chordoma

Summary

Summary: A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Ni R, Wang G, Zhang Z, Ma J. Iodine-125 seed implantation in the treatment of sacrococcygeal chordoma: a case report. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2012;64:107-13 pubmed publisher
    ..this was to summarize the efficacy and safety of iodine-125 seed implantation in the treatment of sacrococcygeal chordoma. CT-guided implantation of radioactive iodine-125 seed was applied in treating a patient with sacrococcygeal ..
  2. Cho H, Lee M, Takei H, Dancer J, Ro J, Zhai Q. Immunohistochemical comparison of chordoma with chondrosarcoma, myxopapillary ependymoma, and chordoid meningioma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2009;17:131-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma originates from embryonic notochordal remnants in the midline along the spinal axis and is characterized by cords and lobules of neoplastic cells arranged within myxoid matrix...
  3. Komotar R, Starke R, Raper D, Anand V, Schwartz T. The endoscope-assisted ventral approach compared with open microscope-assisted surgery for clival chordomas. World Neurosurg. 2011;76:318-27; discussion 259-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a systematic review of case series and case reports in hope of furthering our understanding of the role of endoscopy in the management of these difficult cranial base lesions...
  4. Yang C, Hornicek F, Wood K, Schwab J, Choy E, Iafrate J, et al. Characterization and analysis of human chordoma cell lines. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:1257-64 pubmed publisher
    An experimental study to investigate the characterization of 3 chordoma cell lines. To characterize chordoma cell lines and generate hypothesis for further chordoma studies...
  5. Hanna S, Aston W, Briggs T, Cannon S, Saifuddin A. Sacral chordoma: can local recurrence after sacrectomy be predicted?. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:2217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We retrospectively reviewed 18 patients with histologically verified sacral chordoma seen at our institution between 1998 and 2005. There were 14 men and four women with a mean age of 65...
  6. Sen C, Triana A, Berglind N, Godbold J, Shrivastava R. Clival chordomas: clinical management, results, and complications in 71 patients. J Neurosurg. 2010;113:1059-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors present results of the surgical management of a large number of patients with clivus chordomas. Factors that influence the surgeon's ability to achieve radical tumor resection are also evaluated...
  7. Yang X, Ng D, Alcorta D, Liebsch N, Sheridan E, Li S, et al. T (brachyury) gene duplication confers major susceptibility to familial chordoma. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1176-8 pubmed publisher
    ..we identified unique duplications of a region on 6q27 in four multiplex families with at least three cases of chordoma, a cancer of presumed notochordal origin...
  8. Aydemir E, Bayrak O, Sahin F, Atalay B, Kose G, Ozen M, et al. Characterization of cancer stem-like cells in chordoma. J Neurosurg. 2012;116:810-20 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Chordoma cells and cancer stem-like cells share similar characteristics, including self-renewal, differentiation, and ..
  9. Oakley G, Fuhrer K, Seethala R. Brachyury, SOX-9, and podoplanin, new markers in the skull base chordoma vs chondrosarcoma differential: a tissue microarray-based comparative analysis. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:1461-9 pubmed publisher
    The distinction between chondrosarcoma and chordoma of the skull base/head and neck is prognostically important; however, both have sufficient morphologic overlap to make delineation difficult...

More Information

Publications80

  1. Dasenbrock H, Clarke M, Bydon A, Witham T, Sciubba D, Simmons O, et al. Reconstruction of extensive defects from posterior en bloc resection of sacral tumors with human acellular dermal matrix and gluteus maximus myocutaneous flaps. Neurosurgery. 2011;69:1240-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, reconstruction of the resultant extensive soft-tissue defects is challenging because a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap is not harvested...
  2. Ciarpaglini R, Pasquini E, Mazzatenta D, Ambrosini Spaltro A, Sciarretta V, Frank G. Intradural clival chordoma and ecchordosis physaliphora: a challenging differential diagnosis: case report. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:E387-8; discussion E388 pubmed publisher
    ..Histological findings confirmed the diagnosis of a chordoma. Even if some parameters exist for a differential diagnosis, ecchordosis physaliphora and intradural chordoma may ..
  3. Sangoi A, Karamchandani J, Lane B, Higgins J, Rouse R, Brooks J, et al. Specificity of brachyury in the distinction of chordoma from clear cell renal cell carcinoma and germ cell tumors: a study of 305 cases. Mod Pathol. 2011;24:425-9 pubmed publisher
    ..marker for notochord-derived tissues and neoplasms, and has become a defining immunohistochemical feature of chordoma. The main differential diagnostic consideration for chordoma is chondrosarcoma, which is known to lack brachyury ..
  4. Pehlivan B, Ares C, Lomax A, Stadelmann O, Goitein G, Timmermann B, et al. Temporal lobe toxicity analysis after proton radiation therapy for skull base tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83:1432-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed clinical events with dosimetric parameters in our patients treated for skull base tumors with spot-scanning PT...
  5. Hsieh P, Xu R, Sciubba D, McGirt M, Nelson C, Witham T, et al. Long-term clinical outcomes following en bloc resections for sacral chordomas and chondrosarcomas: a series of twenty consecutive patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:2233-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Retrospective study of 20 consecutive patients who underwent en bloc tumor excision of sacral chordomas and chondrosarcomas...
  6. Liu X, Nielsen G, Rosenberg A, Waterman P, Yang W, Choy E, et al. Establishment and characterization of a novel chordoma cell line: CH22. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:1666-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma is a rare primary malignant bone tumor and there exist only a few established human chordoma cell lines. The scarcity of robust chordoma cell lines has limited the ability to study this tumor...
  7. Chen C, Yang H, Chen K, Wang G, Lu J, Yuan Q, et al. High expression of survivin in sacral chordoma. Med Oncol. 2013;30:529 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma is a rare and invasive malignant tumor which primarily relies on surgical treatments. Anticipation of its recurrence and patient survival longevity has been a critical issue of the treatments...
  8. Wu Z, Zhang J, Zhang L, Jia G, Tang J, Wang L, et al. Prognostic factors for long-term outcome of patients with surgical resection of skull base chordomas-106 cases review in one institution. Neurosurg Rev. 2010;33:451-6 pubmed publisher
    Skull base chordoma are still challenging. Between May 1993 and June 2005, 106 consecutive patients with skull base chordoma underwent surgical removal at Skull Base Division of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, China...
  9. Presneau N, Shalaby A, Idowu B, Gikas P, Cannon S, Gout I, et al. Potential therapeutic targets for chordoma: PI3K/AKT/TSC1/TSC2/mTOR pathway. Br J Cancer. 2009;100:1406-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to identify potential molecular targets for the treatment of chordoma. In view of the reported association of chordoma and tuberous sclerosis complex syndrome, and the available ..
  10. Stacchiotti S, Tamborini E, Lo Vullo S, Bozzi F, Messina A, Morosi C, et al. Phase II study on lapatinib in advanced EGFR-positive chordoma. Ann Oncol. 2013;24:1931-6 pubmed publisher
    To report on a prospective, investigator-driven, phase II study on lapatinib in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive advanced chordoma patients.
  11. Ji Z, Long H, Hu Y, Qiu X, Chen X, Li Z, et al. Expression of MDR1, HIF-1? and MRP1 in sacral chordoma and chordoma cell line CM-319. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010;29:158 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma was a typically slow-growing tumor. The therapeutic approach to chordoma had traditionally relied mainly on surgical therapy. And the main reason for therapeutic failure was resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
  12. Holzmann D, Reisch R, Krayenbuhl N, Hug E, Bernays R. The transnasal transclival approach for clivus chordoma. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2010;53:211-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We present our experience using a standardized transnasal transclival approach (TTA) for endoscopic removal of chordomas of the clivus...
  13. Bhat D, Yasha M, Rojin A, Sampath S, Shankar S. Intradural clival chordoma: a rare pathological entity. J Neurooncol. 2010;96:287-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Intradural chordomas are very rare. We present one such case of a clival intradural chordoma who presented with a left trigeminal nerve sensory neuropathy...
  14. Jian B, Bloch O, Yang I, Han S, Aranda D, Parsa A. A comprehensive analysis of intracranial chordoma and survival: a systematic review. Br J Neurosurg. 2011;25:446-53 pubmed publisher
    Despite the published information on cranial chordoma, most of the data regarding survival in these patients has come from a single institution...
  15. Baltsavias G, Valavanis A. Endovascular occlusion of a lacerated primitive trigeminal artery during surgical resection of clival chordoma. a case report. Interv Neuroradiol. 2010;16:204-7 pubmed
    We describe a case of a persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PPTA) coexistent with a clival chordoma. During surgery of the tumor, the partially incorporated PPTA was inadvertently traumatized and ruptured...
  16. Stippler M, Gardner P, Snyderman C, Carrau R, Prevedello D, Kassam A. Endoscopic endonasal approach for clival chordomas. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:268-77; discussion 277-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Cranial base chordomas are difficult lesions to treat. The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) takes advantage of the natural sinus corridor and may provide a less invasive approach for these midline tumors...
  17. Carminato A, Marchioro W, Melchiotti E, Vascellari M, Mutinelli F. A case of coccygeal chondroid chordoma in a cat: morphological and immunohistochemical features. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:679-81 pubmed
    ..A diagnosis of chondroid chordoma was made based on histomorphological features and immunohistochemical results...
  18. Ruggieri P, Angelini A, Ussia G, Montalti M, Mercuri M. Surgical margins and local control in resection of sacral chordomas. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468:2939-47 pubmed publisher
    The treatment of choice in sacral chordoma is surgical resection, although the risk of local recurrence and metastasis remains high...
  19. Ferraresi V, Nuzzo C, Zoccali C, Marandino F, Vidiri A, Salducca N, et al. Chordoma: clinical characteristics, management and prognosis of a case series of 25 patients. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:22 pubmed publisher
    Adequate surgery still remains the only curative treatment of chordoma. Interesting clinical data on advanced disease with molecularly targeted therapies were reported.
  20. Nishida Y, Kamada T, Imai R, Tsukushi S, Yamada Y, Sugiura H, et al. Clinical outcome of sacral chordoma with carbon ion radiotherapy compared with surgery. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79:110-6 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy, post-treatment function, toxicity, and complications of carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) for sacral chordoma compared with surgery.
  21. Di Maio S, Temkin N, Ramanathan D, Sekhar L. Current comprehensive management of cranial base chordomas: 10-year meta-analysis of observational studies. J Neurosurg. 2011;115:1094-105 pubmed publisher
    ..This meta-analysis measures the relationship of complete resection and type of adjuvant radiation therapy to 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of cranial base chordomas...
  22. Launay S, Chetaille B, Medina F, Perrot D, Nazarian S, Guiramand J, et al. Efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor targeting in advanced chordoma: case report and literature review. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:423 pubmed publisher
    ..They are characterized by slow growth and long history with frequent local relapses, and sometimes metastases. While chemotherapy is not efficient, imatinib has shown antitumor activity...
  23. Siu I, Salmasi V, Orr B, Zhao Q, Binder Z, Tran C, et al. Establishment and characterization of a primary human chordoma xenograft model. J Neurosurg. 2012;116:801-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently, there are only a few established chordoma cell lines and no primary xenograft model...
  24. Amichetti M, Cianchetti M, Amelio D, Enrici R, Minniti G. Proton therapy in chordoma of the base of the skull: a systematic review. Neurosurg Rev. 2009;32:403-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma is a rare, slow-growing, locally aggressive, primary bone tumor that arises from the skull base region in approximately 25-35% of cases...
  25. Shen J, Li C, Yang H, Lu J, Zou T, Wang D, et al. Classic chordoma coexisting with benign notochordal cell rest demonstrating different immunohistological expression patterns of brachyury and galectin-3. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:96-9 pubmed publisher
    Increasing numbers of studies support the hypothesis that chordoma arises from notochordal cell rests, although the mechanism awaits further research...
  26. Stacchiotti S, Longhi A, Ferraresi V, Grignani G, Comandone A, Stupp R, et al. Phase II study of imatinib in advanced chordoma. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:914-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the antitumor activity of imatinib in patients with advanced platelet-derived growth factor ? (PDGFB)/PDGF receptor ? (PDGFRB)-positive chordomas...
  27. Gottlieb K, Lin P, Liu D, Anders K. Transrectal EUS-guided FNA biopsy of a presacral chordoma--report of a case and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2586-9 pubmed
    ..report of the use of endoscopic ultrasound to obtain transrectal fine needle aspiration biopsy of a presacral chordoma. A review of the prior computer tomography (CT) scans allowed us to calculate the tumor volume doubling time (18...
  28. Zhang Q, Kong F, Yan B, Ni Z, Liu H. Endoscopic endonasal surgery for clival chordoma and chondrosarcoma. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2008;70:124-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Total removal of clival chordoma and chondrosarcoma is very difficult...
  29. Ares C, Hug E, Lomax A, Bolsi A, Timmermann B, Rutz H, et al. Effectiveness and safety of spot scanning proton radiation therapy for chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the skull base: first long-term report. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75:1111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate effectiveness and safety of spot-scanning-based proton radiotherapy (PT) in skull-base chordomas and chondrosarcomas...
  30. Stacchiotti S, Marrari A, Tamborini E, Palassini E, Virdis E, Messina A, et al. Response to imatinib plus sirolimus in advanced chordoma. Ann Oncol. 2009;20:1886-94 pubmed publisher
    Imatinib (IM) is active in advanced chordoma. The evidence of upstream and/or downstream mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activation prompted us to combine an mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus, to IM in IM-resistant advanced chordoma.
  31. Ozger H, Eralp L, Sungur M, Atalar A. Surgical management of sacral chordoma. Acta Orthop Belg. 2010;76:243-53 pubmed
    Treatment results of 17 patients who were diagnosed with sacral chordoma between 1993 and 2007, were analyzed retrospectively. The mean duration of symptoms was 30.2 months. The mean tumour size was 10...
  32. Davies J, Robinson A, Cowdrey C, Mummaneni P, Ducker G, Shokat K, et al. Generation of a patient-derived chordoma xenograft and characterization of the phosphoproteome in a recurrent chordoma. J Neurosurg. 2014;120:331-6 pubmed publisher
    The management of patients with locally recurrent or metastatic chordoma is a challenge. Preclinical disease models would greatly accelerate the development of novel therapeutic options for chordoma...
  33. Yang C, Schwab J, Schoenfeld A, Hornicek F, Wood K, Nielsen G, et al. A novel target for treatment of chordoma: signal transducers and activators of transcription 3. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:2597-605 pubmed publisher
    A major obstacle in the effective treatment of chordoma is that there are no identifiable biomarkers capable of predicting prognosis...
  34. Tamborini E, Virdis E, Negri T, Orsenigo M, Brich S, Conca E, et al. Analysis of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and downstream pathways in chordomas. Neuro Oncol. 2010;12:776-89 pubmed publisher
    ..families; (ii) support the idea that a combination of upstream antagonists and mTOR inhibitors enhances the control of tumor growth; and (iii) indicate that the 4E-BP1/eIF4E pathway is a major regulator of protein synthesis in chordoma.
  35. Nikoghosyan A, Karapanagiotou Schenkel I, Munter M, Jensen A, Combs S, Debus J. Randomised trial of proton vs. carbon ion radiation therapy in patients with chordoma of the skull base, clinical phase III study HIT-1-Study. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:607 pubmed publisher
    ..Proton therapy is the gold standard in the treatment of skull base chordomas. However, high-LET beams such as carbon ions theoretically offer biologic advantages by enhanced biologic effectiveness in slow-growing tumors...
  36. Duan Z, Shen J, Yang X, Yang P, Osaka E, Choy E, et al. Prognostic significance of miRNA-1 (miR-1) expression in patients with chordoma. J Orthop Res. 2014;32:695-701 pubmed publisher
    Reliable prognostic biomarkers for chordoma have not yet been established. Recent studies revealed that expression of miRNA-1 (miR-1) is frequently downregulated in several cancer types including chordoma...
  37. Siu I, Ruzevick J, Zhao Q, Connis N, Jiao Y, Bettegowda C, et al. Erlotinib inhibits growth of a patient-derived chordoma xenograft. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78895 pubmed publisher
    ..We have established and previously reported the initial characterization of the first patient-derived chordoma xenograft model...
  38. Lantos J, Agaram N, Healey J, Hwang S. Recurrent skeletal extra-axial chordoma confirmed with brachyury: imaging features and review of the literature. Skeletal Radiol. 2013;42:1451-9 pubmed publisher
    A small number of tumors bearing histological resemblance to axial chordoma arising from the bone or soft tissue outside the axial skeleton have been reported...
  39. Yang H, Zhu L, Ebraheim N, Liu J, Shapiro A, Castillo S, et al. Surgical treatment of sacral chordomas combined with transcatheter arterial embolization. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2010;23:47-52 pubmed publisher
    A retrospective study, analyzing midterm results of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for removal of a sacral chordoma.
  40. Martin M, Olson S. Intradural drop metastasis of a clival chordoma. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:1105-7 pubmed publisher
    A 69-year-old man with a history of clival chordoma presented with cauda equina syndrome. A mass impinging on the cauda equina was detected on MRI scans and it was initially thought to be a sequestered disc...
  41. Ptaszynski K, Szumera Ciećkiewicz A, Owczarek J, Mrozkowiak A, Pekul M, Barańska J, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status in chordoma. Pol J Pathol. 2009;60:81-7 pubmed
    b>Chordoma is a rare tumour arising from the embryonal remnants of a notochord occurring most commonly in the sacrococcygeal as well as head and neck locations. Current treatment includes surgery and/or proton beam radiotherapy...
  42. Nguyen Q, Chang E. Emerging role of proton beam radiation therapy for chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the skull base. Curr Oncol Rep. 2008;10:338-43 pubmed
    ..Compared with other forms of radiation therapy, proton beam therapy has been used to increase the dose delivered to the tumor while elegantly sparing dosing to adjacent critical normal structures...
  43. Ito E, Saito K, Okada T, Nagatani T, Nagasaka T. Long-term control of clival chordoma with initial aggressive surgical resection and gamma knife radiosurgery for recurrence. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2010;152:57-67; discussion 67 pubmed publisher
    ..This study analyzed long-term outcomes for clival chordomas after initial aggressive surgical resection and gamma knife radiosurgery for recurrence and investigated clinical factors predicting recurrence...
  44. Housari G, Gonzalez M, Calero P, Beni R, Lobo E. Sacral chordoma: management of a rare disease in a tertiary hospital. Clin Transl Oncol. 2013;15:327-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumor. The outcome depends on the adequate surgical treatment with complete excision of the tumor with microscopic clear margins.
  45. Presneau N, Shalaby A, Ye H, Pillay N, Halai D, Idowu B, et al. Role of the transcription factor T (brachyury) in the pathogenesis of sporadic chordoma: a genetic and functional-based study. J Pathol. 2011;223:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The U-CH1 cell line was validated as representing chordoma by the generation of xenografts, which showed typical chordoma morphology and immunohistochemistry in the NOD/..
  46. Kato T, Tsuda A, Uesaka M, Fujimori A, Kamada T, Tsujii H, et al. In vitro characterization of cells derived from chordoma cell line U-CH1 following treatment with X-rays, heavy ions and chemotherapeutic drugs. Radiat Oncol. 2011;6:116 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma, a rare cancer, is usually treated with surgery and/or radiation...
  47. Asavamongkolkul A, Waikakul S. Wide resection of sacral chordoma via a posterior approach. Int Orthop. 2012;36:607-12 pubmed publisher
    The study was carried out to report the results of wide resection in sacral chordoma using a posterior approach and gauze packing technique.
  48. Nibu Y, José Edwards D, Di Gregorio A. From notochord formation to hereditary chordoma: the many roles of Brachyury. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:826435 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma is a rare, but often malignant, bone cancer that preferentially affects the axial skeleton and the skull base...
  49. Scheipl S, Froehlich E, Leithner A, Beham A, Quehenberger F, Mokry M, et al. Does insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) targeting provide new treatment options for chordomas? A retrospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Histopathology. 2012;60:999-1003 pubmed publisher
    The overall prognosis of chordoma is poor, and current treatment options are limited. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) pathway is important for cell signalling, and attractive for selective inhibition...
  50. Choi K, Cohn M, Harfe B. Identification of nucleus pulposus precursor cells and notochordal remnants in the mouse: implications for disk degeneration and chordoma formation. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3953-8 pubmed publisher
    ..remnants," which in humans have been proposed to give rise to a rare type of late-onset cancer called chordoma. Previously, this cell type had not been identified in the mouse model system...
  51. Ridenour R, Ahrens W, Folpe A, Miller D. Clinical and histopathologic features of chordomas in children and young adults. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2010;13:9-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma is a tumor of the axial skeleton that is distinctly uncommon in children and adolescents...
  52. Shalaby A, Presneau N, Idowu B, Thompson L, Briggs T, Tirabosco R, et al. Analysis of the fibroblastic growth factor receptor-RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK-ETS2/brachyury signalling pathway in chordomas. Mod Pathol. 2009;22:996-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..The key genetic events responsible for the initiation and progression of chordomas remain to be discovered...
  53. Hsu W, Mohyeldin A, Shah S, ap Rhys C, Johnson L, Sedora Román N, et al. Generation of chordoma cell line JHC7 and the identification of Brachyury as a novel molecular target. J Neurosurg. 2011;115:760-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma is a malignant bone neoplasm hypothesized to arise from notochordal remnants along the length of the neuraxis...
  54. Duan Z, Choy E, Nielsen G, Rosenberg A, Iafrate J, Yang C, et al. Differential expression of microRNA (miRNA) in chordoma reveals a role for miRNA-1 in Met expression. J Orthop Res. 2010;28:746-52 pubmed publisher
    ..may have important diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value, but there is no data on miRNA expression in chordoma. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of miRNAs in human chordoma...
  55. Brada M, Pijls Johannesma M, De Ruysscher D. Current clinical evidence for proton therapy. Cancer J. 2009;15:319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Any complex and expensive technology, including proton therapy, should not be employed on the basis of belief alone and requires testing to avoid inappropriate use of potential detriment to future patients...
  56. Stacchiotti S, Casali P. Systemic therapy options for unresectable and metastatic chordomas. Curr Oncol Rep. 2011;13:323-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma is an exceedingly rare tumor, marked by a slow growth rate. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but the most frequent sites of origin (spine and skull base) make treatment of primary disease challenging...
  57. Kano H, Iqbal F, Sheehan J, Mathieu D, Seymour Z, Niranjan A, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for chordoma: a report from the North American Gamma Knife Consortium. Neurosurgery. 2011;68:379-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Although considered slow-growing, low-grade malignancies, chordomas are locally aggressive and destructive tumors with high recurrence rates...
  58. Pillay N, Plagnol V, Tarpey P, Lobo S, Presneau N, Szuhai K, et al. A common single-nucleotide variant in T is strongly associated with chordoma. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1185-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma is a rare malignant bone tumor that expresses the transcription factor T. We conducted an association study of 40 individuals with chordoma and 358 ancestry-matched controls, with replication in an independent cohort...
  59. Diaz R, Guduk M, Romagnuolo R, Smith C, Northcott P, Shih D, et al. High-resolution whole-genome analysis of skull base chordomas implicates FHIT loss in chordoma pathogenesis. Neoplasia. 2012;14:788-98 pubmed
    b>Chordoma is a rare tumor arising in the sacrum, clivus, or vertebrae. It is often not completely resectable and shows a high incidence of recurrence and progression with shortened patient survival and impaired quality of life...
  60. Barry J, Jian B, Sughrue M, Kane A, Mills S, Tihan T, et al. The next step: innovative molecular targeted therapies for treatment of intracranial chordoma patients. Neurosurgery. 2011;68:231-40; discussion 240-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgery and radiotherapy are the treatment mainstays of chordoma, but the chance of local recurrence remains high...
  61. Linden O, Stenberg L, Kjellen E. Regression of cervical spinal cord compression in a patient with chordoma following treatment with cetuximab and gefitinib. Acta Oncol. 2009;48:158-9 pubmed publisher
  62. Rinner B, Froehlich E, Buerger K, Knausz H, Lohberger B, Scheipl S, et al. Establishment and detailed functional and molecular genetic characterisation of a novel sacral chordoma cell line, MUG-Chor1. Int J Oncol. 2012;40:443-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, only two chordoma cell lines exist world-wide...
  63. Zhou H, Liu Z, Liu C, Ma Q, Liu X, Jiang L, et al. Cervical chordoma in childhood without typical vertebral bony destruction: case report and review of the literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:E493-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Case report...
  64. Le L, Nielsen G, Rosenberg A, Thomas D, Batten J, Deshpande V, et al. Recurrent chromosomal copy number alterations in sporadic chordomas. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18846 pubmed publisher
    The molecular events in chordoma pathogenesis have not been fully delineated, particularly with respect to copy number changes...
  65. Lee J, Bhatia N, Hoang B, Ziogas A, Zell J. Analysis of prognostic factors for patients with chordoma with use of the California Cancer Registry. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:356-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the spine. It is extremely rare and has been studied primarily in single-institution case series...
  66. Schwab J, Boland P, Agaram N, Socci N, Guo T, O Toole G, et al. Chordoma and chondrosarcoma gene profile: implications for immunotherapy. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009;58:339-49 pubmed publisher
    b>Chordoma and chondrosarcoma are malignant bone tumors characterized by the abundant production of extracellular matrix...
  67. Walter B, Begnami M, Valera V, Santi M, Rushing E, Quezado M. Gain of chromosome 7 by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in chordomas is correlated to c-MET expression. J Neurooncol. 2011;101:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..copy number of chromosome 7 and correlated it with EGFR gene status and EGFR and c-MET protein expression in 22 chordoma samples...
  68. Henderson F, McCool K, Seigle J, Jean W, Harter W, Gagnon G. Treatment of chordomas with CyberKnife: georgetown university experience and treatment recommendations. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:A44-53 pubmed publisher
    To determine the efficacy and safety of chordoma treatment with CyberKnife (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) stereotactic radiosurgery (CK/SRS).
  69. Fraser J, Nyquist G, Moore N, Anand V, Schwartz T. Endoscopic endonasal transclival resection of chordomas: operative technique, clinical outcome, and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2010;112:1061-9 pubmed publisher
    ..For certain chordomas, the endonasal endoscopic transclival approach is a novel minimal access, but it is an equally aggressive alternative providing the most direct route to the tumor epicenter...
  70. Ruggieri P, Angelini A, Pala E, Mercuri M. Infections in surgery of primary tumors of the sacrum. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012;37:420-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Retrospective case series...
  71. Ostroumov E, Hunter C. Identifying mechanisms for therapeutic intervention in chordoma: c-Met oncoprotein. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:2774-80 pubmed publisher
    A human sacral chordoma cell line, CCL3, was established and in vitro characterization of c-Met oncoprotein in chordoma cells was performed.