biliary tract neoplasms

Summary

Summary: Tumors or cancer in the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.

Top Publications

  1. Bengala C, Bertolini F, Malavasi N, Boni C, Aitini E, Dealis C, et al. Sorafenib in patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma: a phase II trial. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:68-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor of VEGFR-2/-3, PDGFR-beta, B-Raf, and C-Raf, has shown to be active in preclinical models of cholangiocarcinoma...
  2. Andreotti G, Liu E, Gao Y, Safaeian M, Rashid A, Shen M, et al. Medical history and the risk of biliary tract cancers in Shanghai, China: implications for a role of inflammation. Cancer Causes Control. 2011;22:1289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..2-15.0) or duodenal ulcers (OR = 3.7, 1.2-12.0) was associated with an excess risk of gallbladder cancer. Although the mechanisms are unclear, our results further support the role for inflammation in the etiology of biliary tract cancers...
  3. Bonet Beltrán M, Allal A, Gich I, Sole J, Carrio I. Is adjuvant radiotherapy needed after curative resection of extrahepatic biliary tract cancers? A systematic review with a meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Treat Rev. 2012;38:111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the lack of randomized trials, available data comes from single center experiences or data-based population studies with inconclusive results...
  4. Shebl F, Andreotti G, Rashid A, Gao Y, Yu K, Shen M, et al. Diabetes in relation to biliary tract cancer and stones: a population-based study in Shanghai, China. Br J Cancer. 2010;103:115-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Sasaki T, Isayama H, Nakai Y, Ito Y, Kogure H, Togawa O, et al. Multicenter, phase II study of gemcitabine and S-1 combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010;65:1101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine and S-1 combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer...
  6. Lim K, Han S, Oh D, Im S, Kim T, Bang Y. Outcome of infusional 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and mitomycin-C (iFAM) chemotherapy and analysis of prognostic factors in patients with refractory advanced biliary tract cancer. Oncology. 2012;83:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxorubicin, and mitomycin-C (iFAM) as salvage chemotherapy in biliary tract cancer (BTC) and to identify prognostic factors...
  7. Wu T, Levy M, Correa A, Rosen C, Abraham S. Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia in patients without chronic biliary disease: analysis of liver explants with alcoholic cirrhosis, hepatitis C infection, and noncirrhotic liver diseases. Cancer. 2009;115:4564-75 pubmed publisher
  8. Hezel A, Deshpande V, Zhu A. Genetics of biliary tract cancers and emerging targeted therapies. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:3531-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we summarize the molecular pathogenesis and genetics of BTCs and animal modeling and relate these to recent and ongoing clinical trials with targeted agents...
  9. Santini D, Schiavon G, Vincenzi B, Cass C, Vasile E, Manazza A, et al. Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1) levels predict response to gemcitabine in patients with biliary tract cancer (BTC). Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2011;11:123-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine patients' outcome according to the expression of hENT1 in tumoral cells of patients receiving gemcitabine-based therapy...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Bekaii Saab T, Phelps M, Li X, Saji M, Goff L, Kauh J, et al. Multi-institutional phase II study of selumetinib in patients with metastatic biliary cancers. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:2357-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Selumetinib is an inhibitor of MEK1/2, so this trial was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of selumetinib in BC...
  2. Sasaki T, Isayama H, Nakai Y, Mizuno S, Yamamoto K, Yagioka H, et al. Feasibility study of gemcitabine and cisplatin combination chemotherapy for patients with refractory biliary tract cancer. Invest New Drugs. 2011;29:1488-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Two patients treated for approximately 1 year developed cisplatin-related toxicities. In conclusion, gemcitabine and cisplatin combination chemotherapy produces a limited tumor response in BTC, but may prolong patient's survival...
  3. Noda T, Nagano H, Tomimaru Y, Murakami M, Wada H, Kobayashi S, et al. Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma with biliary tumor thrombi after liver surgery. Surgery. 2011;149:371-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed retrospectively the clinicopathologic features of 22 patients with HCC with BTT to identify the prognostic factors associated with operative outcome...
  4. Sasaki T, Isayama H, Nakai Y, Takahara N, Sasahira N, Kogure H, et al. Improvement of prognosis for unresectable biliary tract cancer. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the chemotherapeutic outcomes and confirm the recent improvement of prognosis for unresectable biliary tract cancer...
  5. Valle J, Wasan H, Palmer D, Cunningham D, Anthoney A, Maraveyas A, et al. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine for biliary tract cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1273-81 pubmed publisher
    ..After we found an improvement in progression-free survival, the trial was extended to the phase 3 trial reported here...
  6. Lubner S, Mahoney M, Kolesar J, Loconte N, Kim G, Pitot H, et al. Report of a multicenter phase II trial testing a combination of biweekly bevacizumab and daily erlotinib in patients with unresectable biliary cancer: a phase II Consortium study. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:3491-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), VEGF levels, and molecular studies of EGFR and k-ras...
  7. Sasaki T, Isayama H, Nakai Y, Mizuno S, Yamamoto K, Yagioka H, et al. Multicenter phase II study of S-1 monotherapy as second-line chemotherapy for advanced biliary tract cancer refractory to gemcitabine. Invest New Drugs. 2012;30:708-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common non-hematological toxicities were nausea (27%), anorexia (55%), and pigmentation (32%). In conclusion, S-1 monotherapy is feasible and moderately efficacious second-line chemotherapy for advanced BTC...
  8. Adsay N, Bagci P, Tajiri T, Oliva I, Ohike N, Balci S, et al. Pathologic staging of pancreatic, ampullary, biliary, and gallbladder cancers: pitfalls and practical limitations of the current AJCC/UICC TNM staging system and opportunities for improvement. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2012;29:127-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Proper grossing and appreciation of histo-anatomic subtleties of this region are crucial in addressing these issues and achieving more applicable and clinically relevant staging systems in the future...
  9. Kobayashi S, Ueno M, Ohkawa S, Andou T, Kameda R, Yamamoto N, et al. A retrospective study of S-1 monotherapy as second-line treatment for patients with advanced biliary tract cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2012;42:800-6 pubmed publisher
    ..As S-1 monotherapy as second-line chemotherapy is still not well known in a practical setting this study aimed to clarify its efficacy and safety...
  10. Lee J, Park S, Chang H, Kim J, Choi H, Lee M, et al. Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin with or without erlotinib in advanced biliary-tract cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:181-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin plus erlotinib versus chemotherapy alone for advanced biliary-tract cancer...
  11. Katayose Y, Ohtsuka H, Kitamura Y, Masuda K, Nakagawa K, Yamamoto K, et al. An analysis of a second-line S-1 monotherapy for gemcitabine-refractory biliary tract cancer. Hepatogastroenterology. 2012;59:691-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Gemcitabine is widely used as a first-line therapy for biliary tract cancer (BTC). However, few studies have been conducted to analyze second- line therapies...
  12. Oh S, Jeong C, Hong S, Kim T, Ha C, Kim H, et al. Phase II study of second line gemcitabine single chemotherapy for biliary tract cancer patients with 5-fluorouracil refractoriness. Invest New Drugs. 2011;29:1066-72 pubmed publisher
  13. Kiesslich T, Alinger B, Wolkersdörfer G, Ocker M, Neureiter D, Berr F. Active Wnt signalling is associated with low differentiation and high proliferation in human biliary tract cancer in vitro and in vivo and is sensitive to pharmacological inhibition. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:49-58 pubmed
    ..Further investigation of the mechanism(s) of Wnt pathway activation and its inhibition may provide new molecular treatment strategies for biliary tract cancer...
  14. Walter T, Horgan A, McNamara M, McKeever L, Min T, Hedley D, et al. Feasibility and benefits of second-line chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract cancer: a large retrospective study. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:329-35 pubmed publisher
    ..First-line chemotherapy (CT1) is effective in advanced biliary tract cancer (ABTC). The benefits of second-line chemotherapy (CT2) are unclear...
  15. Valle J, Wasan H, Johnson P, Jones E, Dixon L, Swindell R, et al. Gemcitabine alone or in combination with cisplatin in patients with advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinomas or other biliary tract tumours: a multicentre randomised phase II study - The UK ABC-01 Study. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:621-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the activity of gemcitabine (G) and cisplatin/gemcitabine (C/G) in patients with locally advanced (LA) or metastatic (M) (advanced) biliary cancers (ABC) for whom there is no standard chemotherapy...
  16. Kang M, Lee J, Kim T, Lee S, Ahn S, Park D, et al. Randomized phase II trial of S-1 and cisplatin versus gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with advanced biliary tract adenocarcinoma. Acta Oncol. 2012;51:860-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a combination of S-1 and cisplatin (SP) versus gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP) as first-line therapy for advanced biliary tract adenocarcinoma (ABTA)...
  17. Chiorean E, Ramasubbaiah R, Yu M, Picus J, Bufill J, Tong Y, et al. Phase II trial of erlotinib and docetaxel in advanced and refractory hepatocellular and biliary cancers: Hoosier Oncology Group GI06-101. Oncologist. 2012;17:13 pubmed publisher
    ..This trial evaluated the efficacy of erlotinib with docetaxel in refractory hepatobiliary cancers...
  18. Sasaki T, Isayama H, Nakai Y, Togawa O, Kogure H, Ito Y, et al. Prognostic factors in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer receiving chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;67:847-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Gallbladder cancer and intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma are previously reported prognostic factors of poor prognosis; however, tumor volume has not been analyzed in these previous reports...
  19. Kiesslich T, Neureiter D, Wolkersdörfer G, Plaetzer K, Berr F. Advances in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of hilar biliary tract cancer. Future Oncol. 2010;6:1925-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes the recent advances in preclinical and clinical experience of PDT for hBTC, including experimental in vitro and in vivo studies, clinical studies and an overview of the ongoing clinical trials...
  20. Okusaka T, Nakachi K, Fukutomi A, Mizuno N, Ohkawa S, Funakoshi A, et al. Gemcitabine alone or in combination with cisplatin in patients with biliary tract cancer: a comparative multicentre study in Japan. Br J Cancer. 2010;103:469-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In our study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of this combination compared with gemcitabine alone (G) in Japanese BTC patients...
  21. Kanai M, Yoshimura K, Tsumura T, Asada M, Suzuki C, Niimi M, et al. A multi-institution phase II study of gemcitabine/S-1 combination chemotherapy for patients with advanced biliary tract cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;67:1429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine/S-1 combination chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with advanced biliary tract cancer...
  22. Nakamura J, Kohya N, Kai K, Ohtaka K, Hashiguchi K, Hiraki M, et al. Ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 assessed by quantitative double-fluorescence immunohistochemistry predicts the efficacy of gemcitabine in biliary tract carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:845-52 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, qDFIHC is a useful method for the assessment of RRM1 protein, in order to design a tailor-made chemotherapeutic regimen for BTC patients...
  23. Furuse J, Okusaka T, Bridgewater J, Taketsuna M, Wasan H, Koshiji M, et al. Lessons from the comparison of two randomized clinical trials using gemcitabine and cisplatin for advanced biliary tract cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2011;80:31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides clinicians with insights for advanced BTC clinical study design and interpretation of historical studies...
  24. Sasaki T, Isayama H, Nakai Y, Ito Y, Yasuda I, Toda N, et al. A randomized phase II study of gemcitabine and S-1 combination therapy versus gemcitabine monotherapy for advanced biliary tract cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013;71:973-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to confirm the impact of adding S-1 to gemcitabine, we conducted a randomized phase II study to compare the combination therapy of gemcitabine plus S-1 to gemcitabine monotherapy in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer...
  25. Gruenberger B, Schueller J, Heubrandtner U, Wrba F, Tamandl D, Kaczirek K, et al. Cetuximab, gemcitabine, and oxaliplatin in patients with unresectable advanced or metastatic biliary tract cancer: a phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:1142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of cetuximab in combination with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) for first-line treatment of biliary tract cancer...
  26. Zhu A, Meyerhardt J, Blaszkowsky L, Kambadakone A, Muzikansky A, Zheng H, et al. Efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab in advanced biliary-tract cancers and correlation of changes in 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET with clinical outcome: a phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:48-54 pubmed publisher
  27. Furukawa H, Ikuma H, Asakura K, Uesaka K. Prognostic importance of standardized uptake value on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in biliary tract carcinoma. J Surg Oncol. 2009;100:494-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the prognostic significance of FDG uptake on PET had not been sufficiently evaluated in patients with biliary carcinoma...
  28. Jang J, Lim H, Hwang I, Song H, Yoo N, Yoon S, et al. Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with unresectable biliary cancer including gall bladder cancer: a Korean Cancer Study Group phase II trial. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010;65:641-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) in patients with BTCs including gall bladder cancer...
  29. Kiesslich T, Neureiter D, Alinger B, Jansky G, Berlanda J, Mkrtchyan V, et al. Uptake and phototoxicity of meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorine are highly variable in human biliary tract cancer cell lines and correlate with markers of differentiation and proliferation. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2010;9:734-43 pubmed publisher
  30. Philip P, Mahoney M, Allmer C, Thomas J, Pitot H, Kim G, et al. Phase II study of erlotinib in patients with advanced biliary cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:3069-74 pubmed
    ..The primary objective of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with advanced BILI who were progression-free at 6 months...
  31. Ueki T, Hsing A, Gao Y, Wang B, Shen M, Cheng J, et al. Alterations of p16 and prognosis in biliary tract cancers from a population-based study in China. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:1717-25 pubmed
    ..Biliary tract cancer is an uncommon malignancy with a poor survival rate. We evaluated p16 gene alteration as a prognostic marker for this disease...
  32. Ducreux M, Van Cutsem E, Van Laethem J, Gress T, Jeziorski K, Rougier P, et al. A randomised phase II trial of weekly high-dose 5-fluorouracil with and without folinic acid and cisplatin in patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma: results of the 40955 EORTC trial. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:398-403 pubmed
  33. Rao S, Cunningham D, Hawkins R, Hill M, Smith D, Daniel F, et al. Phase III study of 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) compared to epirubicin, cisplatin and 5FU (ECF) in previously untreated patients with advanced biliary cancer. Br J Cancer. 2005;92:1650-4 pubmed
    ..ECF did not improve OS compared to FELV, but was associated with less acute toxicity. These data suggest that chemotherapy can prolong OS and achieve good symptomatic relief in advanced biliary cancer...
  34. Ikeda M, Okusaka T, Ueno H, Morizane C, Furuse J, Ishii H. A phase II trial of Uracil-tegafur (UFT) in patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2005;35:439-43 pubmed
    ..However, its activity in biliary tract carcinoma has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity of UFT in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma...
  35. Kim S, Park J, Lee J, Lee K, Lee J, Choi S, et al. A Phase II study of gemcitabine and cisplatin in advanced biliary tract cancer. Cancer. 2006;106:1339-46 pubmed
    ..In addition, the correlation between the CA 19-9 response and clinical outcome was analyzed...
  36. Hsing A, Sakoda L, Rashid A, Chen J, Shen M, Han T, et al. Body size and the risk of biliary tract cancer: a population-based study in China. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:811-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The increasing prevalence of obesity and cholesterol stones in Shanghai seems at least partly responsible for the rising incidence of gall bladder cancer in Shanghai...
  37. Alberts S, Al Khatib H, Mahoney M, Burgart L, Cera P, Flynn P, et al. Gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin in advanced biliary tract and gallbladder carcinoma: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group phase II trial. Cancer. 2005;103:111-8 pubmed
  38. Koike M, Yasui K, Shimizu Y, Kodera Y, Hirai T, Morimoto T, et al. Carcinoma of the hepatic hilus developing 21 years after biliary diversion for choledochal cyst: a case report. Hepatogastroenterology. 2002;49:1216-20 pubmed
    ..She underwent a curative resection of the tumor. Biliary tract carcinoma may be a late postoperative complications of choledochal cysts. Long-term follow-up of the patient is necessary after the primary operation...
  39. Khan S, Taylor Robinson S, Toledano M, Beck A, Elliott P, Thomas H. Changing international trends in mortality rates for liver, biliary and pancreatic tumours. J Hepatol. 2002;37:806-13 pubmed
    ..Trends in cholangiocarcinoma in most other industrialized countries are unknown. To further study trends in hepatobiliary and pancreatic tumours, we analysed mortality data from the United States, Japan, Australia and Europe...
  40. Lee J, Salem R, Aslanian H, Chacho M, Topazian M. Endoscopic ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration of unexplained bile duct strictures. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004;99:1069-73 pubmed
  41. Hsing A, Bai Y, Andreotti G, Rashid A, Deng J, Chen J, et al. Family history of gallstones and the risk of biliary tract cancer and gallstones: a population-based study in Shanghai, China. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:832-8 pubmed
  42. Oh S, Lee G, Kim H, Kim T, Kim H, Kang J. Phase II trial of S-1 in combination with oxaliplatin in previously untreated patients with recurrent or inoperable biliary tract cancer. Chemotherapy. 2008;54:479-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Biliary tract cancers are among the most aggressive tumors with a poor prognosis. We conducted a phase II study on combination chemotherapy consisting of S-1 and oxaliplatin in previously untreated patients...
  43. Andreotti G, Chen J, Gao Y, Rashid A, Chang S, Shen M, et al. Serum lipid levels and the risk of biliary tract cancers and biliary stones: A population-based study in China. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:2322-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings support a role for serum lipids in gallstone development and biliary carcinogenesis...
  44. Kiba T, Nishimura T, Matsumoto S, Hatano E, Mori A, Yasumi S, et al. Single-agent gemcitabine for biliary tract cancers. Study outcomes and systematic review of the literature. Oncology. 2006;70:358-65 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of gemcitabine-treated patients with inoperable biliary tract cancers...
  45. Matsuda T, Marugame T. International comparisons of cumulative risk of gallbladder cancer and other biliary tract cancer, from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Vol. VIII. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2007;37:74-5 pubmed
  46. Lee J, Kim T, Lee M, Ahn M, Kim H, Lim H, et al. Phase II trial of gemcitabine combined with cisplatin in patients with inoperable biliary tract carcinomas. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2008;61:47-52 pubmed
    ..The aim of this phase II study was to evaluate the response rate to gemcitabine combined with cisplatin in patients with locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent biliary tract cancer who had received no prior chemotherapy...
  47. Nehls O, Oettle H, Hartmann J, Hofheinz R, Hass H, Horger M, et al. Capecitabine plus oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in patients with advanced biliary system adenocarcinoma: a prospective multicentre phase II trial. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:309-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the CAPOX regimen is a well-tolerated and active treatment option for advanced ECC and GBC but might produce poorer results for ICC...
  48. Hsing A, Gao Y, Han T, Rashid A, Sakoda L, Wang B, et al. Gallstones and the risk of biliary tract cancer: a population-based study in China. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:1577-82 pubmed
    ..9 vs 2.8 grams; P=0.001). We estimate that in Shanghai 80% (95% CI 75-84%), 59% (56-61%), and 41% (29-59%) of gallbladder, bile duct, and ampulla of Vater cancers, respectively, could be attributed to gallstones...
  49. Benson A, Abrams T, Ben Josef E, Bloomston P, Botha J, Clary B, et al. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: hepatobiliary cancers. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2009;7:350-91 pubmed
  50. Tsavaris N, Kosmas C, Gouveris P, Gennatas K, Polyzos A, Mouratidou D, et al. Weekly gemcitabine for the treatment of biliary tract and gallbladder cancer. Invest New Drugs. 2004;22:193-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety of weekly administration of gemcitabine treatment in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced biliary tract and gallbladder cancer...
  51. Chen J, Yang T, Lin Y, Jan Y. A phase II trial of tegafur-uracil plus leucovorin (LV) in the treatment of advanced biliary tract carcinomas. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2003;33:353-6 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of oral tegafur-uracil (tegafur combined with uracil in a molar of 1:4 ratio) plus leucovorin (LV) in patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma (BTC)...
  52. Bulajic M, Maisonneuve P, Schneider Brachert W, Muller P, Reischl U, Stimec B, et al. Helicobacter pylori and the risk of benign and malignant biliary tract disease. Cancer. 2002;95:1946-53 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between H. pylori in bile and biliary tract carcinoma...
  53. de Bellis M, Sherman S, Fogel E, Cramer H, Chappo J, McHenry L, et al. Tissue sampling at ERCP in suspected malignant biliary strictures (Part 1). Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;56:552-61 pubmed