germinoma

Summary

Summary: A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)

Top Publications

  1. Ozelame R, Shroff M, Wood B, Bouffet E, Bartels U, Drake J, et al. Basal ganglia germinoma in children with associated ipsilateral cerebral and brain stem hemiatrophy. Pediatr Radiol. 2006;36:325-30 pubmed
    b>Germinoma is the most common and least-malignant intracranial germ cell tumor, usually found in the midline...
  2. Mikami Terao Y, Akiyama M, Yanagisawa T, Takahashi Fujigasaki J, Yokoi K, Fukuoka K, et al. Lymphocytic hypophysitis with central diabetes insipidus and subsequent hypopituitarism masking a suprasellar germinoma in a 13-year-old girl. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006;22:1338-43 pubmed
    ..diabetes insipidus, hypothyroidism, and subsequent hypopituitarism due to lymphocytic hypophysitis masking a germinoma in a 13-year-old pubertal girl...
  3. Kadota R, Mahoney D, Doyle J, Duerst R, Friedman H, Holmes E, et al. Dose intensive melphalan and cyclophosphamide with autologous hematopoietic stem cells for recurrent medulloblastoma or germinoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;51:675-8 pubmed publisher
    To determine the response, toxicity, and survival for children with progressive or recurrent medulloblastoma and germinoma using a single myeloablative course of chemotherapy supported by autologous hematopoietic stem cells.
  4. Choi U, Cha S, Song G, Choi C, Lee S, Lim Y, et al. Recurrent intracranial germinoma along the endoscopic ventriculostomy tract. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:62-5 pubmed
    The authors report a case of a recurrent intracranial germinoma along the site of an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) after complete local tumor control using 3D conformal radiation therapy...
  5. Sugiyama K, Yamasaki F, Kurisu K, Kenjo M. Quality of life of extremely long-time germinoma survivors mainly treated with radiotherapy. Prog Neurol Surg. 2009;23:130-9 pubmed publisher
    To assess the quality of life (QOL) of extremely long-time survivors with germinoma mainly treated with radiotherapy.
  6. Fujimaki T. Central nervous system germ cell tumors: classification, clinical features, and treatment with a historical overview. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:1439-45 pubmed publisher
    ..They are subclassified into germinoma and nongerminomatous germ cell tumors...
  7. Phowthongkum P. The second case of de novo intracranial germinoma association with Klinefelter's syndrome. Surg Neurol. 2006;66:332; author reply 332 pubmed
  8. Utsuki S, Oka H, Tanizaki Y, Kondo K, Kawano N, Fujii K. Histological features of intracranial germinomas not disappearing immediately after radiotherapy. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2006;46:429-33 pubmed
    ..Eighteen previously untreated patients underwent germinoma biopsy and irradiation or combined irradiation and chemotherapy...
  9. Hoei Hansen C, Nielsen J, Almstrup K, Sonne S, Graem N, Skakkebaek N, et al. Transcription factor AP-2gamma is a developmentally regulated marker of testicular carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:8521-30 pubmed
    ..In this study we aimed to investigate the expression pattern of AP-2gamma and to shed light on this factor in germ cell differentiation and the pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Miyoshi Y, Omori M, Kobayashi N, Masuko T, Watanabe E, Date I. [A case of pineal pure germinoma metastasized to the lumbosacral extradural space 8 years after initial therapy. Case report and review of literature]. No Shinkei Geka. 2006;34:745-52 pubmed
    ..The pathologic diagnosis of the tumor was of a pure germinoma. Eight years later he returned to the hospital with spinal epidural metastasis from the pineal germinoma and ..
  2. Morikawa N, Honna T, Kuroda T, Tanaka K, Kitano Y, Nakano M, et al. Life-threatening airway obstruction caused by mediastinal germinoma in a 9-year-old girl. J Pediatr Surg. 2005;40:588-90 pubmed
    The authors report a case of a 9-year-old girl with a mediastinal germinoma that required emergent surgical extirpation because of tracheal compression and asphyxia...
  3. Grodman H, Wolfe L, Kretschmar C. Outcome of patients with recurrent medulloblastoma or central nervous system germinoma treated with low dose continuous intravenous etoposide along with dose-intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009;53:33-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we evaluated the results of low dose, continuous infusion etoposide over 21 days added to a conventional high-dose regimen of carboplatin and thiotepa in eight patients with relapsed pediatric CNS tumors...
  4. Takano S, Osuka S, Mashiko R, Matsumura A. [Case report of germinoma with synchronous lesions in the thalamus and para lateral ventricle]. No Shinkei Geka. 2008;36:541-5 pubmed
    ..stereotactic biopsy for right para lateral ventricle lesion made possible the histological diagnosis of typical germinoma. Post operative course was uneventful...
  5. Rogers S, Mosleh Shirazi M, Saran F. Radiotherapy of localised intracranial germinoma: time to sever historical ties?. Lancet Oncol. 2005;6:509-19 pubmed
    The optimum management of localised intracranial germinoma remains controversial...
  6. Shuto T, Ohtake M, Matsunaga S, Hasegawa N. Primary medulla oblongata germinoma in a male patient. J Clin Neurosci. 2012;19:769-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Germinoma mainly occurs in the pituitary stalk, pineal region, and basal ganglia. Sex predominance of the tumor in males in the pineal region and basal ganglia is well known...
  7. Ozbey N, Sencer A, Tanyolac S, Kurt R, Sencer S, Bilgic B, et al. An intrasellar germinoma with normal cerebrospinal fluid beta-HCG concentrations misdiagnosed as hypophysitis. Hormones (Athens). 2006;5:67-71 pubmed
    A patient with an intrasellar germinoma leading to pituitary stalk thickening is reported...
  8. Wang Y, Zou L, Gao B. Intracranial germinoma: clinical and MRI findings in 56 patients. Childs Nerv Syst. 2010;26:1773-7 pubmed publisher
    Intracranial germinoma is a rare malignant tumor, only constituting 0.5-2.0% of all primary intracranial tumors...
  9. Santagata S, Hornick J, Ligon K. Comparative analysis of germ cell transcription factors in CNS germinoma reveals diagnostic utility of NANOG. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:1613-8 pubmed
    ..NANOG was not detected in tumor types frequently considered in the differential diagnosis of CNS germinoma: pineoblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, medulloblastoma, lymphoma, pituitary adenoma, atypical ..
  10. Neelima R, Mathew A, Kapilamoorthy T, Radhakrishnan V. Germinoma of medulla. Neurol India. 2010;58:768-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Germinoma occurring in the medulla oblongata is extremely rare...
  11. Finlay J, da Silva N, Lavey R, Bouffet E, Kellie S, Shaw E, et al. The management of patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) germinoma: current controversies requiring resolution. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;51:313-6 pubmed publisher
  12. Nakatsuka S, Tateishi A, Nagano T, Kimura H, Nakajo K, Takahashi J, et al. Primary extragonadal germinoma of the medulla oblongata. Int J Surg Pathol. 2012;20:276-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Extragonadal germ cell tumors rarely arise from the brain stem. In this report, the authors present a rare case of germinoma developing in the medulla oblongata...
  13. Kalra S, Vaid V, Jaiswal A, Behari S, Jain V, Kumari N. Primary midbrain germinoma. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:1282-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Biopsy of the tumor revealed a germinoma. Post-operatively, the patient received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy...
  14. Calaminus G, Kortmann R, Worch J, Nicholson J, Alapetite C, Garre M, et al. SIOP CNS GCT 96: final report of outcome of a prospective, multinational nonrandomized trial for children and adults with intracranial germinoma, comparing craniospinal irradiation alone with chemotherapy followed by focal primary site irradiation fo. Neuro Oncol. 2013;15:788-96 pubmed publisher
    We conducted a nonrandomized international study for intracranial germinoma that compared chemotherapy followed by local radiotherapy with reduced-dose craniospinal irradiation (CSI) alone, to determine whether the combined treatment ..
  15. Akimoto J, Murakami M, Fukami S, Ikeda Y, Haraoka J. Primary medulla oblongata germinoma--an unusual posterior fossa tumors in young adults. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:705-8 pubmed publisher
    We encountered 2 patients with germinoma arising from the medulla oblongata in whom preoperative radiological diagnosis was difficult...
  16. Shikama N, Ogawa K, Tanaka S, Toita T, Nakamura K, Uno T, et al. Lack of benefit of spinal irradiation in the primary treatment of intracranial germinoma: a multiinstitutional, retrospective review of 180 patients. Cancer. 2005;104:126-34 pubmed
    The current study assessed the contribution of spinal irradiation to the treatment outcome of patients with intracranial germinoma.
  17. Chen Y, Huang P, Ho D, Hu Y, Chang K, Chiou S, et al. Change in treatment strategy for intracranial germinoma: long-term follow-up experience at a single institute. Cancer. 2012;118:2752-62 pubmed publisher
    Previous intracranial germinoma (IG) studies have investigated the effect of different radiotherapy (RT) volumes and the necessity for adjunctive chemotherapy, but there is currently no consensus on the best treatment for this tumor.
  18. Yasuhara T, Ichikawa T, Miyoshi Y, Kurozumi K, Maruo T, Yanai H, et al. Primary germinoma in the medulla oblongata - case report - . Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2011;51:326-9 pubmed
    A 27-year-old woman presented with a case of primary medulla oblongata germinoma manifesting as sleep apnea, aspiration pneumonia, and left hemiparesis...
  19. Hu Y, Huang P, Wong T, Ho D, Chang K, Guo W, et al. Salvage treatment for recurrent intracranial germinoma after reduced-volume radiotherapy: a single-institution experience and review of the literature. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;84:639-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Intracranial germinomas (IGs) are highly curable with radiotherapy (RT). However, recurrence still occurs, especially when limited-field RT is applied, and the optimal salvage therapy remains controversial...
  20. Hattab E, Tu P, Wilson J, Cheng L. OCT4 immunohistochemistry is superior to placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) in the diagnosis of central nervous system germinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29:368-71 pubmed
    ..We examined histologic sections from 25 cases of germinoma in which paraffin blocks with sufficient material were available...
  21. Si S, Khatua S, Dhall G, Nelson M, Gonzalez Gomez I, Finlay J. Regression of primary central nervous system germinoma after dexamethasone administration: a case report. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2010;27:237-43 pubmed publisher
    Childhood central nervous system (CNS) germinoma are highly curable brain tumors characterized pathologically by varying degrees of lymphocytic infiltration...
  22. Wanggou S, Jiang X, Li Q, Zhang L, Liu D, Li G, et al. HESRG: a novel biomarker for intracranial germinoma and embryonal carcinoma. J Neurooncol. 2012;106:251-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of HESRG in various types of intracranial tumors and found that HESRG was expressed only in germinoma and embryonal carcinoma, but hardly at all in other types of brain tumors...
  23. Fujii Y, Saito Y, Ogawa T, Fujii S, Kamitani H, Kondo S, et al. Basal ganglia germinoma: diagnostic value of MR spectroscopy and (11)C-methionine positron emission tomography. J Neurol Sci. 2008;270:189-93 pubmed publisher
    We herein report a 12-year-old girl with a basal ganglia germinoma who presented with right-sided hemiparesis after a minor head trauma...
  24. Lu K, Gershenson D. Update on the management of ovarian germ cell tumors. J Reprod Med. 2005;50:417-25 pubmed
    ..However, patients with stage I disease of other germ cell histologies, as well as advanced-stage disease of all germ cell histologies, require adjuvant treatment with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin...
  25. Mishima K, Kato Y, Kaneko M, Nakazawa Y, Kunita A, Fujita N, et al. Podoplanin expression in primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: a useful histological marker for the diagnosis of germinoma. Acta Neuropathol. 2006;111:563-8 pubmed
    ..including germinomatous components in mixed GCTs), podoplanin was diffusely expressed on the surface of germinoma cells; lymphocytes, interstitial cells, and syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells were negative for podoplanin...
  26. Nakamura H, Takeshima H, Makino K, Kuratsu J. C-kit expression in germinoma: an immunohistochemistry-based study. J Neurooncol. 2005;75:163-7 pubmed
    ..The soluble isoform of c-kit (s-kit) is reportedly detectable in cerebral spinal fluid of patients with germinomas and germinomas with STGC. C-kit and s-kit may be powerful tumor markers for germinomas with or without STGC...
  27. Murray M, Metayer L, Mallucci C, Hale J, Nicholson J, Kirollos R, et al. Intra-abdominal metastasis of an intracranial germinoma via ventriculo-peritoneal shunt in a 13-year-old female. Br J Neurosurg. 2011;25:747-9 pubmed publisher
    ..metastasis and spontaneous acute tumour lysis syndrome, 17-months after VP shunt placement for metastatic pineal germinoma treated with cranio-spinal-irradiation...
  28. Ayyanar K, Blackman S, Chordas C, Frazier L, Kieran M. Metachronous mediastinal seminoma occurring after intracranial germinoma in an adolescent. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;31:861-4 pubmed publisher
    We report a case of a mediastinal seminoma occurring 19 months after the resolution of a pineal germinoma. A 15-year-old boy with headaches and visual changes was diagnosed with a pineal germinoma by biopsy and mildly elevated beta-human ..
  29. Sato A, Sakurada K, Kuge A, Ito M, Akasaka M, Kayama T. [Spontaneous regression of primary intracranial germinoma: a case report]. No Shinkei Geka. 2009;37:277-82 pubmed
    Here we report a case in which an intracranial germinoma displayed spontaneous regression. An 11-year-old boy presented with polyuria and headache...
  30. Wanggou S, Jiang X, Yuan X, Ren C, Zeng Y, Li G, et al. Prognostic value of OCT4 in primary intracranial germinoma: a single institute analysis of 31 cases. Br J Neurosurg. 2012;26:237-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty-one histologically identified CNS germinoma patients were enrolled in our study...
  31. Khatua S, Phillips A, Fangusaro J, Bovan S, Dhall G, Finlay J. Recurrent pure CNS germinoma with markedly elevated serum and cerebrospinal fluid human chorionic gonadotropin-beta (HCG?). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;56:863-4 pubmed publisher
    ..of serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) human chorionic gonadotrophin-beta (HCG?) is consistent with pure germinoma of the central nervous system (CNS)...
  32. Silva V, Azevedo A, Costa I, Mafra M, Passos Coelho J, Bravo Marques J. Mixed testicular germ cell tumour in a patient with previous pineal germinoma. J Neurooncol. 2011;101:125-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the case of a 32-year-old man, with previously treated pineal germinoma at age 16 years, who later developed mixed GCT of the left testis.
  33. Shibata Y, Matsuda M, Suzuki K, Matsumura A. Cystic neurohypophysial germinoma associated with moyamoya disease. Neurol Sci. 2010;31:189-92 pubmed publisher
    Moyamoya disease associated with a germinoma has never yet been reported in the literature. This report describes a case of a cystic neurohypophysial germinoma associated with moyamoya disease...
  34. Lafay Cousin L, Millar B, Mabbott D, Spiegler B, Drake J, Bartels U, et al. Limited-field radiation for bifocal germinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;65:486-92 pubmed
    ..To report the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of bifocal germinomas treated with chemotherapy followed by focal radiation...
  35. Rushing E, Sandberg G, Judkins A, Vezina G, Kadom N, Myseros J, et al. Germinoma: unusual imaging and pathological characteristics. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg. 2006;104:143-8 pubmed
    ..A biopsy performed on the left thalamic lesion in the first patient revealed a germinoma. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and died 2 years later...
  36. Bowden S, Germak J. Klinefelter syndrome presenting with precocious puberty due to a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-producing mediastinal germinoma. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2006;19:1371 pubmed
  37. Douglas Akinwande A, Ying J, Momin Z, Mourad A, Hattab E. Diffusion-weighted imaging characteristics of primary central nervous system germinoma with histopathologic correlation: a retrospective study. Acad Radiol. 2009;16:1356-65 pubmed publisher
    ..quantify, using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the microscopic rate of water diffusion in pure germinoma and to determine whether or not the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values correlated with the different ..
  38. Passarin M, Vattemi E, Musso A, Romito S, Moretto G, Ghimenton C, et al. Intracranial granulocytic sarcoma after chemotherapy for pineal germinoma and testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:4507-9 pubmed publisher
  39. Kawai N, Miyake K, Nishiyama Y, Yamamoto Y, Miki A, Haba R, et al. Targeting optimal biopsy location in basal ganglia germinoma using (11)C-methionine positron emission tomography. Surg Neurol. 2008;70:408-13; discussion 413 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnosis is usually made by stereotactic biopsy, and precise location of the biopsy target is crucial because germinoma in these sites is potentially curable...
  40. Pecina Slaus N, Niku Eva Martić T, Beros V, Tomas D. Genetic alterations of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in germinoma and teratoma: report of two central nervous system cases. Pathol Oncol Res. 2007;13:370-4 pubmed
    ..A case of germinoma of the central nervous system and a case of spinal channel teratoma were tested for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) ..
  41. Hao S, Liu B, Tang J, Jia G, Zhang Y, Ma Z, et al. Germinoma of basal ganglia in female: case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst. 2009;25:613-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Germinoma of basal ganglia in female is very rare. The authors present a case of germinoma located in the right temporal lobe and basal ganglia in female and raise a hypothesis for the sex disparity.
  42. Osuka S, Tsuboi K, Takano S, Ishikawa E, Matsushita A, Tokuuye K, et al. Long-term outcome of patients with intracranial germinoma. J Neurooncol. 2007;83:71-9 pubmed
    This study was to clarify the long-term subjective functional state and the therapeutic factors that may influence the outcome and ADL of patients with intracranial germinoma.
  43. Powles T, Bower M, Daugaard G, Shamash J, de Ruiter A, Johnson M, et al. Multicenter study of human immunodeficiency virus-related germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21:1922-7 pubmed
    ..After a median follow-up of 4.6 years, 9% of the patients died from GCT. Most of the mortality relates to HIV infection. ..
  44. Skotheim R, Lothe R. The testicular germ cell tumour genome. APMIS. 2003;111:136-50; discussion 50-1 pubmed
  45. Sonneveld D, Hoekstra H, van der Graaf W, Sluiter W, Mulder N, Willemse P, et al. Improved long term survival of patients with metastatic nonseminomatous testicular germ cell carcinoma in relation to prognostic classification systems during the cisplatin era. Cancer. 2001;91:1304-15 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the management of patients with NSTGCT is still improving. ..
  46. Flechon A, Biron P, Droz J. High-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem-cell support in germ-cell tumor patient treatment: the French experience. Int J Cancer. 1999;83:844-7 pubmed
    ..A European randomized trial, which studies the role of HDCT in the first-line salvage treatment of non-refractory disease, is ongoing. So far, HDCT is not a standard treatment of GCT. ..
  47. Houdouin L, Polivka M, Henegar C, Blanquet A, Delalande O, Mikol J. [Pituitary germinoma and lymphocytic hypophysitis: a pitfall. Report of two cases]. Ann Pathol. 2003;23:349-54 pubmed
    ..positive for CD-117 and negative for CD30, confirmed the diagnosis and should allow the distinction of pituitary germinoma from other germ cell tumours as recently described in the testis, and may have a therapeutic interest.
  48. Dieckmann K, Endsin G, Pichlmeier U. How valid is the prenatal estrogen excess hypothesis of testicular germ cell cancer? A case control study on hormone-related factors. Eur Urol. 2001;40:677-83; discussion 684 pubmed
    ..But, assessing the negative results of this study in light of equally negative results in previous investigations, the estrogen excess hypothesis still remains to be hypothetic. ..
  49. Sudo A, Shiga T, Okajima M, Takano K, Terae S, Sawamura Y, et al. High uptake on 11C-methionine positron emission tomographic scan of basal ganglia germinoma with cerebral hemiatrophy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:1909-11 pubmed
    We herein describe a 12-year-old male patient with a germinoma of the basal ganglia who presented with progressive hemiparesis...
  50. Yoshida K, Nakao Y, Yamamoto T, Mori K, Maeda M. Germinoma in the fourth ventricle. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2003;145:789-92; discussion 792 pubmed
    ..The mass was subtotally removed. The histological diagnosis was pure germinoma. Neuro-imaging cannot distinguish germinoma in the fourth ventricle from ependymoma...
  51. Bamberg M, Kortmann R, Calaminus G, Becker G, Meisner C, Harms D, et al. Radiation therapy for intracranial germinoma: results of the German cooperative prospective trials MAKEI 83/86/89. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:2585-92 pubmed
    A multicenter prospective trial was conducted (Maligue Keimzelltümoren [MAKEI] 83/86/89) to assess outcome in intracranial germinoma after treatment with radiotherapy alone at reduced doses.
  52. Utsuki S, Oka H, Tanaka S, Tanizaki Y, Fujii K. Long-term outcome of intracranial germinoma with hCG elevation in cerebrospinal fluid but not in serum. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2002;144:1151-4; discussion 1154-5 pubmed
    ..However, the long-term outcome of patients with germinoma and detectable hCG/hCG-beta in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but not in serum is unclear.
  53. Vuky J, Bains M, Bacik J, Higgins G, Bajorin D, Mazumdar M, et al. Role of postchemotherapy adjunctive surgery in the management of patients with nonseminoma arising from the mediastinum. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:682-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the role of postchemotherapy surgery in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors arising from the anterior mediastinum...
  54. Packer R, Cohen B, Cooney K, Coney K. Intracranial germ cell tumors. Oncologist. 2000;5:312-20 pubmed
    ..Radiation therapy alone will result in disease control in 40%-60% of patients. The addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy may improve the rate of survival...
  55. Veltman I, Schepens M, Looijenga L, Strong L, van Kessel A. Germ cell tumours in neonates and infants: a distinct subgroup?. APMIS. 2003;111:152-60; discussion 160 pubmed
    ..Recently, two cases of infantile GCT were detected with constitutional 12q13 translocations. These exceptional cases may be instrumental in the search for candidate genes related to infantile and/or adult GCT development...
  56. Rodriguez S, Jafer O, Goker H, Summersgill B, Zafarana G, Gillis A, et al. Expression profile of genes from 12p in testicular germ cell tumors of adolescents and adults associated with i(12p) and amplification at 12p11.2-p12.1. Oncogene. 2003;22:1880-91 pubmed
    ..Genes such as CCND2, GLU3, LRP6 and HPH1 at 12p13 were also overexpressed. The overexpressed sequences identified, particularly those in the region amplified, represent candidate genes for involvement in TGCT development...
  57. Okamoto K, Ito J, Ishikawa K, Morii K, Yamada M, Takahashi N, et al. Atrophy of the basal ganglia as the initial diagnostic sign of germinoma in the basal ganglia. Neuroradiology. 2002;44:389-94 pubmed
    ..retrospectively reviewed MR images obtained on admission and approximately 3 years earlier in two patients with germinoma in the basal ganglia, and compared them with CT...
  58. Fizazi K, Amato R, Beuzeboc P, Petit N, Bouhour D, Thiss A, et al. Germ cell tumors in patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus. Cancer. 2001;92:1460-7 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to assess the natural history of the two disease courses, patient immune system tolerance, and results of therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with germ cell tumors (GCT)...
  59. Power D, Brown R, Brock C, Payne H, Majeed A, Babb P. Trends in testicular carcinoma in England and Wales, 1971-99. BJU Int. 2001;87:361-5 pubmed
    ..To examine incidence, mortality and survival trends in England and Wales for testicular cancer, using the recently developed national cancer and national mortality databases...