dysgerminoma

Summary

Summary: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)

Top Publications

  1. Cools M, Stoop H, Kersemaekers A, Drop S, Wolffenbuttel K, Bourguignon J, et al. Gonadoblastoma arising in undifferentiated gonadal tissue within dysgenetic gonads. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:2404-13 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the study was to define the histological origin of gonadoblastomas, allowing the identification of high-risk patients...
  2. Mangili G, Sigismondi C, Lorusso D, Cormio G, Scollo P, Vigano R, et al. Is surgical restaging indicated in apparent stage IA pure ovarian dysgerminoma? The MITO group retrospective experience. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;121:280-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Conservative surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy is considered the standard approach for pure ovarian dysgerminoma (POD), except for correctly staged IA patients...
  3. Pauls K, Wardelmann E, Merkelbach Bruse S, Buttner R, Zhou H. c-KIT codon 816 mutation in a recurrent and metastatic dysgerminoma of a 14-year-old girl: case study. Virchows Arch. 2004;445:651-4 pubmed
    ..be involved in the pathogenesis of dysgerminomas, we studied the expression and mutational status of a pure dysgerminoma, which was sent to our department for diagnostic reasons...
  4. Cho M, Kim H, Eng C, Kim D, Kang S, Eom M, et al. First report of ovarian dysgerminoma in Cowden syndrome with germline PTEN mutation and PTEN-related 10q loss of tumor heterozygosity. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:1258-64 pubmed publisher
    We present the first report of ovarian dysgerminoma in Cowden syndrome, presenting in a 7-year-old girl...
  5. Vicus D, Beiner M, Klachook S, Le L, Laframboise S, MacKay H. Pure dysgerminoma of the ovary 35 years on: a single institutional experience. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;117:23-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic characteristics, long-term outcome and reproductive function in women diagnosed with pure dysgerminoma of the ovary.
  6. Shamim M. Successful pregnancy outcome after fertility-sparing surgery and chemotherapy for dysgerminoma. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60:779-81 pubmed
    Ovarian dysgerminoma is a rare malignancy of the ovary...
  7. Esin S, Baser E, Kucukozkan T, Magden H. Ovarian gonadoblastoma with dysgerminoma in a 15-year-old girl with 46, XX karyotype: case report and review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;285:447-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To present a challenging case of hCG positivity in a young patient and to review similar cases reported in the literature...
  8. Behtash N, Karimi Zarchi M. Dysgerminoma in three patients with Swyer syndrome. World J Surg Oncol. 2007;5:71 pubmed
    b>Dysgerminoma is the most common malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary. This malignancy can be associated with pure gonadal dysgenesis or Swyer syndrome, mixed gonadal dysgenesis and partial gonadal dysgenesis.
  9. Cheng L, Thomas A, Roth L, Zheng W, Michael H, Karim F. OCT4: a novel biomarker for dysgerminoma of the ovary. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:1341-6 pubmed
    ..This study examines the expression of OCT4 in both dysgerminoma and nondysgerminomatous neoplasms involving the ovary...
  10. Pauls K, Franke F, Buttner R, Zhou H. Gonadoblastoma: evidence for a stepwise progression to dysgerminoma in a dysgenetic ovary. Virchows Arch. 2005;447:603-9 pubmed
    ..Our results show that gonadoblastomas mimic female fetal ovary and exhibit a stepwise progression from follicular pattern to coronary pattern and finally to dysgerminomas...

Detail Information

Publications85

  1. Cools M, Stoop H, Kersemaekers A, Drop S, Wolffenbuttel K, Bourguignon J, et al. Gonadoblastoma arising in undifferentiated gonadal tissue within dysgenetic gonads. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:2404-13 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the study was to define the histological origin of gonadoblastomas, allowing the identification of high-risk patients...
  2. Mangili G, Sigismondi C, Lorusso D, Cormio G, Scollo P, Vigano R, et al. Is surgical restaging indicated in apparent stage IA pure ovarian dysgerminoma? The MITO group retrospective experience. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;121:280-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Conservative surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy is considered the standard approach for pure ovarian dysgerminoma (POD), except for correctly staged IA patients...
  3. Pauls K, Wardelmann E, Merkelbach Bruse S, Buttner R, Zhou H. c-KIT codon 816 mutation in a recurrent and metastatic dysgerminoma of a 14-year-old girl: case study. Virchows Arch. 2004;445:651-4 pubmed
    ..be involved in the pathogenesis of dysgerminomas, we studied the expression and mutational status of a pure dysgerminoma, which was sent to our department for diagnostic reasons...
  4. Cho M, Kim H, Eng C, Kim D, Kang S, Eom M, et al. First report of ovarian dysgerminoma in Cowden syndrome with germline PTEN mutation and PTEN-related 10q loss of tumor heterozygosity. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:1258-64 pubmed publisher
    We present the first report of ovarian dysgerminoma in Cowden syndrome, presenting in a 7-year-old girl...
  5. Vicus D, Beiner M, Klachook S, Le L, Laframboise S, MacKay H. Pure dysgerminoma of the ovary 35 years on: a single institutional experience. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;117:23-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic characteristics, long-term outcome and reproductive function in women diagnosed with pure dysgerminoma of the ovary.
  6. Shamim M. Successful pregnancy outcome after fertility-sparing surgery and chemotherapy for dysgerminoma. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010;60:779-81 pubmed
    Ovarian dysgerminoma is a rare malignancy of the ovary...
  7. Esin S, Baser E, Kucukozkan T, Magden H. Ovarian gonadoblastoma with dysgerminoma in a 15-year-old girl with 46, XX karyotype: case report and review of the literature. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;285:447-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To present a challenging case of hCG positivity in a young patient and to review similar cases reported in the literature...
  8. Behtash N, Karimi Zarchi M. Dysgerminoma in three patients with Swyer syndrome. World J Surg Oncol. 2007;5:71 pubmed
    b>Dysgerminoma is the most common malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary. This malignancy can be associated with pure gonadal dysgenesis or Swyer syndrome, mixed gonadal dysgenesis and partial gonadal dysgenesis.
  9. Cheng L, Thomas A, Roth L, Zheng W, Michael H, Karim F. OCT4: a novel biomarker for dysgerminoma of the ovary. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:1341-6 pubmed
    ..This study examines the expression of OCT4 in both dysgerminoma and nondysgerminomatous neoplasms involving the ovary...
  10. Pauls K, Franke F, Buttner R, Zhou H. Gonadoblastoma: evidence for a stepwise progression to dysgerminoma in a dysgenetic ovary. Virchows Arch. 2005;447:603-9 pubmed
    ..Our results show that gonadoblastomas mimic female fetal ovary and exhibit a stepwise progression from follicular pattern to coronary pattern and finally to dysgerminomas...
  11. Cossu Rocca P, Zhang S, Roth L, Eble J, Zheng W, Karim F, et al. Chromosome 12p abnormalities in dysgerminoma of the ovary: a FISH analysis. Mod Pathol. 2006;19:611-5 pubmed
    b>Dysgerminoma is the most common malignant ovarian germ cell tumor and shares histological and immunophenotypical features with its testicular counterpart, seminoma...
  12. Matthew R, Christopher O, Philippa S. Severe malignancy-associated hypercalcemia in dysgerminoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006;47:621-3 pubmed
    ..We describe a 16-year-old girl with an ovarian dysgerminoma associated with severe hypercalcemia, a metabolic abnormality infrequently reported with this disease...
  13. Gondos B. Comparative studies of normal and neoplastic ovarian germ cells: 2. Ultrastructure and pathogenesis of dysgerminoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1987;6:124-31 pubmed
    ..The lack of intercellular communication could be responsible for uncontrolled mitotic division leading to germ cell neoplasia...
  14. Song E, Lee J, Han J, Kim H, Mun S, Ryu H, et al. Dysgerminoma of the ovary with precocious puberty: a case report. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007;23:34-7 pubmed
    Ovarian dysgerminoma is usually hormonally inert, but when it contains syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells or undergoes malignant transformation, the level of estradiol might be elevated...
  15. Tsuura Y, Hiraki H, Watanabe K, Igarashi S, Shimamura K, Fukuda T, et al. Preferential localization of c-kit product in tissue mast cells, basal cells of skin, epithelial cells of breast, small cell lung carcinoma and seminoma/dysgerminoma in human: immunohistochemical study on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Virchows Arch. 1994;424:135-41 pubmed
    ..Seminoma/dysgerminoma and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) show preferential c-kit expression at 92% and 36% frequency, respectively, ..
  16. Zreik T, Pustilnik T, Garcia Velasco J, Rutherford T, Troiano R, Olive D. Unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn and ovarian dysgerminoma. A case report. J Reprod Med. 1999;44:1025-8 pubmed
    ..Several documented cases of endometrial and cervical carcinoma arising in unicornuate uteri have been described; however, ovarian malignancy occurring in conjunction with this müllerian anomaly has not been reported...
  17. Kemmer K, Corless C, Fletcher J, McGreevey L, Haley A, Griffith D, et al. KIT mutations are common in testicular seminomas. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:305-13 pubmed
    ..In this study we examined the frequency and spectrum of KIT mutations in 54 testicular seminomas, 1 ovarian dysgerminoma and 37 non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT). Fourteen seminomas (25...
  18. Nisolle M, Kridelka F, Fridman V, Claudot A, Lorquet S, Foidart J. [A bilateral dysgerminoma: a rare presentation of the Swyer syndrome]. Rev Med Liege. 2005;60:703-6 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis is usually made at adolescence when the primary amenorrhea is investigated. We report the case of a 25-year-old XY woman who developed a bilateral dysgerminoma from undifferentiated gonads.
  19. Kraggerud S, Szymanska J, Abeler V, Kaern J, Eknaes M, Heim S, et al. DNA copy number changes in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. Cancer Res. 2000;60:3025-30 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, ITs do not exhibit gain of 12p and also typically show fewer changes than other malignant OGCTs, indicating that they arise via different pathogenetic mechanisms...
  20. Amice V, Amice J, Bercovici J, Riviere D, Corolleur M. Gonadal tumor and H-Y antigen in 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis. Cancer. 1986;57:1313-7 pubmed
    ..After resection of the tumors, H-Y antigen level became intermediate. These findings suggest a relation between the tumorization potentiality of the gonadal remnants and the H-Y antigen levels in 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis...
  21. Guillem V, Poveda A. Germ cell tumours of the ovary. Clin Transl Oncol. 2007;9:237-43 pubmed
    ..This will probably be the only way to move forward in the prospective knowledge of prognostic factors for these tumours...
  22. Hibi M, Masahito H, Hara F, Tomishige H, Nishida Y, Kato T, et al. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-mediated hypercalcemia in ovarian dysgerminoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008;25:73-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors report a case of severe hypercalcemia associated with ovarian dysgerminoma in a 10-year-old girl. In this case, the humoral factor was considered to be 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D...
  23. Jadhav M, Yelikar B, Karigoudar M. Gonadoblastoma with contralateral dysgerminoma in a young female--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006;49:274-6 pubmed
    ..Histopathology showed gonadoblastoma in streak gonad with contralateral dysgerminoma. This case is presented because of its rarity and clinical importance of recognizing such cases because of ..
  24. Bremer G, Land J, Tiebosch A, van der Putten H. Five different histological subtypes of germ cell malignancies in an XY female. Gynecol Oncol. 1993;50:247-8 pubmed
    ..Both adnexa were removed, preserving the uterus. Pathology revealed gonadoblastoma with dysgerminoma differentiation present in both gonads and in the left gonad mature teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, and ..
  25. Yamaguchi S, Marumoto T, Nii T, Kawano H, Liao J, Nagai Y, et al. Characterization of common marmoset dysgerminoma-like tumor induced by the lentiviral expression of reprogramming factors. Cancer Sci. 2014;105:402-8 pubmed publisher
    ..stem cell markers, however, they showed an abnormal karyotype denoted as 46, X, del(4q), +mar, and formed human dysgerminoma-like tumors in SCID mice, indicating that the transduction of reprogramming factors caused unexpected ..
  26. Varras M, Tsikini A, Polyzos D, Samara C, Akrivis C. Internal hemorrhage caused by a twisted malignant ovarian dysgerminoma: ultrasonographic findings of a rare case and review of the literature. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2004;31:73-8 pubmed
    Ovarian cancer presents as an acute abdomen very rarely. The purpose of the study is the description of a right ovarian malignant dysgerminoma presenting as an abdominal emergency.
  27. Williams S, Kauderer J, Burnett A, Lentz S, Aghajanian C, Armstrong D. Adjuvant therapy of completely resected dysgerminoma with carboplatin and etoposide: a trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;95:496-9 pubmed
    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide in patients with completely resected stage IB-III dysgerminoma.
  28. Sever M, Jones T, Roth L, Karim F, Zheng W, Michael H, et al. Expression of CD117 (c-kit) receptor in dysgerminoma of the ovary: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Mod Pathol. 2005;18:1411-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, antibodies to c-kit may be a useful diagnostic marker for ovarian dysgerminoma. Although the prognosis of patients with dysgerminoma is generally good, this receptor could potentially serve ..
  29. Gimelli S, Beri S, Drabkin H, Gambini C, Gregorio A, Fiorio P, et al. The tumor suppressor gene TRC8/RNF139 is disrupted by a constitutional balanced translocation t(8;22)(q24.13;q11.21) in a young girl with dysgerminoma. Mol Cancer. 2009;8:52 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a paternally inherited balanced translocation t(8;22) in a proposita with dysgerminoma.
  30. Cheng L, Roth L, Zhang S, Wang M, Morton M, Zheng W, et al. KIT gene mutation and amplification in dysgerminoma of the ovary. Cancer. 2011;117:2096-103 pubmed publisher
    b>Dysgerminoma, the ovarian counterpart of seminoma, is the most common type of malignant ovarian germ cell tumor. The role of KIT mutation and amplification in the development of dysgerminoma is not currently established...
  31. Hoei Hansen C, Kraggerud S, Abeler V, Kaern J, Rajpert De Meyts E, Lothe R. Ovarian dysgerminomas are characterised by frequent KIT mutations and abundant expression of pluripotency markers. Mol Cancer. 2007;6:12 pubmed
    ..We investigated the origin of malignant OGCTs and underlying molecular events in the development of the various histological subtypes of this neoplasia...
  32. Ishibashi M, Nakayama K, Oride A, Yeasmin S, Katagiri A, Iida K, et al. [A case of PEP(BEP)-resistant ovarian dysgerminoma successfully treated by VeIP therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2009;36:513-7 pubmed
    ..laparotomy and right salpingoophorectomy were performed, the pathological diagnosis being stage Ia ovarian dysgerminoma G1. She was followed for two years until her serum hCG-CTP elevated to 1.4 mIU/mL...
  33. Cossu Rocca P, Jones T, Roth L, Eble J, Zheng W, Karim F, et al. Cytokeratin and CD30 expression in dysgerminoma. Hum Pathol. 2006;37:1015-21 pubmed
    b>Dysgerminoma is a malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary that shares morphological, immunophenotypic, and genetic features with its testicular counterpart, seminoma...
  34. Ben Temime R, Chachial A, Attial L, Ghodbanel I, Makhloufl T, Koubaal A, et al. 46 XY pure gonadal dysgenesis with gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma. Tunis Med. 2008;86:710-3 pubmed
    ..It is usually revealed by primary amenorrhea. The tumor that usually develops in Swyer syndrome is gonadoblastoma. Although gonadoblastoma is considered benign, the risk of malignant germ cell tumor development is high...
  35. Takeda A, Mori M, Sakai K, Mitsui T, Nakamura H. Laparoscopic management of ovarian dysgerminoma presenting with acute abdomen caused by adnexal torsion in a 17-year-old girl. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009;22:e9-13 pubmed publisher
    Ovarian dysgerminoma cases very rarely present with acute abdomen due to adnexal torsion and the successful laparoscopic management of such a case has not been reported previously...
  36. Zhu J, Liu X, Jin H, Lu X. Swyer syndrome, 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, a sex reversal disorder with dysgerminoma: a case report and literature review. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2011;38:414-8 pubmed
    ..Germ cell tumors, including dysgerminoma, may arise in streak gonads of patients with gonadal dysgenesis...
  37. Templ H, Kuzmits R, Kratzik C. Microsomal aromatase in testicular tumour tissue: increased activity in choriocarcinoma compared to embryonal carcinoma. Horm Metab Res. 1988;20:522-4 pubmed
  38. de Gorgolas M, Casado V, Renedo G, Alen J, Fernandez Guerrero M. Nodular lung schistosomiais lesions after chemotherapy for dysgerminoma. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:424-7 pubmed
    ..Serologic analysis showed marked eosinophilia. Our case emphasizes the need to detect parasitic infections in cancer patients with unexplained eosinophilia, particularly in immigrants and travelers to tropical countries. ..
  39. Cobellis L, Cataldi P, Reis F, De Palo G, Raspagliesi F, Pilotti S, et al. Gonadal malignant germ cell tumors express immunoreactive inhibin/activin subunits. Eur J Endocrinol. 2001;145:779-84 pubmed
    ..The ovarian tissue samples were composed of 19 MGCT, including dysgerminoma (n=18) and yolk sac tumor (n=1)...
  40. Zieliñska D, Zajaczek S, Rzepka Górska I. Tumors of dysgenetic gonads in Swyer syndrome. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:1721-4 pubmed
    ..Gonadal tumors were found in 6 patients (3 cases of gonadoblastoma, 1 dysgerminoma, and 2 gonadoblastoma with dysgerminoma)...
  41. Gucer F, Oz Puyan F, Mulayim N, Yuce M. Ovarian dysgerminoma associated with Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome and functioning ovarian stroma: a case report. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;97:681-4 pubmed
    We present the first case of an ovarian dysgerminoma complicated by pseudo-Meigs' syndrome...
  42. Moreira A, Silva J, Ferreira M, Lanhoso A. Bilateral dysgerminoma in a patient with a previous diagnosis of Swyer syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012;38:452-4 pubmed publisher
    ..She underwent exploratory laparotomy and histological examination revealed bilateral dysgerminoma without capsular invasion. The tumor was classified as stage IB...
  43. Pietschmann P, Kuzmits R, Schernthaner G. Increased growth hormone responses to growth hormone releasing hormone and thyrotropin releasing hormone in patients with metastatic testicular cancer. Horm Metab Res. 1990;22:109-13 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest an alteration of hypothalamic and/or pituitary regulation of GH secretion in patients with metastatic testicular cancer. ..
  44. Fossa S, Klepp O, Paus E. Neuron-specific enolase--a serum tumour marker in seminoma?. Br J Cancer. 1992;65:297-9 pubmed
    ..No false positive NSE values were observed. NSE seems to be a clinically worthwhile serum tumour marker for monitoring seminoma patients, with a sensitivity and specificity of the same order as HCG. ..
  45. Matthews K. Looks can be deceiving. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109:1449, 1462-3 pubmed
    ..She underwent cold knife cone with biopsies of the vagina. Pathology revealed dysgerminoma. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated pelvic lymphadenopathy, an enlarged uterus, and a 4 ..
  46. Namavar Jahromi B, Mohit M, Kumar P. Familial dysgerminoma associated with 46, XX pure gonadal dysgenesis. Saudi Med J. 2005;26:872-4 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, 2 of these sisters developed ovarian tumors. Both showed the pathological result of dysgerminoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells...
  47. Halme A, Kellokumpu Lehtinen P, Lehtonen T. Trends in incidence and results of treatment of testicular germ cell tumours in Finland 1972-1983. Acta Oncol. 1989;28:777-83 pubmed
    ..During the early period surgically staged stage I-II non-seminoma patients had a slightly better prognosis than clinical stage I-II patients but a similar difference was not observed during the cisplatin era. ..
  48. Yada Hashimoto N, Komura H, Nagata S, Kubo C, Fujita M, Kamiura S. Unexpected diagnosis of stage IIA dysgerminoma in streak gonad in a patient with Swyer syndrome: a case report. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017;:1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Prophylactic gonadectomy is recommended for these patients. We report a case of stage IIA dysgerminoma arising in a streak gonad in a patient with Swyer syndrome, which was not diagnosable preoperatively and ..
  49. Boran N, Tulunay G, Caliskan E, Kose M, Haberal A. Pregnancy outcomes and menstrual function after fertility sparing surgery for pure ovarian dysgerminomas. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2005;271:104-8 pubmed
    The medical records of 23 patients with pure ovarian dysgerminoma treated by conservative surgery at SSK Ankara Maternity Hospital between 1991 and 2001 were reviewed retrospectively...
  50. Capito C, Leclair M, Arnaud A, David A, Baron S, Corradini N, et al. 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis: clinical presentations and management of the tumor risk. J Pediatr Urol. 2011;7:72-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In group 1, pathologic examination revealed an association of dysgerminoma with gonadoblastoma (n = 2), bilateral gonadoblastoma (n = 2) and streak gonads (n = 2)...
  51. Desirotte G, Pintiaux A, Foidart J, Nisolle M. [Four clinical cases of dysgerminoma]. Rev Med Liege. 2008;63:523-7 pubmed
    b>Dysgerminoma is an ovarian germ cell tumor occurring more frequently among young women. The efficacy of chemotherapy allows conservative surgery sparing fertility. A stadification surgery will avoid chemotherapy for patients with stage Ia...
  52. Hanai J, Lin M, Wada A, Ishiguro S, Miki T, Sakaguchi H, et al. Expression of intermediate filaments and other special markers by testicular germ cell tumors. With reference to embryogenesis. Histol Histopathol. 1992;7:533-41 pubmed
    ..Clinically, the prognosis of most patients with testicular germ cell tumor is fairly good because of the improved chemotherapies that are dependent on histological diagnosis...
  53. Rajpert De Meyts E, Skakkebaek N. Immunohistochemical identification of androgen receptors in germ cell neoplasia. J Endocrinol. 1992;135:R1-4 pubmed
    ..4.1 was used. The presence of AR protein immunoreactivity in neoplastic germ cells suggests that androgens may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. ..
  54. Chen H, Huang H, Chang T, Lai C, Soong Y. Pure XY gonadal dysgenesis and agenesis in monozygotic twins. Fertil Steril. 2006;85:1059.e9-11 pubmed
    ..twin sisters, one with gonadal agenesis and the other with pure gonadal dysgenesis followed by dysgerminoma. Blood samples were obtained for karyotyping and short tandem repeat polymorphism analysis (10 markers)...
  55. Reddy E, Burke M, Giri S, Krishnan L, Gemer L, Evans R, et al. Testicular neoplasms: seminoma. J Natl Med Assoc. 1990;82:651-5 pubmed
    ..There were no late complications. The survival for patients with anaplastic histology or with elevated B subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin was not significantly different from that of typical seminoma. ..
  56. Walker A, Ross R, Haile R, Henderson B. Hormonal factors and risk of ovarian germ cell cancer in young women. Br J Cancer. 1988;57:418-22 pubmed
    ..8, 95% CL = 1.0-10.7). In conclusion, these results support findings from testis cancer studies regarding a hormonal aetiology for germ cell tumours, and a mechanism by which oestrogen may affect the germ cells is proposed. ..
  57. Chen C, Chen S, Wang T, Wang W, Hwu Y. A frame shift mutation in the DNA-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene associated with complete androgen insensitivity, persistent müllerian structures, and germ cell tumors in dysgenetic gonads. Fertil Steril. 1999;72:170-3 pubmed
    ..A unilateral gonadoblastoma and a contralateral gonadoblastoma associated with a dysgerminoma were found in the excised gonads. The tumors had a 46,XY complement...
  58. Prado S, Yazigi R, Garrido J, Gonzalez M, Torres R, Oddo D. Recurrent ovarian dysgerminoma after laparoscopy. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16 Suppl 1:397-9 pubmed
    To our knowledge, recurrent dysgerminoma at the site of tumor removal by laparoscopy in a patient with stage IA disease has not been previously reported...
  59. Buell Gutbrod R, Ivanovic M, Montag A, Lengyel E, Fadare O, Gwin K. FOXL2 and SOX9 distinguish the lineage of the sex cord-stromal cells in gonadoblastomas. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2011;14:391-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Archival paraffin-embedded material of 7 gonadoblastomas, 5 of which were overgrown by dysgerminoma, was examined by immunohistochemistry for expression and localization of FOXL2 and SOX9...
  60. Daskalakis G, Kalmantis K, Skartados N, Thomakos N, Hatziioannou L, Antsaklis A. Assessment of ovarian tumors using transvaginal color Doppler ultrasonography. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2004;25:594-6 pubmed
    ..In nine other cases we had false-positive results. The sensitivity and the specificity of the method was 87.5% and 91.2%, while the positive and negative predictive values were 70% and 96.9%, respectively...
  61. Ramesh H, Philip M, Jacob G, Lekha V, Venugopal A, Mahadevan P. Isolated duodeno-pancreatic involvement due to metastatic dysgerminoma ovary and its management by a modified pancreatico-duodenal resection. Dig Surg. 2001;18:479-82 pubmed
    ..A 30-year-old woman developed isolated duodenopancreatic dysgerminoma 14 years after salpingo-oophorectomy...
  62. Petrella F, Leo F, Veronesi G, Solli P, Borri A, Galetta D, et al. "Salvage" surgery for primary mediastinal malignancies: is it worthwhile?. J Thorac Oncol. 2008;3:53-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Indications and results of salvage surgery in mediastinal tumors are still unclear. This study analyzes a single-center experience to assess its mortality, morbidity, and long-term results...
  63. Sarnat H, Garcia J, Curry B. Fluorescence histochemistry of RNA in human pituitary adenomas. Acta Neuropathol. 1989;78:245-51 pubmed
    ..in 9 normal human pituitary glands, in 26 secretory and nonsecretory pituitary adenomas, and in a dysgerminoma. Six adenomas showing immunoreactivity for prolactin showed intense orange-red cytoplasmic fluorescence; 6 ..
  64. Lothe R, Hastie N, Heimdal K, Fossa S, Stenwig A, Børresen A. Frequent loss of 11p13 and 11p15 loci in male germ cell tumours. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1993;7:96-101 pubmed
    ..In addition, identification of the parental origin of the allelic losses revealed a paternal loss in six patients and a maternal loss in one case...
  65. Maleki Z, Loveless M, Fraig M. Coexistence of gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma in a dysgenetic gonad on touch preparation: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol. 2011;39:42-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report a case of gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma diagnosed on touch preparation in a dysgenetic gonad of a 16-year-old patient with Swyer syndrome.
  66. Topuz S, Iyibozkurt A, Akhan S, Keskin N, Yavuz E, Salihoglu Y, et al. Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary: a review of 41 cases and risk factors for recurrence. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2008;29:635-7 pubmed
    ..To review the outcome of treatment in patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and to define the risk factors for recurrence...
  67. Palma I, Peña R, Contreras A, Ceballos Reyes G, Coyote N, Eraña L, et al. Participation of OCT3/4 and beta-catenin during dysgenetic gonadal malignant transformation. Cancer Lett. 2008;263:204-11 pubmed publisher
    ..and in 30% of them overgrowth of the germinal component of the tumor is observed and the lesion is term dysgerminoma/seminoma...
  68. Harland S, Smith C, Mogg T, Horadagoda N, Dart A. Surgical resection of a dysgerminoma in a mare. Aust Vet J. 2009;87:110-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The mare showed transient abdominal pain after surgery, but developed no other complications and was in foal 7 months later. On histology, the mass was diagnosed as a dysgerminoma, a rare ovarian tumour of germ cell origin.
  69. Yilmaz F, Gul T, Uzunlar A. Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: analysis of 32 cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2003;24:569-73 pubmed
    ..In this study, some clinicopathologic characteristics and the outcome of patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCT) were evaluated...
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    ..In this study we evaluated a group of nine over 86 patients who underwent IVC (and possibly aortic) surgery for post-chemotherapy residual masses and we assessed long term oncological and functional efficacy of the procedure...
  71. Schmitt C, Lamblin G, Buenerd A, Mellier G. [High-level HCG in non-gravidic situations: About two cases]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2010;39:675-8 pubmed publisher
    Ovarian dysgerminoma is the most common germinal tumor in women; however, a lot of different symptoms can lead to its diagnosis...
  72. Menczer J, Schreiber L, Sukmanov O, Czernobilsky B, Berger E, Golan A, et al. COX-2 expression in nonepithelial ovarian malignancies. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2011;30:41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Positive staining was observed only in 1 immature teratoma and in none of the dysgerminomas.Our data seem to indicate that COX-2 expression by immunohistochemical methods is not frequent in nonepithelial ovarian malignancies...
  73. Fossa S, Chen J, Schonfeld S, McGlynn K, McMaster M, Gail M, et al. Risk of contralateral testicular cancer: a population-based study of 29,515 U.S. men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:1056-66 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the risk of contralateral testicular cancer and survival in a large population-based cohort of men diagnosed with testicular cancer before age 55 years...
  74. Strunk A, Imai D, Osofsky A, Tell L. Dysgerminoma in an eastern rosella (Platycercus eximius eximius). Avian Dis. 2011;55:133-8 pubmed
    This report describes a case of dysgerminoma in a 21-year-old eastern rosella (Platycercus eximius eximius) that presented with dyspnea and a severely distended coelom...
  75. Kolstad P. [Preserving ovarian function in the treatment of epithelial and special (other) malignant ovarian tumors]. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1987;47:683-9 pubmed
    ..Granulosa theca cell tumors are bilateral in only about 5% of the cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  76. Clemm C, Hartenstein R, Willich N, Ledderose G, Wilmanns W. Combination chemotherapy with vinblastine, ifosfamide and cisplatin in bulky seminoma. Acta Oncol. 1989;28:231-5 pubmed
    ..No other severe side effects were observed. We conclude that the regimen is highly effective in bulky seminoma. Reduction of the vinblastine dose is recommended because of bone marrow toxicity...
  77. Lee C, Song M, Park S, Ki E, Lee S, Lee K, et al. Residual tumor after the salvage surgery is the major risk factors for primary treatment failure in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: a retrospective study of single institution. World J Surg Oncol. 2011;9:123 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and to determine the association of their prognostic factors to primary treatment failure...
  78. Rajbhandari S, Shrestha B, Karki A. Diagnostic dilemma of an unusual pelvic mass in a young girl. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2007;46:199-202 pubmed
    b>Dysgerminoma of ovary is the most common germ cell tumor, accounting for 50% of all germ cell tumor cases. About 20% of cases are diagnosed during pregnancy, and 80% occur in women under 30...
  79. von Eyben F. Laboratory markers and germ cell tumors. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2003;40:377-427 pubmed
    ..The different biologic background for the serum tumor markers may contribute to the difference in their clinical behavior...
  80. Nishizawa S, Ryu H, Yokoyama T, Ninchoji T, Shimoyama I, Yamamoto S, et al. Post-irradiation vasculopathy of intracranial major arteries in children--report of two cases. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1991;31:336-41 pubmed
    ..To prevent permanent ischemic neurological deficits, vasculopathy should be treated either medically or surgically as early as possible...
  81. Soosay G, Bobrow L, Happerfield L, Parkinson M. Morphology and immunohistochemistry of carcinoma in situ adjacent to testicular germ cell tumours in adults and children: implications for histogenesis. Histopathology. 1991;19:537-44 pubmed
    ..The possibility that pre-invasive malignancy in children may not resemble that in adults must be considered when assessing the malignant potential of cryptorchid testes on biopsies taken during orchidopexy...
  82. Nourani M, Manera R. Pediatric ovarian dysgerminoma presenting with hypercalcemia and chronic constipation: a case report. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013;35:e272-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a 9-year-old girl with an ovarian dysgerminoma presenting with chronic constipation and hypercalcemia...
  83. Pavic M, Flechon A, Pivot X, Schell M, Droz J. Report of a young man with three successive curable cancers. Eur J Intern Med. 2008;19:387-8 pubmed publisher
  84. Honecker F, Kersemaekers A, Molier M, Van Weeren P, Stoop H, de Krijger R, et al. Involvement of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in germ cell tumours and in normal male fetal germ cell development. J Pathol. 2004;204:167-74 pubmed
    ..In GCTs, it was generally not expressed in seminoma and dysgerminoma, but was found in the vast majority of non-seminoma cells...
  85. Lam C, Harding S. Abdomino-pelvic mass and positive pregnancy test in an XY female. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;42:312-4 pubmed