
    ..Here we report the clinical case of a young smoker who was referred to our institution for a primary pure neuroendocrine carcinoma of the bladder, and review the existing literature on small and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of ..