embryonal carcinoma

Summary

Summary: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)

Top Publications

  1. Skotheim R, Lind G, Monni O, Nesland J, Abeler V, Fossa S, et al. Differentiation of human embryonal carcinomas in vitro and in vivo reveals expression profiles relevant to normal development. Cancer Res. 2005;65:5588-98 pubmed
    b>Embryonal carcinoma is a histologic subgroup of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), and its cells may follow differentiation lineages in a manner similar to early embryogenesis...
  2. Kerley J, Olsen S, Freemantle S, Spinella M. Transcriptional activation of the nuclear receptor corepressor RIP140 by retinoic acid: a potential negative-feedback regulatory mechanism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;285:969-75 pubmed
    ..140 (RIP140), was induced early during all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells...
  3. Flasza M, Shering A, Smith K, Andrews P, Talley P, Johnson P. Reprogramming in inter-species embryonal carcinoma-somatic cell hybrids induces expression of pluripotency and differentiation markers. Cloning Stem Cells. 2003;5:339-54 pubmed
    ..b>Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are another source of pluripotent cells that, unlike ES and EG cells, do not usually require ..
  4. Eriksson M, Leppa S. Mitogen-activated protein kinases and activator protein 1 are required for proliferation and cardiomyocyte differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:15992-6001 pubmed
    ..Here we have investigated MAPK signaling and activation of AP-1 transcription factors in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells undergoing cardiomyocyte differentiation...
  5. White K, Yore M, Warburton S, Vaseva A, Rieder E, Freemantle S, et al. Negative feedback at the level of nuclear receptor coregulation. Self-limitation of retinoid signaling by RIP140. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:43889-92 pubmed
    ..expression of other RA target genes, and RA-induced neuronal differentiation and cell cycle arrest in human embryonal carcinoma cells...
  6. Yamaguchi H, Tanaka K, Kitagawa Y, Miki K. A PEA3 site flanked by SP1, SP4, and GATA sites positively regulates the differentiation-dependent expression of Brachyury in embryonal carcinoma P19 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;254:542-7 pubmed
    The promoter sequence of Brachyury was analyzed in mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells...
  7. Roy B, Taneja R, Chambon P. Synergistic activation of retinoic acid (RA)-responsive genes and induction of embryonal carcinoma cell differentiation by an RA receptor alpha (RAR alpha)-, RAR beta-, or RAR gamma-selective ligand in combination with a retinoid X receptor-specific . Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:6481-7 pubmed
    ..Our results also indicate that there is a significant degree of functional redundancy between the three RAR types which, however, varies with the nature of the RA target genes. ..
  8. Reynolds J, Prasad A, Gillespie L, Paterno G. Developmental expression of functional GABAA receptors containing the gamma 2 subunit in neurons derived from embryonal carcinoma (P19) cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996;35:11-8 pubmed
    The expression of the gamma 2 subunit into functional GABAA receptors has been examined in the embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line P19, a pluripotent cell line which differentiates into a neuronal phenotype after exposure to retinoic acid...
  9. Jones T, Ulbright T, Eble J, Baldridge L, Cheng L. OCT4 staining in testicular tumors: a sensitive and specific marker for seminoma and embryonal carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:935-40 pubmed
    ..It has been detected in primary testicular germ cell tumors with pluripotent potential, seminoma, and embryonal carcinoma. We undertook immunohistochemical staining of OCT4 in a wide variety of primary testicular neoplasms (germ ..

More Information

Publications79

  1. Curtin J, Dragnev K, Sekula D, Christie A, Dmitrovsky E, Spinella M. Retinoic acid activates p53 in human embryonal carcinoma through retinoid receptor-dependent stimulation of p53 transactivation function. Oncogene. 2001;20:2559-69 pubmed
    ..This study indicates effective all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells engages p53...
  2. Liska D, Hawkins R, Wikstrom K, Bornstein P. Modulation of thrombospondin expression during differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells. J Cell Physiol. 1994;158:495-505 pubmed
    ..we investigated the expression of two of the TSPs--TPS1 and TSP2--during the course of differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro...
  3. Sahoo S, Ryan C, Recant W, Yang X. Angiosarcoma masquerading as embryonal carcinoma in the metastasis from a mature testicular teratoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127:360-3 pubmed
    ..as a malignant component in testicular GCTs has rarely been reported and is often misdiagnosed as embryonal carcinoma. We report the case of a 23-year-old man with mature teratoma of the testis and retroperitoneal metastasis ..
  4. Spinella M, Freemantle S, Sekula D, Chang J, Christie A, Dmitrovsky E. Retinoic acid promotes ubiquitination and proteolysis of cyclin D1 during induced tumor cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:22013-8 pubmed
    ..promote ubiquitination and degradation of cyclin D1 during retinoid-induced differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells...
  5. Seo M, Noguchi K. Retinoic acid induces gene expression of fibroblast growth factor-9 during induction of neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells. FEBS Lett. 1995;370:231-5 pubmed
    ..factor (FGF) family, FGF9 was induced during retinoic acid(RA)-induced neuronal differentiation of murine embryonal carcinoma P19 cells. We have reported here the nucleotide sequence of the mouse FGF9 cDNA. The murine cDNA showed 92...
  6. Sasahara Y, Kobayashi T, Onodera H, Onoda M, Ohnishi M, Kato S, et al. Okadaic acid suppresses neural differentiation-dependent expression of the neurofilament-L gene in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells by post-transcriptional modification. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:25950-7 pubmed
    Mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells in aggregation culture in the presence of 10(-6) M retinoic acid followed by monolayer culture differentiate into nerve and glial cells...
  7. Rago V, Romeo F, Giordano F, Ferraro A, Ando S, Carpino A. Identification of ERbeta1 and ERbeta2 in human seminoma, in embryonal carcinoma and in their adjacent intratubular germ cell neoplasia. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:56 pubmed publisher
    ..in testicular germ cell tumours and, particularly, an ERbeta down-regulation was evidenced in seminoma and embryonal carcinoma. Conversely, the current study has clearly identified ERbeta1 and ERbeta2 in the neoplastic cells of ..
  8. Sperger J, Chen X, Draper J, Antosiewicz J, Chon C, Jones S, et al. Gene expression patterns in human embryonic stem cells and human pluripotent germ cell tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13350-5 pubmed
    ..The gene expression patterns of human ES cell lines showed many similarities with the human embryonal carcinoma cell samples and more distantly with the seminoma samples...
  9. Smith E, Smedberg J, Rula M, Hamilton T, Xu X. Disassociation of MAPK activation and c-Fos expression in F9 embryonic carcinoma cells following retinoic acid-induced endoderm differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32094-100 pubmed
  10. Yang Z, Sui Y, Xiong S, Liour S, Phillips A, Ko L. Switched alternative splicing of oncogene CoAA during embryonal carcinoma stem cell differentiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:1919-32 pubmed
  11. Josephson R, Ording C, Liu Y, Shin S, Lakshmipathy U, Toumadje A, et al. Qualification of embryonal carcinoma 2102Ep as a reference for human embryonic stem cell research. Stem Cells. 2007;25:437-46 pubmed
    ..We propose that the embryonal carcinoma (EC) line 2102Ep meets these requirements...
  12. Walsh J, Andrews P. Expression of Wnt and Notch pathway genes in a pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cell line and embryonic stem cell. APMIS. 2003;111:197-210; discussion 210-1 pubmed
    b>Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, the pluripotent stem cells of teratocarcinomas, show many similar-ities to embryonic stem (ES) cells...
  13. van der Heyden M, Defize L. Twenty one years of P19 cells: what an embryonal carcinoma cell line taught us about cardiomyocyte differentiation. Cardiovasc Res. 2003;58:292-302 pubmed
    Many different stem cell types have been shown to differentiate into cardiac muscle cells in vitro but P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells were one of the first examples described and have been the most extensively characterized...
  14. Lu Y, Lotan R. Transcriptional regulation by butyrate of mouse galectin-1 gene in embryonal carcinoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1444:85-91 pubmed
    ..that sodium butyrate (butyrate) induced expression of gal-1 at both mRNA and protein levels in the murine embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line PCC4.aza1R and the induction of gal-1 by butyrate in PCC4...
  15. Smith E, Capo chichi C, He J, Smedberg J, Yang D, Prowse A, et al. Disabled-2 mediates c-Fos suppression and the cell growth regulatory activity of retinoic acid in embryonic carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:47303-10 pubmed
    ..Resistance to retinoic acid regulation in PA-1 cells likely results from defects in retinoic acid up-regulation of Dab2 expression...
  16. Ringeisen B, Kim H, Barron J, Krizman D, Chrisey D, Jackman S, et al. Laser printing of pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells. Tissue Eng. 2004;10:483-91 pubmed
    ..here studies using a laser forward transfer technology to print single-layer patterns of pluripotent murine embryonal carcinoma cells...
  17. Berney D, Shamash J, Hendry W, Arora A, Jordan S, Oliver R. Prediction of relapse after lymph node dissection for germ cell tumours: can salvage chemotherapy be avoided?. Br J Cancer. 2001;84:340-3 pubmed
    ..The proliferation index and the amount of embryonal carcinoma (EC) were both predictors of recurrence and therefore the need for further chemotherapy...
  18. Przyborski S. Isolation of human embryonal carcinoma stem cells by immunomagnetic sorting. Stem Cells. 2001;19:500-4 pubmed
    b>Embryonal carcinoma cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from germ cell tumors and can be used to study cell differentiation in vitro...
  19. Preclíková H, Bryja V, Pachernik J, Krejci P, Dvorak P, Hampl A. Early cycling-independent changes to p27, cyclin D2, and cyclin D3 in differentiating mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. Cell Growth Differ. 2002;13:421-30 pubmed
    ..Here, embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines were found that differ in their basal levels of p27 inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases ..
  20. Akimoto K, Mizuno K, Osada S, Hirai S, Tanuma S, Suzuki K, et al. A new member of the third class in the protein kinase C family, PKC lambda, expressed dominantly in an undifferentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line and also in many tissues and cells. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:12677-83 pubmed
    Protein kinase C (PKC)-related cDNA clones isolated from cDNA libraries of mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells and mouse brain encoded a 67-kDa protein, PKC lambda...
  21. Herszfeld D, Wolvetang E, Langton Bunker E, Chung T, Filipczyk A, Houssami S, et al. CD30 is a survival factor and a biomarker for transformed human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2006;24:351-7 pubmed
    ..Here we show that CD30, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is expressed on transformed but not normal hES cells, and that CD30 expression protects hES cells against apoptosis...
  22. Clifford J, Menter D, Wang M, Lotan R, Lippman S. Retinoid receptor-dependent and -independent effects of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 1999;59:14-8 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis directly, we have analyzed the activity of 4HPR on a panel of F9 embryonal carcinoma cell lines, which includes wild-type and mutant lines that lack expression of retinoic acid receptor gamma, ..
  23. Inouye S, Seo M, Yamada Y, Nakazawa A. Increase of adenylate kinase isozyme 1 protein during neuronal differentiation in mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells and in rat brain primary cultured cells. J Neurochem. 1998;71:125-33 pubmed
    ..When mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells were differentiated by retinoic acid into neural cells, the amount of AK1 protein and enzyme ..
  24. Lee J, Shin S, Kim S, Choo J, Lee Y. Suppression of PTEN expression during aggregation with retinoic acid in P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;347:715-22 pubmed
    ..little information is available about the regulation of apoptosis during the aggregation stage of P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells...
  25. Suzuki N, Yamada T, Matsuoka K, Hiraoka N, Iwamaru Y, Hata J. Functional expressions of fms and M-CSF during trophoectodermal differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma cells. Placenta. 1999;20:203-11 pubmed
    A human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line, NCR-G3 (G3), is capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types in vitro, including epithelial, muscle, neural and trophoectodermal cells...
  26. Freberg C, Dahl J, Timoskainen S, Collas P. Epigenetic reprogramming of OCT4 and NANOG regulatory regions by embryonal carcinoma cell extract. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1543-53 pubmed
    ..We previously reported the reprogramming of epithelial cells by extract of undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells...
  27. Boer B, Kopp J, Mallanna S, Desler M, Chakravarthy H, Wilder P, et al. Elevating the levels of Sox2 in embryonal carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells inhibits the expression of Sox2:Oct-3/4 target genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:1773-86 pubmed
    Recent studies have identified large sets of genes in embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cells that are associated with the transcription factors Sox2 and Oct-3/4...
  28. Wei L, Lee C. Demethylation in the 5'-flanking region of mouse cellular retinoic acid binding protein-I gene is associated with its high level of expression in mouse embryos and facilitates its induction by retinoic acid in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Dev Dyn. 1994;201:1-10 pubmed
    ..acid binding protein-I (CRABP-I) gene is specifically up-regulated by retinoic acid (RA) in P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells, and its expression in animals is spatially and temporally restricted to RA-sensitive tissues during ..
  29. Imai Y, Suzuki Y, Matsui T, Tohyama M, Wanaka A, Takagi T. Cloning of a retinoic acid-induced gene, GT1, in the embryonal carcinoma cell line P19: neuron-specific expression in the mouse brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1995;31:1-9 pubmed
    Mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells can be reproducibly differentiated into neurons and glial cells upon treatment with high concentrations of retinoic acid (RA)...
  30. Akiyama H, Sugiyama A, Uzawa K, Fujisawa N, Tashiro Y, Tashiro F. Implication of Trip15/CSN2 in early stage of neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2003;140:45-56 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest that Trip15/CSN2 could implicate in the commitment of multipotent embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells to neuronal fate through the downregulation of Oct-3/4 which suppresses neurogenic genes...
  31. Horrocks G, Lauder L, Stewart R, Przyborski S. Formation of neurospheres from human embryonal carcinoma stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;304:411-6 pubmed
    b>Embryonal carcinoma (EC) stem cells derived from germ cell tumours are valuable tools for the study of embryogenesis and closely resemble embryonic stem cells. When human TERA2.cl...
  32. Curtin J, Spinella M. p53 in human embryonal carcinoma: identification of a transferable, transcriptional repression domain in the N-terminal region of p53. Oncogene. 2005;24:1481-90 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that p53 repression in TGCT-derived human embryonal carcinoma (EC) is relieved upon treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA), resulting in enhanced p53 ..
  33. Andrews P, Matin M, Bahrami A, Damjanov I, Gokhale P, Draper J. Embryonic stem (ES) cells and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells: opposite sides of the same coin. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33:1526-30 pubmed
    b>Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the stem cells of teratocarcinomas, and the malignant counterparts of embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos, whether human or mouse...
  34. Liu Y, Shin S, Zeng X, Zhan M, Gonzalez R, Mueller F, et al. Genome wide profiling of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), their derivatives and embryonal carcinoma cells to develop base profiles of U.S. Federal government approved hESC lines. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:20 pubmed
  35. Schopperle W, Kershaw D, DeWolf W. Human embryonal carcinoma tumor antigen, Gp200/GCTM-2, is podocalyxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;300:285-90 pubmed
    ..a peanut agglutinin-binding tumor antigen, gp200, a surface membrane glycoprotein expressed on human embryonal carcinoma, a malignant stem cell of testicular tumors...
  36. Horn V, Minucci S, Ogryzko V, Adamson E, Howard B, Levin A, et al. RAR and RXR selective ligands cooperatively induce apoptosis and neuronal differentiation in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. FASEB J. 1996;10:1071-7 pubmed
    Retinoids cause differentiation in embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, thus mimicking events in mammalian development. Here, we show that retinoids also cause apoptosis in P19 EC cells...
  37. Angello J, Stern H, Hauschka S. P19 embryonal carcinoma cells: a model system for studying neural tube induction of skeletal myogenesis. Dev Biol. 1997;192:93-8 pubmed
    A model experimental system for investigating myogenic induction signals has been devised with mouse P19 embryonal carcinoma cells...
  38. Guazzi S, Pintonello M, Vigano A, Boncinelli E. Regulatory interactions between the human HOXB1, HOXB2, and HOXB3 proteins and the upstream sequence of the Otx2 gene in embryonal carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:11092-9 pubmed
    ..regulated by co-transfection with expression vectors for the human HOXB1, HOXB2, and HOXB3 proteins in an embryonal carcinoma cell line (NT2/D1) and that a shorter fragment of only 534 bp is able to drive this regulation...
  39. Schopperle W, DeWolf W. The TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81 human pluripotent stem cell markers are expressed on podocalyxin in embryonal carcinoma. Stem Cells. 2007;25:723-30 pubmed
    ..previously identified the cell adhesion protein podocalyxin expressed in a human pluripotent stem cell, embryonal carcinoma (EC), which is a malignant germ cell...
  40. Cho S, Lee S, Park S. Differential expression of mouse Disabled 2 gene in retinoic acid-treated F9 embryonal carcinoma cells and early mouse embryos. Mol Cells. 1999;9:179-84 pubmed
    ..identified a differentially expressed cDNA fragment which was detectable in retinoic acid (RA) treated F9 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells but not in untreated F9 cells...
  41. Batth B, Tripathi R, Srinivas U. Curcumin-induced differentiation of mouse embryonal carcinoma PCC4 cells. Differentiation. 2001;68:133-40 pubmed
    ..In the present study, curcumin, at low concentration, was shown to induce differentiation in embryonal carcinoma cell line PCC4...
  42. Sawaki M, Shinoda K, Hoshuyama S, Kato F, Yamasaki K. Combination of a teratoma and embryonal carcinoma of the testis in SD IGS rats: a report of two cases. Toxicol Pathol. 2000;28:832-5 pubmed
    Testicular tumors of germ cell origin are extremely rare in rats. We encountered 2 cases of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma in the testes of 8- and 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley IGS rats...
  43. Nakao N, Yokote H, Nakai K, Itakura T. Promotion of survival and regeneration of nigral dopamine neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease after implantation of embryonal carcinoma-derived neurons genetically engineered to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. J Neurosurg. 2000;92:659-70 pubmed
    The P19 embryonal carcinoma-derived cell line consists of undifferentiated multipotential cells, which irreversibly differentiate into mature neurons after exposure to retinoic acid (RA)...
  44. Heim K, White K, Deng D, Tomlinson C, Moore J, Freemantle S, et al. Selective repression of retinoic acid target genes by RIP140 during induced tumor cell differentiation of pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells. Mol Cancer. 2007;6:57 pubmed
    ..We had previously shown that RIP140 limits RA induced tumor cell differentiation of embryonal carcinoma; the pluriopotent stem cells of testicular germ cell tumors...
  45. Kato Y, Sasagawa I, Kaneko M, Osawa M, Fujita N, Tsuruo T. Aggrus: a diagnostic marker that distinguishes seminoma from embryonal carcinoma in testicular germ cell tumors. Oncogene. 2004;23:8552-6 pubmed
    ..Specific markers for seminomas have not been reported, and Aggrus is a potential diagnostic marker for seminomas and may be associated with malignancies of the testis...
  46. Przyborski S, Christie V, Hayman M, Stewart R, Horrocks G. Human embryonal carcinoma stem cells: models of embryonic development in humans. Stem Cells Dev. 2004;13:400-8 pubmed
    ..b>Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from teratocarcinomas and are considered the malignant ..
  47. Chida D, Kume T, Mukouyama Y, Tabata S, Nomura N, Thomas M, et al. Characterization of a protein tyrosine phosphatase (RIP) expressed at a very early stage of differentiation in both mouse erythroleukemia and embryonal carcinoma cells. FEBS Lett. 1995;358:233-9 pubmed
    ..implicated in the early events leading to in vitro differentiation of both mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) and embryonal carcinoma (F9) cells...
  48. Hohjoh H, Fukushima T. Marked change in microRNA expression during neuronal differentiation of human teratocarcinoma NTera2D1 and mouse embryonal carcinoma P19 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;362:360-7 pubmed
    ..Based on these observations, it is suggested that the miR-302 cluster and miR-124a may be useful molecular indicators in the assessment of degree of undifferentiation and/or differentiation in the course of neuronal differentiation...
  49. Veal E, Groisman R, Eisenstein M, Gill G. The secreted glycoprotein CREG enhances differentiation of NTERA-2 human embryonal carcinoma cells. Oncogene. 2000;19:2120-8 pubmed
    Differentiation of the human embryonal carcinoma cell line NTERA-2 is characterized by changes in morphology, altered patterns of gene expression, reduced proliferative potential, and a loss of tumorigenicity...
  50. Knower K, Sim H, McClive P, Bowles J, Koopman P, Sinclair A, et al. Characterisation of urogenital ridge gene expression in the human embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1. Sex Dev. 2007;1:114-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The human embryonal carcinoma cell line NT2/D1 was screened for the expression of 46 genes with known or potential roles in the sex-..
  51. Hong S, Heo J, Lee S, Heo S, Kim S, Lee Y, et al. Methyltransferase-inhibition interferes with neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:935-40 pubmed publisher
    ..methylation by S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases for neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells...
  52. Leroy X, Augusto D, Leteurtre E, Gosselin B. CD30 and CD117 (c-kit) used in combination are useful for distinguishing embryonal carcinoma from seminoma. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002;50:283-5 pubmed
    ..light microscopic examination, seminoma may sometimes be difficult to distinguish from the solid pattern of embryonal carcinoma (EC)...
  53. Pais V, Leav I, Lau K, Jiang Z, Ho S. Estrogen receptor-beta expression in human testicular germ cell tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:4475-82 pubmed
    ..For completeness, expression of androgen and progesterone receptors was also investigated...
  54. Przyborski S, Smith S, Wood A. Transcriptional profiling of neuronal differentiation by human embryonal carcinoma stem cells in vitro. Stem Cells. 2003;21:459-71 pubmed
    ..Samples of mRNA were isolated from cultured NTERA2 human embryonal carcinoma stem cells and their retinoic-acid-induced derivatives and were prepared for hybridization on custom ..
  55. Smedberg J, Smith E, Capo Chichi C, Frolov A, Yang D, Godwin A, et al. Ras/MAPK pathway confers basement membrane dependence upon endoderm differentiation of embryonic carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40911-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that endoderm differentiation renders the activation of the Ras pathway basement membrane dependent, contributing to the epithelial organization of the visceral endoderm...
  56. van der Heyden M, van Kempen M, Tsuji Y, Rook M, Jongsma H, Opthof T. P19 embryonal carcinoma cells: a suitable model system for cardiac electrophysiological differentiation at the molecular and functional level. Cardiovasc Res. 2003;58:410-22 pubmed
    Murine P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells can differentiate into spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes in vitro and have revealed important insight into the early molecular processes of cardiomyocyte differentiation...
  57. Snow G, Kasper A, Busch A, Schwarz E, Ewings K, Bee T, et al. Wnt pathway reprogramming during human embryonal carcinoma differentiation and potential for therapeutic targeting. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:383 pubmed publisher
    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are classified as seminonas or non-seminomas of which a major subset is embryonal carcinoma (EC) that can differentiate into diverse tissues...
  58. Minami K, Chano T, Kawakami T, Ushida H, Kushima R, Okabe H, et al. DNMT3L is a novel marker and is essential for the growth of human embryonal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:2751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have a unique epigenetic profile distinct from that of other types of cancer. Elucidation of these properties has a potential to identify novel markers for TGCTs...
  59. Li S, Yu W, Kishikawa H, Hu G. Angiogenin prevents serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis of P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. FEBS J. 2010;277:3575-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we characterize the anti-apoptotic activity of angiogenin in pluripotent P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. Angiogenin prevents serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis...
  60. Nishiguchi S, Joh T, Horie K, Zou Z, Yasunaga T, Shimada K. A survey of genes expressed in undifferentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma F9 cells: characterization of low-abundance mRNAs. J Biochem. 1994;116:128-39 pubmed
    As a first step to catalogue mRNAs present in mouse embryonal carcinoma F9 cells, 879 clones corresponding to low-abundance mRNAs were selected from among 2,896 randomly picked up clones of undifferentiated F9 cDNA libraries, using DNA ..
  61. Chevreau C, Mazerolles C, Soulie M, Gaspard M, Mourey L, Bujan L, et al. Long-term efficacy of two cycles of BEP regimen in high-risk stage I nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors with embryonal carcinoma and/or vascular invasion. Eur Urol. 2004;46:209-14; discussion 214-5 pubmed
    ..To report the long-term impact of two cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy on relapse rates and treatment-related morbidity in high-risk stage I nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors (NSGCTT I)...
  62. Hamada Kanazawa M, Ishikawa K, Nomoto K, Uozumi T, Kawai Y, Narahara M, et al. Sox6 overexpression causes cellular aggregation and the neuronal differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells in the absence of retinoic acid. FEBS Lett. 2004;560:192-8 pubmed
    ..Thus Sox6 may play a critical role in cellular aggregation and neuronal differentiation of P19 cells...
  63. Freemantle S, Kerley J, Olsen S, Gross R, Spinella M. Developmentally-related candidate retinoic acid target genes regulated early during neuronal differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma. Oncogene. 2002;21:2880-9 pubmed
    b>Embryonal carcinoma is a model of embryonic development as well as tumor cell differentiation...
  64. Wei Y, Harris T, Childs G. Global gene expression patterns during neural differentiation of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells. Differentiation. 2002;70:204-19 pubmed
    ..The results of this study provide the framework for subsequent analysis of the effects of various intrinsic and extrinsic factors on neural differentiation...
  65. Forejt J, Saam J, Gregorova S, Tilghman S. Monoallelic expression of reactivated imprinted genes in embryonal carcinoma cell hybrids. Exp Cell Res. 1999;252:416-22 pubmed
    ..For such analysis H19 and Igf2 genes were activated by inducing differentiation of (mouse embryonal carcinoma cell x mouse lymphocyte) hybrid cell clones...
  66. Giuliano C, Kerley Hamilton J, Bee T, Freemantle S, Manickaratnam R, Dmitrovsky E, et al. Retinoic acid represses a cassette of candidate pluripotency chromosome 12p genes during induced loss of human embryonal carcinoma tumorigenicity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1731:48-56 pubmed
    ..Human embryonal carcinoma (EC) are the stem cells of TGCTs and are pluripotent...
  67. Caricasole A, Ward van Oostwaard D, Zeinstra L, van den Eijnden van Raaij A, Mummery C. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce epithelial differentiation of NT2D1 human embryonal carcinoma cells. Int J Dev Biol. 2000;44:443-50 pubmed
    Human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells represent the stem cells of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) and are morphologically, antigenically and functionally related to the stem cells of early mammalian embryos...
  68. Pascal L, Vencio R, Goo Y, Page L, Shadle C, Liu A. Temporal expression profiling of the effects of secreted factors from prostate stromal cells on embryonal carcinoma stem cells. Prostate. 2009;69:1353-65 pubmed publisher
  69. Yuan H, Corbi N, Basilico C, Dailey L. Developmental-specific activity of the FGF-4 enhancer requires the synergistic action of Sox2 and Oct-3. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2635-45 pubmed
    ..In tissue culture FGF-4 expression is restricted to undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines...
  70. Denes V, Pilichowska M, Makarovskiy A, Carpinito G, Geck P. Loss of a cohesin-linked suppressor APRIN (Pds5b) disrupts stem cell programs in embryonal carcinoma: an emerging cohesin role in tumor suppression. Oncogene. 2010;29:3446-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We used an embryonal carcinoma stem cell model and show here that (i) APRIN expression is precisely coordinated with stem cell ..