thyroid nodule

Summary

Summary: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).

Top Publications

  1. Unluturk U, Erdogan M, Demir O, Gullu S, Baskal N. Ultrasound elastography is not superior to grayscale ultrasound in predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules. Thyroid. 2012;22:1031-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Choi Y, Jung I, Min S, Kim H, Kim J, Kim S, et al. Thyroid nodule with benign cytology: is clinical follow-up enough?. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63834 pubmed publisher
    ..In this multicenter study, we investigated the management algorithm for thyroid nodules with benign cytology using US features from data collected from 7 institutions...
  3. Mehrotra P, McQueen A, Kolla S, Johnson S, Richardson D. Does elastography reduce the need for thyroid FNAs?. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013;78:942-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Ferraz C, Lorenz S, Wojtas B, Bornstein S, Paschke R, Eszlinger M. Inverse correlation of miRNA and cell cycle-associated genes suggests influence of miRNA on benign thyroid nodule tumorigenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E8-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular etiology of cold and benign thyroid nodules (CBTNs) is largely unknown. Increased thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a hallmark of CBTNs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are prominent regulators of cell proliferation...
  5. Park M, Park S, Kim E, Yoon J, Moon H, Lee H, et al. Heterogeneous echogenicity of the underlying thyroid parenchyma: how does this affect the analysis of a thyroid nodule?. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:550 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of underlying thyroid echogenicity on diagnosis of thyroid malignancies using US...
  6. Alexander E, Kennedy G, Baloch Z, Cibas E, Chudova D, Diggans J, et al. Preoperative diagnosis of benign thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:705-15 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel diagnostic test that measures the expression of 167 genes has shown promise in improving preoperative risk assessment...
  7. Hong Y, Wu Y, Luo Z, Wu N, Liu X. Impact of nodular size on the predictive values of gray-scale, color-Doppler ultrasound, and sonoelastography for assessment of thyroid nodules. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2012;13:707-16 pubmed
    To define the roles of gray-scale, color-Doppler ultrasound, and sonoelastography for the assessment of thyroid nodule to determine whether nodule size affects the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant.
  8. Veyrières J, Albarel F, Lombard J, Berbis J, Sebag F, Oliver C, et al. A threshold value in Shear Wave elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules: a reality?. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:3965-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the ability of a threshold value in ShearWave™ elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules while studying its pertinence in association with morphological signs...
  9. Trimboli P, Guglielmi R, Monti S, Misischi I, Graziano F, Nasrollah N, et al. Ultrasound sensitivity for thyroid malignancy is increased by real-time elastography: a prospective multicenter study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:4524-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultrasonography detects nodules at risk of malignancy, but its diagnostic accuracy does not rule out with certainty the possibility of cancer in lesions without suspicious findings...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kihara M, Hirokawa M, Masuoka H, Yabuta T, Shindo H, Higashiyama T, et al. Evaluation of cytologically benign solitary thyroid nodules by ultrasonography: a retrospective analysis of 1877 cases. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2013;40:308-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of ultrasonography (US) in the management of thyroid nodules when the cytology is benign tumor on fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB)...
  2. Cantisani V, Ulisse S, Guaitoli E, De Vito C, Caruso R, Mocini R, et al. Q-elastography in the presurgical diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50725 pubmed publisher
    ..in multivariate analysis demonstrating a significant association of the SR and the irregular margins with thyroid nodule's malignancy...
  3. Park S, Park S, Choi Y, Kim D, Son E, Lee H, et al. Interobserver variability and diagnostic performance in US assessment of thyroid nodule according to size. Ultraschall Med. 2012;33:E186-E190 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the interobserver variability for US assessments of thyroid nodules and analyze the diagnostic performances of US assessments in thyroid nodules according to nodule size...
  4. Zhang Y, Xu H, He Y, Liu C, Guo L, Liu L, et al. Virtual touch tissue quantification of acoustic radiation force impulse: a new ultrasound elastic imaging in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49094 pubmed publisher
    ..Virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is a new quantitative technique to measure tissue stiffness. The study was aimed to assess the usefulness of VTQ in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules...
  5. Bojunga J, Dauth N, Berner C, Meyer G, Holzer K, Voelkl L, et al. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging for differentiation of thyroid nodules. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42735 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of ARFI-imaging for differentiation of thyroid nodules and to compare it to the well evaluated qualitative real-time elastography (RTE)...
  6. Caria P, Dettori T, Frau D, Borghero A, Cappai A, Riola A, et al. Assessing RET/PTC in thyroid nodule fine-needle aspirates: the FISH point of view. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013;20:527-36 pubmed publisher
    ..8% threshold proved to be malignant. These data corroborate the power of FISH when compared with RT-PCR in quantifying the presence of RET/PTC in FNA and validate the RT-PCR efficiency in detecting clonal RET/PTC alterations. ..
  7. Chen Z, Xu W, Huang Y, Jin X, Deng J, Zhu S, et al. Associations of noniodized salt and thyroid nodule among the Chinese population: a large cross-sectional study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:684-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The controversy that iodized salt may increase the risk of thyroid disorders has arisen in China during the past several years...
  8. Sohn Y, Yoon J, Moon H, Kim E, Kwak J. Mixed echoic thyroid nodules on ultrasound: approach to management. Yonsei Med J. 2012;53:812-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate malignancy risk according to ultrasound (US) features and size change on follow-up US in mixed echoic thyroid nodules and to suggest management guidelines thereof...
  9. Chalhoub M, Harris K. Endobronchial ultrasonography with transbronchial needle aspiration to sample a solitary substernal thyroid nodule: a new approach. Heart Lung Circ. 2012;21:761-2 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a case of substernal thyroid nodule, where malignancy was excluded using endobronchial ultrasonography with transbronchial fine needle aspiration (..
  10. Bhatia K, Tong C, Cho C, Yuen E, Lee Y, Ahuja A. Shear wave elastography of thyroid nodules in routine clinical practice: preliminary observations and utility for detecting malignancy. Eur Radiol. 2012;22:2397-406 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate real-time shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWE) for characterizing focal thyroid lesions in routine clinical practice...
  11. Seningen J, Nassar A, Henry M. Correlation of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration cytology with corresponding histology at Mayo Clinic, 2001-2007: an institutional experience of 1,945 cases. Diagn Cytopathol. 2012;40 Suppl 1:E27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..For follicular or Hürthle pattern malignancies, indeterminate cytologic diagnoses should be interpreted with caution by the clinician considering surgical management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012;40:E27-E32. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc...
  12. Moon H, Kwak J, Kim E, Kim M, Park C, Chung W, et al. The combined role of ultrasound and frozen section in surgical management of thyroid nodules read as suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma on fine needle aspiration biopsy: a retrospective study. World J Surg. 2009;33:950-7 pubmed publisher
  13. Kim M, Kim E, Park S, Kim B, Kwak J, Kim S, et al. US-guided fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules: indications, techniques, results. Radiographics. 2008;28:1869-86; discussion 1887 pubmed publisher
    ..Supplemental material available at radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/28/7/1869/DC1...
  14. Altincik A, Demir K, Abaci A, Bober E, Buyukgebiz A. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis and follow-up of thyroid nodules in childhood. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2010;2:78-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the role of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in the management of pediatric thyroid nodules...
  15. Chernyavsky V, Shanker B, Davidov T, Crystal J, Eng O, Ibrahim K, et al. Is one benign fine needle aspiration enough?. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012;19:1472-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is used to diagnose thyroid nodules, but the follow-up of benign FNA is unclear. We sought to determine whether routine repeat FNAs after initial benign FNA reduces false negatives...
  16. Ferraz C, Eszlinger M, Paschke R. Current state and future perspective of molecular diagnosis of fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:2016-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This review analyzes the current state and problems of the molecular analysis of FNAB as well as possible goals for increasing the diagnostic rate, especially in the indeterminate/follicular lesion cytological group...
  17. . The Canadian Pediatric Thyroid Nodule Study: an evaluation of current management practices. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:826-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thyroid nodules in children often require surgical treatment. We evaluated management practices for these across Canada...
  18. Chammas M, de Araujo Filho V, Moyses R, Brescia M, Mulatti G, Brandão L, et al. Predictive value for malignancy in the finding of microcalcifications on ultrasonography of thyroid nodules. Head Neck. 2008;30:1206-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value for malignancy of microcalcifications determined by ultrasonography in thyroid nodules...
  19. Horvath E, Majlis S, Rossi R, Franco C, Niedmann J, Castro A, et al. An ultrasonogram reporting system for thyroid nodules stratifying cancer risk for clinical management. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:1748-51 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a high prevalence of thyroid nodules on ultrasonographic (US) examination. However, most of them are benign. US criteria may help to decide cost-effective management...
  20. Raggio E, Camandona M, Solerio D, Martino P, Franchello A, Orlandi F, et al. The diagnostic accuracy of the immunocytochemical markers in the pre-operative evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions. J Endocrinol Invest. 2010;33:378-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Aim of the study was to consider the diagnostic accuracy of galectine-3 (GAL3) in the pre-operative cytological evaluation of follicular lesions...
  21. Valcavi R, Riganti F, Bertani A, Formisano D, Pacella C. Percutaneous laser ablation of cold benign thyroid nodules: a 3-year follow-up study in 122 patients. Thyroid. 2010;20:1253-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However, long-term results are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the safety and effects of PLA treatment in patients with benign nonfunctioning thyroid nodules in a 3-year follow-up...
  22. Kim T, Lim J, Ahn H, Lee E, Min H, Won Kim K, et al. Tumor size and age predict the risk of malignancy in Hürthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid and can therefore guide the extent of initial thyroid surgery. Thyroid. 2010;20:1229-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of patients having a diagnosis of Hürthle cell neoplasm (HCN) on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of a thyroid nodule have a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy to make the final diagnosis...
  23. Paschke R, Hegedus L, Alexander E, Valcavi R, Papini E, Gharib H. Thyroid nodule guidelines: agreement, disagreement and need for future research. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011;7:354-61 pubmed publisher
    This article reviews agreement, disagreement and need for future research of the thyroid nodule guidelines published by the British Thyroid Association, National Cancer Institute, American Thyroid Association and the joint, transatlantic ..
  24. Hong Y, Liu X, Li Z, Zhang X, Chen M, Luo Z. Real-time ultrasound elastography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. J Ultrasound Med. 2009;28:861-7 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of real-time ultrasound elastography in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules...
  25. Kim D, Lee E, In H, Kim S. Sonographic differentiation of partially cystic thyroid nodules: a prospective study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010;31:1961-6 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no prospective study related to the sonographic differentiation of malignant PCTN from benign PCTN. This prospective study was designed to evaluate differentiation of benign from malignant PCTNs with thyroid sonography...
  26. Fiore E, Vitti P. Serum TSH and risk of papillary thyroid cancer in nodular thyroid disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:1134-45 pubmed publisher
    ..TSH is the main factor involved in the control of proliferation of thyrocytes. Recently, a strong relationship between serum TSH and risk of thyroid malignancy has been reported...
  27. Kwak J, Kim E, Kim M, Hong S, Choi S, Son E, et al. The role of ultrasound in thyroid nodules with a cytology reading of "suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma". Thyroid. 2008;18:517-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of US in the management of thyroid nodules with a FNAB reading suspicious for PTC...
  28. Filie A, Asa S, Geisinger K, Logani S, Merino M, Nikiforov Y, et al. Utilization of ancillary studies in thyroid fine needle aspirates: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference. Diagn Cytopathol. 2008;36:438-41 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer.gov). This document summarizes matters regarding the utilization of ancillary studies in thyroid FNA (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov/pages/info/agenda/)...
  29. Baier N, Hahn P, Gervais D, Samir A, Halpern E, Mueller P, et al. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules: experience in a cohort of 944 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193:1175-9 pubmed publisher
  30. Carpi A, Rossi G, Coscio G, Iervasi G, Nicolini A, Carpi F, et al. Galectin-3 detection on large-needle aspiration biopsy improves preoperative selection of thyroid nodules: a prospective cohort study. Ann Med. 2010;42:70-8 pubmed publisher
    ..New techniques of improving diagnostic reliability of thyroid nodules are needed...
  31. Costante G, Filetti S. Early diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma: is systematic calcitonin screening appropriate in patients with nodular thyroid disease?. Oncologist. 2011;16:49-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Are such studies feasible? Can they solve the CT dilemma? In the absence of adequate evidence, selective aggressive case finding should be pursued to improve MTC prognosis...
  32. Dabelic N, Matesa N, Matesa Anić D, Kusic Z. Malignancy risk assessment in adenomatoid nodules and suspicious follicular lesions of the thyroid obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology. Coll Antropol. 2010;34:349-54 pubmed
  33. Kim S, Hwang T, Yoo Y, Han H, Kim D, Song K, et al. Surgical results of thyroid nodules according to a management guideline based on the BRAF(V600E) mutation status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:658-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In Korea, where PTC comprises about 90-95% of the reported thyroid cancers, the prevalence of BRAF(V600E) mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is above 80%...
  34. Kang G, Cho E, Shin J, Chung J, Kim J, Oh Y. Role of BRAFV600E mutation analysis and second cytologic review of fine-needle aspiration for evaluating thyroid nodule. Cancer Cytopathol. 2012;120:44-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether the second review of FNA cytology can improve the diagnostic values and to assess the role of proto-oncogene B-Raf (BRAF) mutation testing in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma (PC)...
  35. Tfayli H, Teot L, Indyk J, Witchel S. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule: case report and review of the literature. Thyroid. 2010;20:1029-32 pubmed publisher
    ..thyroid nodules are less common among children than among adults, the anxiety generated by the finding of a thyroid nodule is high because 20% of nodules found in children contain thyroid cancer...
  36. Moon H, Sung J, Kim E, Yoon J, Youk J, Kwak J. Diagnostic performance of gray-scale US and elastography in solid thyroid nodules. Radiology. 2012;262:1002-13 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the diagnostic performance of gray-scale ultrasonography (US) and elastography in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules...
  37. Gietka Czernel M, Kochman M, Bujalska K, Stachlewska Nasfeter E, Zgliczynski W. Real-time ultrasound elastography - a new tool for diagnosing thyroid nodules. Endokrynol Pol. 2010;61:652-7 pubmed
    ..Recent data has shown its ability to differentiate benign from malignant tumours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of RTE in the diagnosis of malignant and benign thyroid nodules...
  38. Ning C, Jiang S, Zhang T, Sun L, Liu Y, Tian J. The value of strain ratio in differential diagnosis of thyroid solid nodules. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:286-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the clinical value of strain ratio in differentiating thyroid solid nodules and explore its distribution characters based on pathological results...
  39. Gharib H, Papini E, Paschke R. Thyroid nodules: a review of current guidelines, practices, and prospects. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;159:493-505 pubmed publisher
  40. Lee M, Kim E, Kwak J, Kim M. Partially cystic thyroid nodules on ultrasound: probability of malignancy and sonographic differentiation. Thyroid. 2009;19:341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The object of this study was to evaluate the frequency of malignancy in mixed echoic thyroid nodules and ascertain the ultrasound findings that help distinguish benign from malignant nodules...
  41. Cappelli C, Pirola I, Gandossi E, De Martino E, Agosti B, Castellano M. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodule: does the needle matter?. South Med J. 2009;102:498-501 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the adoption of stylet needles may result in a significant improvement of diagnostic performance in a large, unselected series of nodules...
  42. Stojadinovic A, Peoples G, Libutti S, Henry L, Eberhardt J, Howard R, et al. Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules. BMC Surg. 2009;9:12 pubmed publisher
    ..Four to seven percent of the United States adult population (10-18 million people) has a palpable thyroid nodule, however the majority (>95%) of thyroid nodules are benign...
  43. Moon H, Kwak J, Kim M, Son E, Kim E. Can vascularity at power Doppler US help predict thyroid malignancy?. Radiology. 2010;255:260-9 pubmed publisher
  44. Mondal H, Sen S, Sasmal S, Ghosal P, Mukhopadhyay S, Mukhopadhyay M. Clinicopathological correlation of serum TSH in patients with thyroid nodule. J Indian Med Assoc. 2011;109:330, 335, 338 pubmed
    ..Higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in patient with thyroid nodule is associated with greater risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma...
  45. Yeo M, Liang Z, Oh T, Moon Y, An S, Kim M, et al. Pyrosequencing cut-off value identifying BRAFV600E mutation in fine needle aspiration samples of thyroid nodules. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011;75:555-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, newly developed quantitative and semi-quantitative methods, such as dual-priming oligonucleotide (DPO)-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have the potential to generate false-positive (FP) results...
  46. Pennelli G, Mian C, Pelizzo M, Naccamulli D, Piotto A, Girelli M, et al. Galectin-3 cytotest in thyroid follicular neoplasia: a prospective, monoinstitutional study. Acta Cytol. 2009;53:533-9 pubmed
    ..Strong Gal3 expression should prompt immediate surgical treatment. ..
  47. Carpi A, Di Coscio G, Iervasi G, Antonelli A, Mechanick J, Sciacchitano S, et al. Thyroid fine needle aspiration: how to improve clinicians' confidence and performance with the technique. Cancer Lett. 2008;264:163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In a University Hospital with large and qualified experience on thyroid nodule diagnosis, a review of 320 slides with an FNA diagnosis of indeterminate follicular nodule from different ..
  48. Moon W, Kwag H, Na D. Are there any specific ultrasound findings of nodular hyperplasia ("leave me alone" lesion) to differentiate it from follicular adenoma?. Acta Radiol. 2009;50:383-8 pubmed publisher
  49. Dean D, Gharib H. Epidemiology of thyroid nodules. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;22:901-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Most endocrinologists are now using ultrasound examination in the initial evaluation of a patient with known or suspected thyroid nodule. The management of thyroid incidentalomas is a matter of controversy.
  50. Yoon J, Kwak J, Moon H, Kim M, Kim E. The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy and the sonographic differences between benign and malignant thyroid nodules 3?cm or larger. Thyroid. 2011;21:993-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound-guided FNAB (US-FNAB) for thyroid nodules that were 3?cm or larger as well as the sonographic differences between benign and malignant nodules in this size group...
  51. Chalhoub M, Harris K. The use of endobronchial ultrasonography with transbronchial needle aspiration to sample a solitary substernal thyroid nodule. Chest. 2010;137:1435-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytology was consistent with a colloid adenoma. EBUS-TBNA can sample substernal STNs that are not amenable to US-FNAB. ..
  52. Stoian D, Cornianuz M, Dobrescu A, Lazar F. Nodular thyroid cancer. Diagnostic value of real time elastography. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2012;107:39-46 pubmed
    The most important aspect in the diagnostic approach of thyroid nodule is identifying the malignancy Elastography is a newly technique that measures the elasticity of tissue, after applying a external force, standardized control...
  53. Baek J, Moon W, Kim Y, Lee J, Lee D. Radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. World J Surg. 2009;33:1971-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, minimally invasive alternative treatments, such as ethanol ablation or radiofrequency ablation (RFA), are necessary...