endodermal sinus tumor

Summary

Summary: An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)

Top Publications

  1. Palmer R, Barbosa Morais N, Gooding E, Muralidhar B, Thornton C, Pett M, et al. Pediatric malignant germ cell tumors show characteristic transcriptome profiles. Cancer Res. 2008;68:4239-47 pubmed publisher
  2. Nawa A, Obata N, Kikkawa F, Kawai M, Nagasaka T, Goto S, et al. Prognostic factors of patients with yolk sac tumors of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184:1182-8 pubmed
    ..Our purpose was to evaluate the prognostic factors in yolk sac tumors of the ovary...
  3. Kanai M, Torii A, Hamada A, Endo Y, Takeda Y, Yamakawa M, et al. Pure gastric yolk sac tumor that was diagnosed after curative resection: case report and review of literature. Int J Gastrointest Cancer. 2005;35:77-81 pubmed
    ..Five out of six cases are accompanied by components of adenocarcinoma, and our present case is the second report of pure gastric yolk sac tumor to the best of our knowledge...
  4. Shibata K, Umezu T, Sakurai M, Kajiyama H, Yamamoto E, Ino K, et al. Establishment of cisplatin-resistant ovarian yolk sac tumor cells and investigation of the mechanism of cisplatin resistance using this cell line. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2011;71:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Cisplatin is used as a key drug for ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST), but relapse may occur. Details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance remain unclear...
  5. Bayar G, Gulses A, Sencimen M, Aydintug Y, Arpaci F, Gunhan O. Oral metastasis of the mediastinal germ cell tumor (yolk sac). J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:1828-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the patient has already undergone chemotherapy; no additional treatment was provided. In this case report, clinical and histopathologic features of the oral metastases of a yolk sac tumor were briefly discussed...
  6. Klieger C, Dvir R, Even Sapir E, Lessing J, Burstein Y, Grisaru D. Integrated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computerized tomography in endodermal sinus tumor. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:1685-8 pubmed
    Application of an in-line positron emission tomography and computerized tomography (PET-CT) in endodermal sinus tumor (EST) is described in this study...
  7. Shibata K, Kajiyama H, Yamamoto E, Terauchi M, Ino K, Nawa A, et al. Establishment and characterization of an ovarian yolk sac tumor cell line reveals possible involvement of Nkx2.5 in tumor development. Oncology. 2008;74:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to establish a human ovarian YST cell line to be able to identify a target for novel molecular-based therapy...
  8. Razzi S, Luisi S, Gabbanini M, Lazzeri L, Mazzini M, Petraglia F. Yolk sac tumor in a young girl: a case report. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2005;20:334-5 pubmed
    ..Yolk sac tumor is a rare neoplasm characterized by high malignancy given its premature metastasis, that is frequent in adolescence...
  9. Gaoyu C, Deyu G, Zhi C, Hua F. Yolk sac tumor in the fourth ventricle: a case report. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2009;111:636-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The histological diagnosis was pure yolk sac tumor. Two years after surgery, he has suffered no tumor recurrence. A combination of surgical treatment, radiation and chemotherapy is mandatory...

More Information

Publications91

  1. Oh C, Kendler A, Hernandez E. Ovarian endodermal sinus tumor in a postmenopausal woman. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;82:392-4 pubmed
    Ovarian endodermal sinus tumor is rare in postmenopausal women.
  2. Traen K, Logghe H, Maertens J, Mattelaere C, Moerman P, Vergote I. Endodermal sinus tumor of the vulva: successfully treated with high-dose chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004;14:998-1003 pubmed
    ..There is no evidence of disease 40 months after the diagnosis of the lung and pleural metastases, and 56 months after the primary diagnosis...
  3. Merchant A, Stewart R. Sacrococcygeal yolk sac tumor presenting as subcutaneous fluid collection initially treated as abscess. South Med J. 2010;103:1068-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Extragonadal germ cell tumors can present with external manifestations confusingly similar to other more benign soft tissue conditions...
  4. Geminiani M, Panetta A, Pajetta V, Bacci F, Negri L, Maccaferri R, et al. Endodermal sinus tumor of the omentum: case report. Tumori. 2005;91:563-6 pubmed
    We report a case of primary endodermal sinus tumor of the omentum in a 46-year-old woman. The patient had been referred to our hospital for pain in the right abdomen. CT scan revealed a right-sided abdominal mass...
  5. Gupta R, Mathur S, Arora V, Sharma S. Cytologic features of extragonadal germ cell tumors: a study of 88 cases with aspiration cytology. Cancer. 2008;114:504-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the current study was to evaluate and describe the cytologic features of extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCTs), both primary and metastasis from gonadal sites, in fine-needle aspiration cytology...
  6. Dede M, Pabuccu R, Yagci G, Yenen M, Goktolga U, Gunhan O. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor in pelvic localization. A case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;92:989-91 pubmed
    ..Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare neoplasm that usually arises in the testis or ovary. We report a case of extragonadal yolk sac tumor located in the pelvic area...
  7. Guillem V, Poveda A. Germ cell tumours of the ovary. Clin Transl Oncol. 2007;9:237-43 pubmed
    ..This will probably be the only way to move forward in the prospective knowledge of prognostic factors for these tumours...
  8. Kumar Y, Bhatia A, Kumar V, Vaiphei K. Intrarenal pure yolk sac tumor: an extremely rare entity. Int J Surg Pathol. 2007;15:204-6 pubmed
    Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor) is a malignant germ cell tumor that usually arises in the gonads. Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare and have been described in case reports...
  9. Kurisaka M, Moriki A, Mori K, Sonobe H. Primary yolk sac tumor in the spinal cord. Childs Nerv Syst. 1998;14:653-7 pubmed
    ..However, the effectiveness of this therapy was poor in this particular case, and the patient died of pyelonephritis with uncontrollable imbalance of serum electrolytes...
  10. Choi H, Moon M, Kim S, Cho J, Jung D, Hong S. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: CT findings. Abdom Imaging. 2008;33:736-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate computed tomographic (CT) findings of pathologically proven yolk sac tumors of the ovary...
  11. Singh M, Arya M, Anand S, Sandar N. Gastric adenocarcinoma with features of endodermal sinus tumor. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:4781-3 pubmed
    ..of alpha-fetoprotein, the specimen was sent for special histochemical staining, which demonstrated that the tumor had features of both adenocarcinoma and endodermal sinus tumor. This is a very aggressive tumor with a very poor prognosis.
  12. Shah J, Kumar S, Bryant C, Ali Fehmi R, Malone J, Deppe G, et al. A population-based analysis of 788 cases of yolk sac tumors: A comparison of males and females. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:2671-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the overall survival in all YST patients has improved over the past few decades, the primary sites of origin differ in males and females and impact prognosis...
  13. Robova H, Rob L, Hrehorcak M, Zoban P, Prusa R. Endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed in pregnancy: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007;17:914-6 pubmed
    Pure endodermal sinus tumor (EST) of the ovary is an uncommon germ cell tumor characterized by rapid growth. Its occurrence during pregnancy is extremely rare...
  14. de La Motte Rouge T, Pautier P, Duvillard P, Rey A, Morice P, Haie Meder C, et al. Survival and reproductive function of 52 women treated with surgery and bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumor. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:1435-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Current treatment consists of surgery followed by bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy. However, given the rarity of this tumor, ovarian YST-specific survival and outcome after such treatment are not precisely known...
  15. Even C, Lhomme C, Duvillard P, Morice P, Balleyguier C, Pautier P, et al. [Ovarian yolk sac tumour: general review]. Bull Cancer. 2011;98:963-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Fertility preservation represents a major objective in women treated for OYSTs...
  16. Unal O, Beyazal M, Avcu S, Akbayram S, Akgun C. Metastasis of testicular yolk sac tumor to cauda equina. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2011;30:150-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed spinal and cauda equina involvement. This is the first report of metastasis of testicular YST to cauda equina in a child...
  17. Guzel A, Tatli M, Belen D, Seckin H. Spinal cord compression of primary extragonadal giant yolk sac tumor. Spinal Cord. 2007;45:254-7 pubmed
    ..Case report...
  18. Xinghui Y, Jing H, Mingju L, Weizhong G. Endodermal sinus tumour of the omentum in a child. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34:985-7 pubmed
    ..This rare diagnosis is possible from the imaging features in association with a raised serum level of AFP...
  19. Lind G, Skotheim R, Fraga M, Abeler V, Esteller M, Lothe R. Novel epigenetically deregulated genes in testicular cancer include homeobox genes and SCGB3A1 (HIN-1). J Pathol. 2006;210:441-9 pubmed
  20. Mostert M, Rosenberg C, Stoop H, Schuyer M, Timmer A, Oosterhuis W, et al. Comparative genomic and in situ hybridization of germ cell tumors of the infantile testis. Lab Invest. 2000;80:1055-64 pubmed
  21. Netalkar A, Sharma R, Mahapatra A, Sousa J, Lad S, Pawar S, et al. An unusual presentation of an intra-parenchymatous frontal yolk sac tumour : case report. Neurol India. 2001;49:395-7 pubmed
    ..The patient underwent microsurgical total excision of the tumour, followed by chemotherapy. She was asymptomatic at three years following surgery...
  22. Motegi M, Takakura S, Takano H, Tanaka T, Ochiai K. Adjuvant chemotherapy in a pregnant woman with endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109:537-40 pubmed
    ..The administration of chemotherapeutic drugs during pregnancy is rare. We describe a case of malignant ovarian tumor complicating pregnancy...
  23. Kato N, Shibuya H, Fukase M, Tamura G, Motoyama T. Involvement of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in testicular yolk sac tumor of infants. Hum Pathol. 2006;37:48-53 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that inactivation of the APC gene, by allelic loss and/or promoter methylation, is related to the occurrence of infantile YSTs...
  24. Esheba G, Pate L, Longacre T. Oncofetal protein glypican-3 distinguishes yolk sac tumor from clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:600-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). Because GPC3 may be associated with alpha-fetoprotein expression, further studies are required to determine the utility of GPC3 in differentiating YST from CCC with hepatoid differentiation. ..
  25. Offman S, Longacre T. Clear cell carcinoma of the female genital tract (not everything is as clear as it seems). Adv Anat Pathol. 2012;19:296-312 pubmed publisher
  26. Honda M, Baba H, Yonekura M, Iseki M. Cerebral composite atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor and yolk sac tumor in the frontal lobe of an infant. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2005;45:318-21 pubmed
    ..AT/RT is a recently established entity of the central nervous system. The present case of composite AT/RT and YST in the frontal lobe indicates the poor prognosis of such tumors...
  27. Chang Y, Chao K, Sung P, Li W, Wang P. Treatment of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor to preserve fertility. J Chin Med Assoc. 2013;76:112-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Endodermal sinus tumor, also known as yolk sac tumor (YST), is a malignant germ cell tumor that most frequently occurs in the testis, the ovary, and sacrococcygeal areas in children...
  28. Hung J, Shen S, Hung J, Lai C. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance images of endodermal sinus tumor. J Chin Med Assoc. 2007;70:514-8 pubmed
    b>Endodermal sinus tumor, also known as yolk sac tumor, is a rare malignant ovarian tumor that usually occurs in the second decade of life. Here, we report a case of endodermal sinus tumor which occurred in a 14-year-old girl...
  29. Lee J, Kim S, Kim J, Kim I, Kim T, Jung S, et al. Metastatic spinal cord compression of testicular yolk sac tumor. Childs Nerv Syst. 2002;18:171-4 pubmed
    ..Although spinal involvement with metastatic YST is rare, it must be considered in children with testicular YST exhibiting evidence of pain or weakness, and surgical decompression followed by adjuvant chemotherapy should not be delayed. ..
  30. Coskun U, Gunel N, Yildirim Y, Memis L, Boyacioglu Z. Primary mediastinal yolk sac tumor in a 66-year-old woman. Med Princ Pract. 2002;11:218-20 pubmed
    ..Chemotherapy was not effective especially in an old patient. We suggest surgery should be considered as primary treatment modality if diagnosis is made at an early stage. ..
  31. Gelincik I, Ozen S, Bayram I. Left ovarian gonadoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young woman. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010;53:345-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The gonadoblastic nests were composed of large and small cells. The YST areas showed enteric differentiation and numerous hyaline globules. Immunohistochemical examination may help in the diagnosis of these gonadoblastoma with YST. ..
  32. Kamoto T, Satomura S, Yoshiki T, Okada Y, Henmi F, Nishiyama H, et al. Lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3%) curability and prediction of clinical course after treatment of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2002;32:472-6 pubmed
    ..When the total AFP level increases slightly (e.g. to 5-20 ng/ml), a measurement of AFP-L3% may provide additional useful information for monitoring NSGCT patients and in distinguishing falsely elevated AFP. ..
  33. Kanemitsu F, Kageoka T, Kira S. Mitochondrial creatine kinase with atypical pI values detected in serum of a patient with ovarian hepatoid yolk sac tumor. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003;783:191-7 pubmed
    ..The physicochemical characteristics of the oxidized uMi-CK were similar to those of the typical uMi-CK. ..
  34. van Echten J, Timmer A, van der Veen A, Molenaar W, de Jong B. Infantile and adult testicular germ cell tumors. a different pathogenesis?. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2002;135:57-62 pubmed
    ..Aberrations of chromosomes 1, 3, and 6 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infantile testicular yolk sac tumors. ..
  35. Powter L, Phillips S, Husbands E. A case report of non-islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia associated with ovarian germ-cell tumour. Palliat Med. 2013;27:281-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This case illustrates the need for awareness among general physicians of rare tumour manifestations and the need for multidisciplinary input for the optimal management of these patients. ..
  36. Khunamornpong S, Siriaunkgul S, Suprasert P, Chitapanarux I. Yolk sac tumor of the vulva: a case report with long-term disease-free survival. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;97:238-42 pubmed
    ..Adjuvant radiation therapy may help to control the disease. Tumor size of 5 cm or less may be a favorable prognostic factor. Serum AFP level may not be a sensitive marker for follow-up of vulvar YST. ..
  37. Jones T, Ulbright T, Eble J, Baldridge L, Cheng L. OCT4 staining in testicular tumors: a sensitive and specific marker for seminoma and embryonal carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:935-40 pubmed
    ..OCT4 immunostaining has comparable sensitivity but greater consistency compared with CD30 in the diagnosis of embryonal carcinoma...
  38. Abood G, Bowen M, Potkul R, Aranha G, Shoup M. Hepatic resection for recurrent metastatic ovarian cancer. Am J Surg. 2008;195:370-3; discussion 373 pubmed publisher
    ..Liver resection for metastatic ovarian cancer is safe and is associated with long-term survival in some patients. Larger analysis may lead to the identification of prognostic factors associated with improved outcomes. ..
  39. Ezzat A, Raja M, Bakri Y, Subhi J, Memon M, Schwartz P, et al. Malignant ovarian germ cell tumours -- a survival and prognostic analysis. Acta Oncol. 1999;38:455-60 pubmed
    ..The review indicates a high cure rate in OGCT with combined surgery and chemotherapy and that conservative surgery and preservation of fertility are feasible. ..
  40. Baruah R, Saha M, Barua K, Tamuly B. Endodermal sinus tumour of stomach--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2007;50:354-7 pubmed
    ..Elevated level of alpha-fetoprotien was detected in the serum of the patient and within the tumour tissue by immunohistochemical technique. ..
  41. Sasaki H, Furusato M, Teshima S, Kiyokawa T, Tada A, Aizawa S, et al. Prognostic significance of histopathological subtypes in stage I pure yolk sac tumour of the ovary. Br J Cancer. 1994;69:529-36 pubmed
    ..03). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that YSTs composed of an admixture of three or four subtypes was associated with a better prognosis than those composed of one or two subtypes (P < 0.01), other variables being constant. ..
  42. Konishi T, Fujino S, Chino Y, Asada Y, Asakura S, Kato H, et al. Posterior mediastinal endodermal sinus (yolk sac) tumor in a female patient. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;58:244-5 pubmed
    Primary endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor) of the mediastinum is uncommon. Most patients are young and male, and the great majority of tumors are found in the anterior mediastinum...
  43. Saha M. Malignant gastric teratoma: report of two cases from a single center. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26:931-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We treated two cases of malignant GT (endodermal sinus tumor) in infants. Both the patients were male. Surgical excision was done in both the cases...
  44. Yatsuyanagi E, Kusajima K, Suzuki M, Hirano T, Sakurada T, Kikuchi Y, et al. [Induction chemotherapy and radical resection for primary nonseminomatous mediastinal germ cell tumor (NSGCT); report of a case]. Kyobu Geka. 2004;57:168-71 pubmed
    ..At the time of writing, the patient is alive without any evidence of recurrence. ..
  45. Shoji S, Shima M, Usui Y, Nagata Y, Uchida T, Terachi T. [A case report: simultaneous bilateral testicular tumors with different cell types--complete response after combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and irrinotecan hydrochloride--]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2006;52:303-6 pubmed
    ..After the third course of cisplatin and CPT-11 chemotherapy the lung metastasis disappeared and we performed retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. The patient has remained free of disease 11 months after discharge. ..
  46. Hu J, Schuster A, Fritsch M, Schneider D, Lauer S, Perlman E. Deletion mapping of 6q21-26 and frequency of 1p36 deletion in childhood endodermal sinus tumors by microsatellite analysis. Oncogene. 2001;20:8042-4 pubmed
    The most common malignant germ cell tumor of early childhood is the endodermal sinus tumor (CEST), also known as yolk sac tumor...
  47. Swaro R, Deshmukh N, Chaudhri S. Re: the continued value of central histopathological review of testicular tumours. Histopathology. 2007;50:529-30 pubmed
  48. Lee M, Grassi M. Acanthosis nigricans in a patient treated with palifermin. Cutis. 2010;86:136-7 pubmed
    ..We report a case of a 42-year-old man who developed acanthosis nigricans after taking palifermin. ..
  49. Roth L, Talerman A. Recent advances in the pathology and classification of ovarian germ cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2006;25:305-20 pubmed
    ..This review will emphasize the articles written in the last 10 years and those that have significantly advanced our knowledge of germ cell tumors in past decades. ..
  50. Fujiwara K, Shirotani T, Kohno I. Supernumerary ovary found by ultrasonogram and FSH measurement after an extensive operation for a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1999;48:138-40 pubmed
  51. Han J, Nava Ocampo A, Kim T, Shim J, Park C. Pregnancy outcome after prenatal exposure to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: report of 2 cases. Reprod Toxicol. 2005;19:557-61 pubmed
    ..Their babies did not have any evidence of minor or major malformations, and showed normal neurological development at 6 and 2 years of follow-up, respectively. ..
  52. Kandori S, Kawai K, Fukuhara Y, Joraku A, Miyanaga N, Shimazui T, et al. A case of metastatic testicular cancer complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage due to choriocarcinoma syndrome. Int J Clin Oncol. 2010;15:611-4 pubmed publisher
  53. Kojimahara T, Nakahara K, Takano T, Yaegashi N, Nishiyama H, Fujimori K, et al. Yolk sac tumor of the ovary: a retrospective multicenter study of 33 Japanese women by Tohoku Gynecologic Cancer Unit (TGCU). Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013;230:211-7 pubmed
    ..Univariate analysis revealed the following significant prognostic factors (P < 0.05): stage, tumor diameter, and residual tumor. Extensive debulking surgery to minimize residual tumor would improve the prognosis. ..
  54. Zeh N, Wild P, Bode P, Kristiansen G, Moch H, Sulser T, et al. Retroperitoneal teratoma with somatic malignant transformation: a papillary renal cell carcinoma in a testicular germ cell tumour metastasis following platinum-based chemotherapy. BMC Urol. 2013;13:9 pubmed publisher
    ..A variety of different types of sarcoma and carcinoma, all non-germ cell, have been described as a result of malignant transformation...
  55. Oechsle K, Bokemeyer C, Kollmannsberger C, Mayer F, Berger L, Oing C, et al. Bone metastases in germ cell tumor patients. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012;138:947-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Little data exist on characteristics, treatment, and outcome of patients with bone metastases from germ cell cancer...
  56. Miller J, Lee T, Epstein J, Ulbright T. The utility of microscopic findings and immunohistochemistry in the classification of necrotic testicular tumors: a study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:1293-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Most totally necrotic testicular tumors can be placed into clinically important groups by assessment for coarse intratubular calcifications and staining reactions for keratin, OCT4, CD117, and CD30...
  57. Sugiyama K, Arita K, Tominaga A, Hanaya R, Taniguchi E, Okamura T, et al. Morphologic features of human chorionic gonadotropin- or alpha-fetoprotein-producing germ cell tumors of the central nervous system: histological heterogeneity and surgical meaning. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2001;18:115-22 pubmed
    ..From a diagnostic perspective, the role of surgery is to verify the HCG- and AFP-immunonegative tissue in patients with G, T, and EC...
  58. Cyganek A, Ejmocka Ambroziak A, WiczyƄska Zajac A, Marianowski L. [Ovarian endodermal sinus tumor associated with pregnancy--a case report]. Ginekol Pol. 2002;73:408-11 pubmed
    An ovarian endodermal sinus tumor was found in a 29-years old patient with a 32-week intrauterine gestation. She received caesarean section, conservative surgery and three courses of combination chemotherapy...
  59. Wang F, Liu A, Peng Y, Rakheja D, Wei L, Xue D, et al. Diagnostic utility of SALL4 in extragonadal yolk sac tumors: an immunohistochemical study of 59 cases with comparison to placental-like alkaline phosphatase, alpha-fetoprotein, and glypican-3. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:1529-39 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Our results indicate that SALL4 is a novel sensitive (100% sensitivity) diagnostic marker for extragonadal YSTs. SALL4 is a more sensitive marker than PLAP, AFP, or glypican-3 for extragonadal YSTs...
  60. Higuchi K, Mitsuhashi N, Saitoh J, Maebayashi K, Sakurai H, Akimoto T, et al. Caffeine enhanced radiosensitivity of rat tumor cells with a mutant-type p53 by inducing apoptosis in a p53-independent manner. Cancer Lett. 2000;152:157-62 pubmed
    ..Apoptosis, which was not prominent after irradiation alone or caffeine treatment alone, was induced by irradiation in combination with caffeine in cells with a mutant-type p53 through a p53-independent pathway...
  61. Oguri H, Sumitomo R, Maeda N, Fukaya T, Moriki T. Primary yolk sac tumor concomitant with carcinosarcoma originating from the endometrium: case report. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;103:368-71 pubmed
    ..A primary yolk sac tumor (YST) with carcinosarcoma originating from the endometrium is extremely rare, to our knowledge, this is the third documented instance. Several hypotheses exist is to its histogenesis...
  62. Berney D, Warren A, Verma M, Kudahetti S, Robson J, Williams M, et al. Malignant germ cell tumours in the elderly: a histopathological review of 50 cases in men aged 60 years or over. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:54-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that germ cell tumours, in man aged 60 years or above, present at a later stage than in younger men, and although most are seminomas, non-seminomatous tumours may occur with a wide spectrum of morphology...
  63. Harms D, Zahn S, Gobel U, Schneider D. Pathology and molecular biology of teratomas in childhood and adolescence. Klin Padiatr. 2006;218:296-302 pubmed
    ..Here, molecular genetic analysis has demonstrated the origin of the somatic malignancy from a malignant transformation within the germ cell tumor with retention of the cytogenetic changes characteristic of malignant germ cell tumors...
  64. Kim T, Kim D, Cho M, Kim S, Seo J, Kim I. Use of laparoscopic surgical resection for pediatric malignant solid tumors: a case series. Surg Endosc. 2011;25:1484-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study reports on our initial experiences of laparoscopic surgical resection for selected pediatric malignant solid tumors...
  65. Jinguji S, Okamoto K, Yoshimura J, Yoneoka Y, Ogura R, Saito A, et al. Occurrence of metachronous pure germinomas long after treatment of a mixed germ cell tumor containing yolk sac tumor and germinoma. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013;11:68-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors' case indicates the possibility of multicentric GCTs in the CNS...
  66. Tarrant W, Czerniak B, Guo C. Relationship between primary and metastatic testicular germ cell tumors: a clinicopathologic analysis of 100 cases. Hum Pathol. 2013;44:2220-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Teratoma is the most common component in treated GCTs and is usually associated with a more favorable clinical outcome than non-teratomatous GCTs. The presence of somatic components in the RPLNs metastasis indicates a poor prognosis. ..
  67. Young R, Ulbright T, Policarpio Nicolas M. Yolk sac tumor with a prominent polyvesicular vitelline pattern: a report of three cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37:393-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The good long-term outcome in 2 cases supports prior evidence that suggests that the natural history of this form of YST may be more indolent than conventional forms of the tumor...
  68. Nonaka D. Differential expression of SOX2 and SOX17 in testicular germ cell tumors. Am J Clin Pathol. 2009;131:731-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Choriocarcinomas were negative for SOX2 and SOX17. SOX2 and SOX17 expression patterns can distinguish between seminoma and embryonal carcinoma, and this distinction may be diagnostically useful...
  69. Avasthi R, Chaudhary S, Mohanty D, Mishra K. Testicular mixed germ cell tumor metastasizing to heart. J Assoc Physicians India. 2008;56:812-5 pubmed
    ..The histopathology revealed testicular mixed germ cell tumor (MGCT). This case is presented to demonstrate uncommon cardiac manifestations of secondary spread of testicular malignancy...
  70. Utsuki S, Oka H, Sagiuchi T, Shimizu S, Suzuki S, Fujii K. Malignant transformation of intracranial mature teratoma to yolk sac tumor after late relapse. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007;106:1067-9 pubmed
    ..After resection, the patient underwent radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide but died of tumor progression 15 months after his second hospitalization...
  71. Hashimoto Y, Iwase Y, Mogami T, Hayashi Y, Sasaki S, Kato M, et al. [A case of adult pure yolk sac tumor of the testis achieving pathological complete response by chemotherapy]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 1995;41:813-6 pubmed
    ..0% on CT, respectively) and the residual masses in the retroperitoneum were removed. Necrosis and xanthogranulomatous fibrosis were found in the resected material. The patient showed no evidence of disease two years after chemotherapy...
  72. Tinica G, Butcovan D, Cimpeanu C, Tarcoveanu E. A mediastinal germ cell tumor of yolk sac type--case report. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2010;105:831-4 pubmed
    ..We report an extremely rare case of germ-cell tumor localized at the level of the anterior mediastinum...
  73. Kumar V, Kini P, Vepakomma D, Basant M. Vaginal endodermal sinus tumor. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:797-8 pubmed
    ..germ cell tumors are rare tumors of childhood accounting less than 3% of pediatric malignancies, and endodermal sinus tumor (EST) is the most common histological subtype...
  74. Taskinen S, Fagerholm R, Aronniemi J, Rintala R, Taskinen M. Testicular tumors in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Urol. 2008;4:134-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze the spectrum of testicular tumors in children in an unselected population-based series, as well as the results of testis-preserving surgery...
  75. Devouassoux Shisheboran M, Mauduit C, Bouvier R, Berger F, Bouras M, Droz J, et al. Expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 and assessment of microsatellite instability in testicular and mediastinal germ cell tumours. Mol Hum Reprod. 2001;7:1099-105 pubmed
    ..In addition, we suggest that hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes may not be implicated in the genesis of germ cell tumours...
  76. Shimizu Y, Komiyama S, Kobayashi T, Nakata K, Iida T. Successful management of endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary associated with pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;88:447-50 pubmed
    Pregnancy complicated by endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary has rarely been reported.
  77. Traubici J, Daneman A, Hayes Jordan A, Fecteau A. Primary germ cell tumor of the diaphragm. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:1578-80 pubmed
    ..To the authors' knowledge there has been only 1 previous report of a germ cell tumor arising from the diaphragm. This case illustrates the imaging findings in this rare tumor and how it could be confused with a primary liver neoplasm...
  78. Kajo K, Machalekova K, Laca L. [Unusual clinical presentation of hepatic yolk sac tumour in periappendical region. A case report and review of the literature]. Cesk Patol. 2009;45:113-6 pubmed
    ..This tumour is aggressive with ability to spread into distant sites, where it can lead to the first clinical presentation...
  79. Kawahara M, Takada A, Tachibana A, Kodama T, Kobayashi H, Takino Y, et al. Germ cell tumor of the colon with an adenocarcinomatous component. Int J Clin Oncol. 2009;14:537-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported in the English-language literature. Our present report will contribute to the understanding of the characteristics of this rare neoplasm...
  80. Tagaya H, Fukasawa H, Shoda T, Hoshi K, Hirata S. Novel alpha-fetoprotein-V messenger RNA isoforms in humans. Reprod Sci. 2009;16:794-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the AFP-V2 mRNA isoform and the wild-type mRNA was differentially regulated, implying that the AFP-V mRNA isoforms could be used in diagnosis and classification of hepatocellular carcinoma and ovarian carcinoma...
  81. Gopaldas R, Kunasani R, Plymyer M, Bloch R. Hepatoid malignancy of unknown origin--a diagnostic conundrum: review of literature and case report of collision with adenocarcinoma. Surg Oncol. 2005;14:11-25 pubmed
  82. Wang X, Xu S, Tang D, Li M, Wu D, Huang Y. Prepubertal testicular and paratesticular tumors in China: a single-center experience over a 10-year period. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47:1576-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Prepubertal testicular tumors are rare and fundamentally distinct from adult testicular tumors. We reviewed our 11-year experience in a single medical center of China...