alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

Summary

Summary: A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults, affecting muscles of the extremities, trunk, orbital region, etc. It is extremely malignant, metastasizing widely at an early stage. Few cures have been achieved and the prognosis is poor. "Alveolar" refers to its microscopic appearance simulating the cells of the respiratory alveolus. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)

Top Publications

  1. Houreih M, Lin A, Eyden B, Menasce L, Harrison J, Jones D, et al. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with neuroendocrine/neuronal differentiation: report of 3 cases. Int J Surg Pathol. 2009;17:135-41 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to report the clinicopathologic characteristics of 3 cases of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with neuroendocrine/neuronal differentiation...
  2. Taniguchi E, Nishijo K, McCleish A, Michalek J, Grayson M, Infante A, et al. PDGFR-A is a therapeutic target in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Oncogene. 2008;27:6550-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an aggressive skeletal muscle cancer of childhood...
  3. Mercado G, Barr F. Fusions involving PAX and FOX genes in the molecular pathogenesis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: recent advances. Curr Mol Med. 2007;7:47-61 pubmed
  4. Davicioni E, Finckenstein F, Shahbazian V, Buckley J, Triche T, Anderson M. Identification of a PAX-FKHR gene expression signature that defines molecular classes and determines the prognosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. Cancer Res. 2006;66:6936-46 pubmed
    ..Our results show that PAX-FKHR dictate a specific expression signature that helps define the molecular phenotype of PAX-FKHR-positive ARMS tumors and, because it is linked with disease outcome in ARMS patients, determine tumor behavior...
  5. Kuroiwa M, Sakamoto J, Shimada A, Suzuki N, Hirato J, Park M, et al. Manifestation of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma as primary cutaneous lesions in a neonate with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44:e31-5 pubmed publisher
    We report a rare case of neonatal Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) associated with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Alveolar RMS was diagnosed on the basis of excisional biopsy...
  6. Zeng F, Cui J, Liu L, Chen T. PAX3-FKHR sensitizes human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells to camptothecin-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis. Cancer Lett. 2009;284:157-64 pubmed publisher
    Patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) have poorer response to conventional chemotherapy and lower survival rates than those with embryonal RMS (ERMS)...
  7. Epstein J, Lam P, Jepeal L, Maas R, Shapiro D. Pax3 inhibits myogenic differentiation of cultured myoblast cells. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:11719-22 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Pax3 may suppress the terminal differentiation of migrating limb myoblasts and that the PAX3-forkhead fusion may contribute to the phenotype of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma by preventing terminal differentiation.
  8. Kikuchi K, Tsuchiya K, Otabe O, Gotoh T, Tamura S, Katsumi Y, et al. Effects of PAX3-FKHR on malignant phenotypes in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;365:568-74 pubmed
    The malignancy of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) has been linked to expression of the PAX3-FKHR chimeric gene...
  9. Ognjanovic S, Linabery A, Charbonneau B, Ross J. Trends in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma incidence and survival in the United States, 1975-2005. Cancer. 2009;115:4218-26 pubmed publisher
    ..It is believed that embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), the most common subtypes, arise through distinct biologic mechanisms...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Zeng F, Dong H, Cui J, Liu L, Chen T. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates PAX3-FKHR-mediated cell proliferation in human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:1049-55 pubmed publisher
    Patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) have poorer response to conventional chemotherapy and lower survival rates than those with embryonal RMS (ERMS)...
  2. Roberts I, Gordon A, Wang R, Pritchard Jones K, Shipley J, Coleman N. Molecular cytogenetic analysis consistently identifies translocations involving chromosomes 1, 2 and 15 in five embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and a PAX-FOXO1A fusion gene negative alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;95:134-42 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the translocation breakpoints may suggest mechanisms of ERMS tumourigenesis and may enable the development of novel approaches to the clinical management of this tumour...
  3. Sorensen P, Lynch J, Qualman S, Tirabosco R, Lim J, Maurer H, et al. PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR gene fusions are prognostic indicators in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the children's oncology group. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:2672-9 pubmed
    b>Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is an aggressive soft tissue malignancy of children and adolescents. Most ARMS patients express PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR gene fusions resulting from t(2;13) or t(1;13) translocations, respectively...
  4. Scheidler S, Fredericks W, Rauscher F, Barr F, Vogt P. The hybrid PAX3-FKHR fusion protein of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma transforms fibroblasts in culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9805-9 pubmed
    Pediatric alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is characterized by a chromosomal translocation that fuses parts of the PAX3 and FKHR genes...
  5. Lae M, Ahn E, Mercado G, Chuai S, Edgar M, Pawel B, et al. Global gene expression profiling of PAX-FKHR fusion-positive alveolar and PAX-FKHR fusion-negative embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas. J Pathol. 2007;212:143-51 pubmed
    ..The gene expression signature of ARMS provides a source of potential diagnostic markers, therapeutic targets, and PAX-FKHR downstream genes, and can be used to reliably distinguish these sarcomas from ERMS...
  6. van den Broeke L, Pendleton C, Mackall C, Helman L, Berzofsky J. Identification and epitope enhancement of a PAX-FKHR fusion protein breakpoint epitope in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells created by a tumorigenic chromosomal translocation inducing CTL capable of lysing human tumors. Cancer Res. 2006;66:1818-23 pubmed
    ..epitope in the PAX-FKHR fusion protein created by the t(2;13) translocation present in 80% of cases of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, a highly aggressive pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma...
  7. Smith A, Squire J, Thorner P, Zielenska M, Shuman C, Grant R, et al. Association of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2001;4:550-8 pubmed
    ..The absence of the translocations commonly associated with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma suggests a common 11p15 pathway for alveolar RMS and BWS.
  8. Anderson M, Shelton G, Cavenee W, Arden K. Embryonic expression of the tumor-associated PAX3-FKHR fusion protein interferes with the developmental functions of Pax3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:1589-94 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the tumor-associated PAX3-FKHR fusion protein interferes with normal Pax3 developmental functions as a prelude to transformation...
  9. Grundy R, Anderson J, Gaze M, Gerrard M, Glaser A, Gordon A, et al. Congenital alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: clinical and molecular distinction from alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in older children. Cancer. 2001;91:606-12 pubmed
    Congenital alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is extremely rare and invariably fatal with current therapy...
  10. Saikawa Y, Tone Y, Ikawa Y, Maeba H, Koizumi S, Minato H. Hemophagocytic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:5783-4 pubmed
  11. Parham D, Qualman S, Teot L, Barr F, Morotti R, Sorensen P, et al. Correlation between histology and PAX/FKHR fusion status in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Am J Surg Pathol. 2007;31:895-901 pubmed
    ..No features seemed to predict the presence of a particular fusion type. Our results suggest that histologic assessment of ARMS has limited correlation with PAX/FKHR fusion status...
  12. Dagher R, Long L, Read E, Leitman S, Carter C, Tsokos M, et al. Pilot trial of tumor-specific peptide vaccination and continuous infusion interleukin-2 in patients with recurrent Ewing sarcoma and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: an inter-institute NIH study. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2002;38:158-64 pubmed
    Patients with recurrent Ewing sarcoma and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma have poor prognoses and limited therapeutic options...
  13. Keller C, Hansen M, Coffin C, Capecchi M. Pax3:Fkhr interferes with embryonic Pax3 and Pax7 function: implications for alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cell of origin. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2608-13 pubmed
  14. Athale U, Shurtleff S, Jenkins J, Poquette C, Tan M, Downing J, et al. Use of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis and staging of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma family of tumors, and desmoplastic small round cell tumor. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001;23:99-104 pubmed
    ..with that of morphology-based methods for diagnosis, staging, and detection of metastatic disease in pediatric alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT), and desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCT).
  15. Setterfield J, Sciot R, Debiec Rychter M, Robson A, Calonje E. Primary cutaneous epidermotropic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with t(2;13) in an elderly woman: case report and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:938-44 pubmed
    We report a case of a primary cutaneous alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma presenting on the lower limb of a 60-year old woman...
  16. Takahashi Y, Oda Y, Kawaguchi K, Tamiya S, Yamamoto H, Suita S, et al. Altered expression and molecular abnormalities of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins in rhabdomyosarcoma. Mod Pathol. 2004;17:660-9 pubmed
    ..Alveolar type had a significantly higher both mitotic rate and E2F-1 labeling indices when compared with the embryonal type. The current study is the first report of the correlation of E2F-1 with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  17. Naini S, Etheridge K, Adam S, Qualman S, Bentley R, Counter C, et al. Defining the cooperative genetic changes that temporally drive alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Res. 2008;68:9583-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These early steps, coupled with MycN amplification and telomere stabilization, then drive the cells to a fully tumorigenic state...
  18. Barr F, Nauta L, Davis R, Schafer B, Nycum L, Biegel J. In vivo amplification of the PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR fusion genes in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Hum Mol Genet. 1996;5:15-21 pubmed
    In the pediatric cancer alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, characteristic t(2;13)(q35;q14) or variant t(1;13)(p36;q14) chromosomal translocations generate PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR fusion genes...
  19. Williamson D, Missiaglia E, de Reynies A, Pierron G, Thuille B, Palenzuela G, et al. Fusion gene-negative alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is clinically and molecularly indistinguishable from embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:2151-8 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the clinical and molecular biologic characteristics of the alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) subtypes have relevance independent of the presence or absence of the PAX/FOXO1 fusion ..
  20. Galili N, Davis R, Fredericks W, Mukhopadhyay S, Rauscher F, Emanuel B, et al. Fusion of a fork head domain gene to PAX3 in the solid tumour alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Nat Genet. 1993;5:230-5 pubmed
    ..and expression of the products associated with the t(2;13)(q35;q14) translocation associated with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. The chromosome 13 gene (FKHR) is identified as a member of the fork head domain family of transcription ..
  21. Kohashi K, Oda Y, Yamamoto H, Tamiya S, Takahira T, Takahashi Y, et al. Alterations of RB1 gene in embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: special reference to utility of pRB immunoreactivity in differential diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma subtype. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2008;134:1097-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, there might be a correlation between the tumorigenesis of RMS and RB1 alteration...
  22. Ben Arush M, Bar Shalom R, Postovsky S, Militianu D, Haimi M, Zaidman I, et al. Assessing the use of FDG-PET in the detection of regional and metastatic nodes in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of extremities. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;28:440-5 pubmed
    b>Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARS) accounts for 20% to 30% of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and is known to have a worse prognosis than embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma...
  23. Williamson D, Lu Y, Fang C, Pritchard Jones K, Shipley J. Nascent pre-rRNA overexpression correlates with an adverse prognosis in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2006;45:839-45 pubmed
    ..We conclude that measuring expression of pre-rRNA by real-time PCR is a useful prognostic marker in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Furthermore, given that we have observed similar rDNA staining in all cancer types that we have studied ..
  24. Anderson J, Gordon T, McManus A, Mapp T, Gould S, Kelsey A, et al. Detection of the PAX3-FKHR fusion gene in paediatric rhabdomyosarcoma: a reproducible predictor of outcome?. Br J Cancer. 2001;85:831-5 pubmed
    ..With the difficulties in morphological diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma on increasingly used small needle biopsy specimens, these data suggest that molecular analysis for PAX3-..
  25. Sublett J, Jeon I, Shapiro D. The alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma PAX3/FKHR fusion protein is a transcriptional activator. Oncogene. 1995;11:545-52 pubmed
    ..The PAX3/FKHR fusion gene, formed by a t(2;13)(q35;q14) in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, encodes a hybrid protein that contains both PAX3 DNA binding domains, the paired box and homeodomain, ..
  26. Gordon A, Brinkschmidt C, Anderson J, Coleman N, Dockhorn Dworniczak B, Pritchard Jones K, et al. A novel and consistent amplicon at 13q31 associated with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000;28:220-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we substantially extended the number of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma samples examined by comparative genomic hybridization analysis...
  27. Arush M, Kollender Y, Issakov J, Shalom R, Arieh Y, Malkin L, et al. Unusual leptomeningeal dissemination in a child with extracranial metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009;26:473-8 pubmed publisher
    The authors describe a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma located in the thigh, with distal metastases to lungs, bones, and bone marrow...
  28. Bridge J, Liu J, Qualman S, Suijkerbuijk R, Wenger G, Zhang J, et al. Genomic gains and losses are similar in genetic and histologic subsets of rhabdomyosarcoma, whereas amplification predominates in embryonal with anaplasia and alveolar subtypes. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002;33:310-21 pubmed
  29. Barr F. Gene fusions involving PAX and FOX family members in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Oncogene. 2001;20:5736-46 pubmed
    The chromosomal translocations t(2;13)(q35;q14) and t(1;13)(p36;q14) are characteristic of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, a pediatric soft tissue cancer related to the striated muscle lineage...
  30. Nishio J, Althof P, Bailey J, Zhou M, Neff J, Barr F, et al. Use of a novel FISH assay on paraffin-embedded tissues as an adjunct to diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Lab Invest. 2006;86:547-56 pubmed
    A valuable diagnostic adjunct and important prognostic parameter in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is the identification of translocations t(2;13)(q35;q14) and t(1;13)(p36;q14), and the associated PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR fusion ..
  31. Nishijo K, Chen Q, Zhang L, McCleish A, Rodriguez A, Cho M, et al. Credentialing a preclinical mouse model of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2902-11 pubmed publisher
    The highly aggressive muscle cancer alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is one of the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood, yet the outcome for the unresectable and metastatic disease is dismal and unchanged for nearly three decades...
  32. Dias P, Chen B, Dilday B, Palmer H, Hosoi H, Singh S, et al. Strong immunostaining for myogenin in rhabdomyosarcoma is significantly associated with tumors of the alveolar subclass. Am J Pathol. 2000;156:399-408 pubmed
  33. Rodriguez Galindo C, Hill D, Onyekwere O, Pin N, Rao B, Hoffer F, et al. Neonatal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with skin and brain metastases. Cancer. 2001;92:1613-20 pubmed
    ..However, because RMS rarely occurs during the neonatal period, little is known about neonatal RMS...
  34. Yamaguchi K, Koga Y, Suminoe A, Saito Y, Matsuzaki A, Kanno S, et al. [Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of unknown origin mimicking acute leukemia at the initial presentation]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 2007;48:315-20 pubmed
    ..polymerase chain reaction demonstrated PAX3/FKHR fusion transcripts, confirming the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Radiological examination revealed only one enlarged lymph node being 1...
  35. Shapiro D, Sublett J, Li B, Downing J, Naeve C. Fusion of PAX3 to a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors in human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Res. 1993;53:5108-12 pubmed
    b>Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, a malignant tumor of skeletal muscle, is characterized by a chromosomal translocation, t(2;13)(q35;q14)...
  36. Fredericks W, Galili N, Mukhopadhyay S, Rovera G, Bennicelli J, Barr F, et al. The PAX3-FKHR fusion protein created by the t(2;13) translocation in alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas is a more potent transcriptional activator than PAX3. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1522-35 pubmed
    ..The PAX3-FKHR protein may function as an oncogenic transcription factor by enhanced activation of normal PAX3 target genes...
  37. Collins M, Zhao H, Womer R, Barr F. Proliferative and apoptotic differences between alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes: a comparative study of tumors containing PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR gene fusions. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2001;37:83-9 pubmed
  38. Charytonowicz E, Cordon Cardo C, Matushansky I, Ziman M. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: is the cell of origin a mesenchymal stem cell?. Cancer Lett. 2009;279:126-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is a pediatric sarcoma that typically occurs in older children predominantly arising in the trunk and extremities, and exhibits a worse prognosis than other types of rhabdomyosarcomas...
  39. Keller C, Capecchi M. New genetic tactics to model alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in the mouse. Cancer Res. 2005;65:7530-2 pubmed
    ..conditional knock-in and knock-out techniques, we designed a mouse model of the childhood muscle cancer alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) that is driven by the chromosomal translocation product, Pax3:Fkhr...
  40. Kazanowska B, Reich A, Stegmaier S, Bekassy A, Leuschner I, Chybicka A, et al. Pax3-fkhr and pax7-fkhr fusion genes impact outcome of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in children. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2007;26:17-31 pubmed
    ..In addition, fusion gene analysis is a helpful tool in differential diagnosis of poorly differentiated soft tissue tumors...
  41. Cerveira N, Torres L, Ribeiro F, Henrique R, Pinto A, Bizarro S, et al. Multimodal genetic diagnosis of solid variant alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2005;163:138-43 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our findings and previous studies indicate that there are no apparent genetic differences between solid variant and typical ARMS...
  42. Doelken R, Weigel S, Schueler F, Doelken G, Beck J. Poor outcome of two children with relapsed state stage IV alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2005;22:699-703 pubmed
    ..stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) from their HLA-identical sibling after relapse of stage IV alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Both patients were transplanted in a non-remission status...
  43. Onisto M, Slongo M, Gregnanin L, Gastaldi T, Carli M, Rosolen A. Expression and activity of vascular endothelial growth factor and metalloproteinases in alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2005;27:791-8 pubmed
    ..RMS) is a malignant tumour of skeletal muscle origin which includes two major histological subtypes: alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), the more aggressive, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS)...
  44. Lambert I, Debiec Rychter M, Dubin M, Sciot R. Solid alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma originating from the urinary bladder in an adult. Diagnostic value of molecular genetics. Histopathology. 2004;44:508-10 pubmed
  45. Barber T, Barber M, Tomescu O, Barr F, Ruben S, Friedman T. Identification of target genes regulated by PAX3 and PAX3-FKHR in embryogenesis and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Genomics. 2002;79:278-84 pubmed
  46. De Pittà C, Tombolan L, Albiero G, Sartori F, Romualdi C, Jurman G, et al. Gene expression profiling identifies potential relevant genes in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma pathogenesis and discriminates PAX3-FKHR positive and negative tumors. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:2772-81 pubmed
    We analyzed the expression signatures of 14 tumor biopsies from children affected by alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) to identify genes correlating to biological features of this tumor...
  47. Gordon A, McManus A, Anderson J, Fisher C, Abe S, Nojima T, et al. Chromosomal imbalances in pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas and identification of the alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma-associated PAX3-FOXO1A fusion gene in one case. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2003;140:73-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, one of the cases classified as PRMS showed evidence for the presence of a PAX3-FOXO1A fusion gene, which is characteristic of the alveolar subtype of RMS...
  48. Lagutina I, Conway S, Sublett J, Grosveld G. Pax3-FKHR knock-in mice show developmental aberrations but do not develop tumors. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7204-16 pubmed
    b>Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is a pediatric disease specified by the recurrent chromosome translocations t(2;13) and t(1;13)...
  49. Canner J, Sobo M, Ball S, Hutzen B, DeAngelis S, Willis W, et al. MI-63: a novel small-molecule inhibitor targets MDM2 and induces apoptosis in embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells with wild-type p53. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:774-81 pubmed publisher
  50. Cummings T, Brown N, Stenzel T. TaqMan junction probes and the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction: detection of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2002;32:219-24 pubmed
    ..TaqMan probes, which hybridize to targets that overlap the junction of the chimeric gene fusions in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), synovial sarcoma (SS), and desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT)...
  51. Sims T, McGee M, Williams R, Myers A, Tracey L, Hamner J, et al. IFN-beta restricts tumor growth and sensitizes alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma to ionizing radiation. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:761-71 pubmed publisher
    Ionizing radiation is an important component of multimodal therapy for alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS). We sought to evaluate the ability of IFN-beta to enhance the activity of ionizing radiation...
  52. Raney R, Anderson J, Brown K, Huh W, Maurer H, Meyer W, et al. Treatment results for patients with localized, completely resected (Group I) alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) protocols III and IV, 1984-1997: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2010;55:612-6 pubmed publisher
    ..survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) rates in 71 patients with localized, completely resected (Group I) alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ALV RMS) and their relation to radiation therapy (RT) on IRSG Protocols III and IV, 1984-1997.