leiomyosarcoma

Summary

Summary: A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)

Top Publications

  1. Li Y, Yu C, Wu S, Dai M, Lee H. Malignant mesenchymal tumor with leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma differentiation: case report and literature review. Diagn Pathol. 2011;6:35 pubmed publisher
    A case of malignant mesenchymoma of the bladder containing leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and myxomatous components is described...
  2. Shan W, Akinfenwa P, Savannah K, Kolomeyevskaya N, Laucirica R, Thomas D, et al. A small-molecule inhibitor targeting the mitotic spindle checkpoint impairs the growth of uterine leiomyosarcoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:3352-65 pubmed publisher
    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is a poorly understood cancer with few effective treatments. This study explores the molecular events involved in ULMS with the goal of developing novel therapeutic strategies.
  3. Kämpjärvi K, Mäkinen N, Kilpivaara O, Arola J, Heinonen H, Bohm J, et al. Somatic MED12 mutations in uterine leiomyosarcoma and colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:1761-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we examined the role of MED12 exon 2 mutations in other tumour types...
  4. Rekhi B, Kaur A, Puri A, Desai S, Jambhekar N. Primary leiomyosarcoma of bone--a clinicopathologic study of 8 uncommon cases with immunohistochemical analysis and clinical outcomes. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2011;15:147-56 pubmed publisher
    Primary leiomyosarcoma of bone is a rare and a diagnostically challenging tumor entity...
  5. Kraft S, Fletcher C. Atypical intradermal smooth muscle neoplasms: clinicopathologic analysis of 84 cases and a reappraisal of cutaneous "leiomyosarcoma". Am J Surg Pathol. 2011;35:599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..active dermal smooth muscle neoplasms are uncommon lesions, which are most often termed "cutaneous leiomyosarcoma," although preexisting-mostly small-series suggest a low risk of aggressive behavior...
  6. Lusby K, Savannah K, Demicco E, Zhang Y, Ghadimi M, Young E, et al. Uterine leiomyosarcoma management, outcome, and associated molecular biomarkers: a single institution's experience. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013;20:2364-72 pubmed publisher
    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is an aggressive, rapidly progressive tumor lacking clinical and molecular predictors of outcome.
  7. Weissenbacher T, Kuhn C, Mayr D, Pavlik R, Friese K, Scholz C, et al. Expression of mucin-1, galectin-1 and galectin-3 in human leiomyosarcoma in comparison to leiomyoma and myometrium. Anticancer Res. 2011;31:451-7 pubmed
    The potential mechanism of malignant transformation from leiomyoma to leiomyosarcoma is still debated...
  8. Eskander R, Randall L, Sakai T, Guo Y, Hoang B, Zi X. Flavokawain B, a novel, naturally occurring chalcone, exhibits robust apoptotic effects and induces G2/M arrest of a uterine leiomyosarcoma cell line. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012;38:1086-94 pubmed publisher
    To examine the effects of flavokawain B (FKB), a novel kava chalcone, on the growth of uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) cells and investigated its utility in the treatment of uterine LMS.
  9. Ogura T, Masuda D, Kurisu Y, Miyamoto Y, Hayashi M, Imoto A, et al. Multiple metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the pancreas: a first case report and review of the literature. Intern Med. 2013;52:561-6 pubmed
    A 60-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with swelling of the right leg. After surgery, leiomyosarcoma of the right leg was diagnosed...

More Information

Publications63

  1. Davidson B, Abeler V, Hellesylt E, Holth A, Shih I, Skeie Jensen T, et al. Gene expression signatures differentiate uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma from leiomyosarcoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2013;128:349-55 pubmed publisher
    Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS) are the two most common uterine sarcomas, but both are rare tumors. The aim of the present study was to compare the global gene expression patterns of ESS and LMS.
  2. Hashimoto M, Kobayashi T, Tashiro H, Amano H, Oshita A, Tanimoto Y, et al. A huge metastatic liver tumor from leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: report of a case. Surg Today. 2012;42:505-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare malignant tumor, and only a few cases of the resection of IVC leiomyosarcomas with synchronous liver metastases have been reported...
  3. Monk B, Blessing J, Street D, Muller C, Burke J, Hensley M. A phase II evaluation of trabectedin in the treatment of advanced, persistent, or recurrent uterine leiomyosarcoma: a gynecologic oncology group study. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;124:48-52 pubmed publisher
    To estimate activity and safety of trabectedin 1.5 mg/m2 IV over 24 hours every 3 weeks (1 cycle) in uterine leiomyosarcoma.
  4. Zivanovic O, Jacks L, Iasonos A, Leitao M, Soslow R, Veras E, et al. A nomogram to predict postresection 5-year overall survival for patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma. Cancer. 2012;118:660-9 pubmed publisher
    The clinical course of patients with uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is difficult to predict with the currently available categorical staging systems of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Federation of ..
  5. Hayashi T, Horiuchi A, Sano K, Hiraoka N, Kasai M, Ichimura T, et al. Potential role of LMP2 as tumor-suppressor defines new targets for uterine leiomyosarcoma therapy. Sci Rep. 2011;1:180 pubmed publisher
    Although the majority of smooth muscle neoplasms found in the uterus are benign, uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is extremely malignant, with high rates of recurrence and metastasis...
  6. Corcoran S, Hogan A, Nemeth T, Bennani F, Sullivan F, Khan W, et al. Isolated cutaneous metastasis of uterine leiomyosarcoma: case report and review of literature. Diagn Pathol. 2012;7:85 pubmed publisher
    ..Histo-pathological examination of the hysterectomy specimen revealed an incidental low-grade leiomyosarcoma. Staging imaging was negative for metastatic disease...
  7. Weinshank L, Kellner D, Nash I. Paratesticular leiomyosarcoma: case report and review. Conn Med. 2011;75:399-403 pubmed
    Paratesticular leiomyosarcoma is a rare entity. Greater than 95% of tumors arising within the scrotal sac are testicular in origin. Of the paratesticular tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma accounts for nearly half of malignant masses...
  8. Izumi H, Okada K, Imaizumi T, Hirabayashi K, Matsuyama M, Dowaki S, et al. Leiomyosarcoma of the pancreas: report of a case. Surg Today. 2011;41:1556-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Leiomyosarcoma of the pancreas is a rare neoplasm, with only 34 reported cases in the literature. We encountered a rare case of leiomyosarcoma of the pancreas, treated successfully by surgery...
  9. Nakanishi H, Furukawa K, Noguchi R, Furutachi A, Itoh M, Kamohara K, et al. [Primary cardiac leiomyosarcoma originating from the left atrium]. Kyobu Geka. 2012;65:1057-61 pubmed
    ..Among these, leiomyosarcomas are exceptionally rare. We described a case of left atrial leiomyosarcoma in which surgical intervention was followed by adjuvant radiation therapy...
  10. Salawu A, Ul Hassan A, Hammond D, Fernando M, Reed M, Sisley K. High quality genomic copy number data from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded leiomyosarcoma: optimisation of universal linkage system labelling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50415 pubmed publisher
    ..We have optimised the ULS labelling protocol to perform aCGH on archived FFPE leiomyosarcoma tissues using the 180k Agilent platform...
  11. Yamada S, Yamada S, Nakaguchi H, Murakami M, Hoya K, Matsuno A. A case of multiple brain metastases of uterine leiomyosarcoma with a literature review. Surg Oncol. 2011;20:e127-31 pubmed publisher
    Brain metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare, and prognostically alarming despite various treatments...
  12. Davidson B, Abeler V, F rsund M, Holth A, Yang Y, Kobayashi Y, et al. Gene expression signatures of primary and metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma. Hum Pathol. 2014;45:691-700 pubmed publisher
    b>Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is the most common uterine sarcoma. Although the disease is relatively rare, it is responsible for considerable mortality due to frequent metastasis and chemoresistance...
  13. Koivisto Korander R, Martinsen J, Weiderpass E, Leminen A, Pukkala E. Incidence of uterine leiomyosarcoma and endometrial stromal sarcoma in Nordic countries: results from NORDCAN and NOCCA databases. Maturitas. 2012;72:56-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyzed trends in incidence and occupational variation in risk of uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMS) and endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) in the Nordic countries aided by NORDCAN and NOCCA (Nordic Occupational Cancer) databases...
  14. Edris B, Espinosa I, Mühlenberg T, Mikels A, Lee C, Steigen S, et al. ROR2 is a novel prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in leiomyosarcoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumour. J Pathol. 2012;227:223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..screen of gene expression data for 48 RTKs in 148 sarcomas showed that ROR2 was expressed in a subset of leiomyosarcoma (LMS), gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) and desmoid-type fibromatosis (DTF)...
  15. Mills A, Beck A, Montgomery K, Zhu S, Espinosa I, Lee C, et al. Expression of subtype-specific group 1 leiomyosarcoma markers in a wide variety of sarcomas by gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011;35:583-9 pubmed publisher
  16. Brewer Savannah K, Demicco E, Lusby K, Ghadimi M, Belousov R, Young E, et al. Dual targeting of mTOR and aurora-A kinase for the treatment of uterine Leiomyosarcoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:4633-45 pubmed publisher
    The significance of mTOR activation in uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) and its potential as a therapeutic target were investigated...
  17. Mackay H, Buckanovich R, Hirte H, Correa R, Hoskins P, Biagi J, et al. A phase II study single agent of aflibercept (VEGF Trap) in patients with recurrent or metastatic gynecologic carcinosarcomas and uterine leiomyosarcoma. A trial of the Princess Margaret Hospital, Chicago and California Cancer Phase II Consortia. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;125:136-40 pubmed publisher
  18. Park J, Park S, Kim D, Kim J, Kim Y, Kim Y, et al. The impact of tumor morcellation during surgery on the prognosis of patients with apparently early uterine leiomyosarcoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;122:255-9 pubmed publisher
    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is usually diagnosed after surgery for leiomyoma; thus tumor morcellation frequently occurs...
  19. Tetzlaff M, Nosek C, Kovarik C. Epstein-Barr virus-associated leiomyosarcoma with cutaneous involvement in an African child with human immunodeficiency virus: a case report and review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol. 2011;38:731-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of an excisional specimen revealed a well-differentiated leiomyosarcoma and subsequent studies revealed diffuse nuclear positivity for Epstein-Barr virus early RNAs in lesional cells...
  20. Reichardt P. The treatment of uterine sarcomas. Ann Oncol. 2012;23 Suppl 10:x151-7 pubmed
    ..They consist of several distinct histological subtypes like leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal tumors, undifferentiated sarcomas, pure heterologous sarcomas, and mixed epithelial and ..
  21. Sette G, Salvati V, Memeo L, Fecchi K, Colarossi C, Di Matteo P, et al. EGFR inhibition abrogates leiomyosarcoma cell chemoresistance through inactivation of survival pathways and impairment of CSC potential. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46891 pubmed publisher
    ..Frequent recurrence of LMS and chemoresistance of relapsed patients may likely result from the failure to target CSC. Therefore, therapeutic cues coming from the cancer stem cell (CSC) field may drastically improve patient outcome...
  22. Espinosa I, Edris B, Lee C, Cheng H, Gilks C, Wang Y, et al. CSF1 expression in nongynecological leiomyosarcoma is associated with increased tumor angiogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:2100-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a malignant tumor of smooth muscle cells for which few effective therapies exist...
  23. Burt B, Ocejo S, Mery C, Dasilva M, Bueno R, Sugarbaker D, et al. Repeated and aggressive pulmonary resections for leiomyosarcoma metastases extends survival. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;92:1202-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We attempted to determine the clinicopathologic features and survival determinants of a common subset of patients who undergo pulmonary metastasectomy for leiomyosarcoma.
  24. Veras E, Zivanovic O, Jacks L, Chiappetta D, Hensley M, Soslow R. "Low-grade leiomyosarcoma" and late-recurring smooth muscle tumors of the uterus: a heterogenous collection of frequently misdiagnosed tumors associated with an overall favorable prognosis relative to conventional uterine leiomyosarcomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011;35:1626-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Rare patients whose smooth muscle tumors fail to meet leiomyosarcoma (LMS) diagnostic criteria will experience recurrence, and occasional cases of LMS patients experience a ..
  25. Hewedi I, Radwan N, Shash L. Diagnostic value of progesterone receptor and p53 expression in uterine smooth muscle tumors. Diagn Pathol. 2012;7:1 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of uterine smooth muscle tumors depends on a combination of microscopic features. However, a small number of these tumors still pose difficult diagnostic challenges...
  26. Yang J, Cogdell D, Eddy J, Trent J, PRICE N, Zhang W. [Expression of PRUNE2 mRNA and its positive correlation with non-coding RNA PCA3 in leiomyosarcoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2012;34:497-500 pubmed publisher
    Our previous study shows that PURNE2 mRNA plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)...
  27. Pol R, Dannenberg H, Robertus J, van Ginkel R. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar. World J Surg Oncol. 2012;10:148 pubmed publisher
    Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas...
  28. Raish M, Khurshid M, Ansari M, Chaturvedi P, Bae S, Kim J, et al. Analysis of molecular cytogenetic alterations in uterine leiomyosarcoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012;138:1173-86 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to identify novel genes following genomic DNA copy number changes using a genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis in uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS).
  29. Kashima K, Yamashita E, Mataki H, Yotsumoto G, Nomoto M, Sonoda M, et al. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the pulmonary artery: a case of a 20-month survivor after incomplete surgical resection. Intern Med. 2012;51:75-8 pubmed
    ..Although complete resection was impossible, the patient survived for 20 months with adjuvant chemotherapy and medical treatment...
  30. Loizzi V, Cormio G, Nestola D, Falagario M, Surgo A, Camporeale A, et al. Prognostic factors and outcomes in 28 cases of uterine leiomyosarcoma. Oncology. 2011;81:91-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It was the aim of this study to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMS)...
  31. Ishii T, Sakamoto A, Matsuda S, Matsumoto Y, Harimaya K, Takahashi Y, et al. Leiomyosarcoma in the humerus with leukocytosis and elevation of serum G-CSF. Skeletal Radiol. 2012;41:719-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Leukocytosis and elevated serum G-CSF were observed, but resolved following tumor resection. A diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma of the bone with expression of G-CSF was confirmed immunohistochemically...
  32. Ramponi F, Kench J, Simring D, Crawford M, Abadir E, Harris J. Early diagnosis and resection of an asymptomatic leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava prior to caval obstruction. J Vasc Surg. 2012;55:525-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava is a rare and aggressive tumor, characterized by a slow growth and usually late diagnosis...
  33. Francis J, Kleinerman R, Seddon J, Abramson D. Increased risk of secondary uterine leiomyosarcoma in hereditary retinoblastoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;124:254-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Soft tissue sarcomas are one of the most likely malignancies to pose a risk to these patients, with leiomyosarcoma (LMS) being the most common subtype...
  34. Badescu A, Lae M, Morin A, Handra Luca A. Ileal leiomyosarcoma and lymph node granuloma. Relevance of a rare association. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2012;36:e96-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Leiomyosarcoma is rare in ileal location. We report the case of a 61 years old female patient presenting with ileal leiomyosarcoma occurring at 14 years after a uterine carcinoma treated by radiotherapy...
  35. Okubo Y, Shibuya K, Namiki A, Takamura K, Kameda N, Nemoto T, et al. Leiomyosarcoma with partial rhabdomyoblastic differentiation: first case report of primary cardiac origin. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:76 pubmed publisher
    b>Leiomyosarcoma occurring as a primary cardiac tumor has been known as an extremely rare condition...
  36. Ravegnini G, Mariño Enríquez A, Slater J, Eilers G, Wang Y, Zhu M, et al. MED12 mutations in leiomyosarcoma and extrauterine leiomyoma. Mod Pathol. 2013;26:743-9 pubmed publisher
    Leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma share morphological features and smooth muscle differentiation, and both arise most frequently within the uterine corpus of middle-aged women...
  37. Torres T, Oliveira A, Sanches M, Selores M. Superficial cutaneous leiomyosarcoma of the face: report of three cases. J Dermatol. 2011;38:373-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Superficial cutaneous leiomyosarcomas on the head are very rare. We report three cases of superficial cutaneous leiomyosarcoma, one localized on the face and two on the forehead.
  38. Angiletta D, Fullone M, Greco L, Marinazzo D, Frontino P, Regina G. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: resection and vascular reconstruction using a dacron graft and an Adam DeWeese clip-three-year follow-up. Ann Vasc Surg. 2011;25:557.e5-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of IVC leiomyosarcoma operated by resection and reconstruction with a Dacron bypass and apposition of an Adams-DeWeese IVC filter...
  39. Anh Tran T, Holloway R. Metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the uterus with heterologous differentiation to malignant mesenchymoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2012;31:453-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a remarkable case of a metastatic leiomyosarcoma from the uterus with an unusual pattern of tumor progression to malignant mesenchymoma after chemotherapy...
  40. Chen E, O Connell F, Fletcher C. Dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma: clinicopathological analysis of 18 cases. Histopathology. 2011;59:1135-43 pubmed publisher
    To clinicopathologically characterize the dedifferentiated variant of leiomyosarcoma in a series of 18 cases.
  41. Basu I, Lemonas P. Leiomyosarcoma of the rectum following pelvic irradiation: a difficult histological diagnosis. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2012;94:e44-5 pubmed publisher
    Rectal leiomyosarcomas are very rare mesenchymal tumours. This is a case report of a rectal leiomyosarcoma diagnosed initially as a leiomyoma in a patient who had undergone pelvic radiotherapy several years previously...
  42. Edris B, Weiskopf K, Volkmer A, Volkmer J, Willingham S, Contreras Trujillo H, et al. Antibody therapy targeting the CD47 protein is effective in a model of aggressive metastatic leiomyosarcoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:6656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a tumor of smooth muscle that can express varying levels of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF1), the ..
  43. Radkowski C, Dodd L, Johnson J, Harrelson J, Brigman B. Leiomyosarcoma of the somatic soft tissues. J Surg Orthop Adv. 2012;21:96-101 pubmed
    ..Future clinical studies may help determine if knowledge of these predictors can help guide treatment and improve clinical outcomes...
  44. Starling J, Coldiron B. Mohs micrographic surgery for the treatment of cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64:1119-22 pubmed publisher
    Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma is an extremely rare, malignant mesenchymal tumor of smooth muscle origin. Although generally considered a low-grade malignancy, there may be significant local invasion and subclinical extension...
  45. Al Saif O, Sengupta B, Amr S, Meshikhes A. Leiomyosarcoma of the infra-renal inferior vena cava. Am J Surg. 2011;201:e18-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare slow-growing retroperitoneal tumor. Two percent of leiomyosarcomas are vascular in origin, and tumors of the IVC account for the majority of the cases...
  46. Dhingra S, Rodriguez M, Shen Q, Duan X, Stanton M, Chen L, et al. Constitutive activation with overexpression of the mTORC2-phospholipase D1 pathway in uterine leiomyosarcoma and STUMP: morphoproteomic analysis with therapeutic implications. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2010;4:134-46 pubmed
    ..The results show significant activation with overexpression of phosphorylated mTORC2 complex in uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) and smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) as evidenced by nuclear localization ..
  47. Li B, Takeda T, Tsuiji K, Wong T, Tadakawa M, Kondo A, et al. Curcumin induces cross-regulation between autophagy and apoptosis in uterine leiomyosarcoma cells. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013;23:803-8 pubmed publisher
    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) has an unfavorable response to standard chemotherapy. A natural occurring compound, curcumin, has been shown to have inhibitory effects on cancers...
  48. Idriss M, Kazlouskaya V, Malhotra S, Andres C, Elston D. Phosphohistone-H3 and Ki-67 immunostaining in cutaneous pilar leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma (atypical intradermal smooth muscle neoplasm). J Cutan Pathol. 2013;40:557-63 pubmed publisher
    The mitotic index is important in the assessment of tumors such as leiomyoma (LM) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS), which may exhibit a range of cytological atypia...
  49. Andersen R, Kristensen B, Gill S. Cardiac leiomyosarcoma, a case report. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6:1197-9 pubmed
    ..Cardiac surgery followed by pathological examination revealed that the tumour was a leiomyosarcoma. Images from the echocardiography as well as the pathological findings are shown and discussed...
  50. Ricci S, Giuntoli R, Eisenhauer E, Lopez M, Krill L, Tanner E, et al. Does adjuvant chemotherapy improve survival for women with early-stage uterine leiomyosarcoma?. Gynecol Oncol. 2013;131:629-33 pubmed publisher
    To examine whether adjuvant therapy after primary surgery for treatment of early-stage uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) improves recurrence and survival rates.
  51. Talikoti M, Deo S, Shukla N, Kallianpur A, Gupta M. A rare case of giant leiomyosarcoma in a filarial scrotum: a case report. World J Surg Oncol. 2011;9:20 pubmed publisher
    Giant leiomyosarcoma of scrotum is a rare tumour...
  52. Zhang Q, Shen Q, Yan S, Zheng S. Primary pancreatic pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. J Int Med Res. 2011;39:1555-62 pubmed
    Primary pancreatic leiomyosarcoma is a rare mesenchymal tumour that is believed to arise from the walls of the pancreatic blood vessels or the pancreatic duct. A 56-year-old female was referred with epigastric pain and abdominal mass...
  53. Lotze U, Reponova J, Muth G, Oltmanns G, Reich H, Etzrodt G, et al. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava extending into the right atrium. A rare differential diagnosis of a right atrial tumor with fatal outcome. Herz. 2012;37:573-8 pubmed
    ..was confirmed intraoperatively and immunohistochemical analysis showed a moderate to poorly differentiated leiomyosarcoma. The extended tumor was successfully removed by a complex operation of the thorax and abdomen but the ..
  54. Iasonos A, Keung E, Zivanovic O, Mancari R, Peiretti M, Nucci M, et al. External validation of a prognostic nomogram for overall survival in women with uterine leiomyosarcoma. Cancer. 2013;119:1816-22 pubmed publisher
    There is no validated system to identify prognostically distinct cohorts of women with uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS)...