mast cell sarcoma


Summary: A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.

Top Publications

  1. Govier S. Principles of treatment for mast cell tumors. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 2003;18:103-6 pubmed
    ..As with dogs with cutaneous MCTs, surgery is the treatment of choice. Little is known about the effectiveness of adjunctive chemotherapy options for cutaneous MCTs. Adjunctive chemotherapy does not appear to increase survival times...
  2. Stanclift R, Gilson S. Evaluation of neoadjuvant prednisone administration and surgical excision in treatment of cutaneous mast cell tumors in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;232:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with neoadjuvant prednisone appears to be useful for inducing reduction of MCTs and may facilitate resection when adequate surgical margins cannot be confidently attained because of mass location or size or both. ..
  3. Kirshenbaum A, Akin C, Wu Y, Rottem M, Goff J, Beaven M, et al. Characterization of novel stem cell factor responsive human mast cell lines LAD 1 and 2 established from a patient with mast cell sarcoma/leukemia; activation following aggregation of FcepsilonRI or FcgammaRI. Leuk Res. 2003;27:677-82 pubmed
    ..mast cell lines, designated LAD 1 and 2, were established from bone marrow aspirates from a patient with mast cell sarcoma/leukemia...
  4. Pryer N, Lee L, Zadovaskaya R, Yu X, Sukbuntherng J, Cherrington J, et al. Proof of target for SU11654: inhibition of KIT phosphorylation in canine mast cell tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:5729-34 pubmed
  5. Kiupel M, Webster J, Kaneene J, Miller R, Yuzbasiyan Gurkan V. The use of KIT and tryptase expression patterns as prognostic tools for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors. Vet Pathol. 2004;41:371-7 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results, we propose a new prognostic classification of canine cutaneous MCTs, according to their KIT-staining pattern, that can be used for the routine prognostic evaluation of canine cutaneous MCTs...
  6. Misdorp W. Mast cells and canine mast cell tumours. A review. Vet Q. 2004;26:156-69 pubmed
    ..Further study of physiological and oncological aspects of mast cells are favoured by the availability of mast cells isolated from spontaneous mast cell tumours and of cultured cell lines...
  7. Ma Y, Longley B, Wang X, Blount J, Langley K, Caughey G. Clustering of activating mutations in c-KIT's juxtamembrane coding region in canine mast cell neoplasms. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;112:165-70 pubmed
    ..Our data also suggest an inhibitory role for the KIT juxtamembrane region in controlling the receptor kinase activity...
  8. Liao A, Chien M, Shenoy N, Mendel D, McMahon G, Cherrington J, et al. Inhibition of constitutively active forms of mutant kit by multitargeted indolinone tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Blood. 2002;100:585-93 pubmed
    ..Because the concentrations of drug necessary for receptor inhibition are readily achievable and nontoxic in vivo, these compounds may be useful in the treatment of spontaneous cancers expressing Kit mutations...
  9. Downing S, Chien M, Kass P, Moore P, London C. Prevalence and importance of internal tandem duplications in exons 11 and 12 of c-kit in mast cell tumors of dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2002;63:1718-23 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence of activating internal tandem duplications (ITDs) in exons 11 and 12 of c-kit in mast cell tumors (MCTs) of dogs and to correlate these mutations with prognosis...

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Preziosi R, Morini M, Sarli G. Expression of the KIT protein (CD117) in primary cutaneous mast cell tumors of the dog. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004;16:554-61 pubmed
    ..50). Similar to other well-known histomorphological features, KIT expression is a useful parameter of malignancy in cutaneous MCTs. KIT expression also predicted the biological behavior of the tumors in this study...
  2. Webster J, Yuzbasiyan Gurkan V, Kaneene J, Miller R, Resau J, Kiupel M. The role of c-KIT in tumorigenesis: evaluation in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors. Neoplasia. 2006;8:104-11 pubmed
  3. Kjellen L, Pettersson I, Lillhager P, Steen M, Pettersson U, Lehtonen P, et al. Primary structure of a mouse mastocytoma proteoglycan core protein. Biochem J. 1989;263:105-13 pubmed
    ..In immunoblotting of a microsomal fraction from the mastocytoma, the antiserum recognized a single protein (Mr 17,000), which probably represents the core protein before glycosylation. ..
  4. Miscia S, Di Baldassarre A, Alba Rana R, Di Pietro R, Cataldi A. Engagement of DNA polymerases during apoptosis. Cell Prolif. 1997;30:325-40 pubmed
  5. Brocks B, Neyens I, Teske E, Kirpensteijn J. Hypotonic water as adjuvant therapy for incompletely resected canine mast cell tumors: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Vet Surg. 2008;37:472-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypotonic water does not decrease the rate of local recurrence in dogs with solitary MCT after marginal surgical excision. ..
  6. Tsujimura T, Morimoto M, Hashimoto K, Moriyama Y, Kitayama H, Matsuzawa Y, et al. Constitutive activation of c-kit in FMA3 murine mastocytoma cells caused by deletion of seven amino acids at the juxtamembrane domain. Blood. 1996;87:273-83 pubmed
    ..The deletion of seven amino acids at the juxtamembrane domain appeared to be a new activating mutation of KIT that might be involved in neoplastic growth of mast cells. ..
  7. Uyttenhove C, Godfraind C, Lethe B, Amar Costesec A, Renauld J, Gajewski T, et al. The expression of mouse gene P1A in testis does not prevent safe induction of cytolytic T cells against a P1A-encoded tumor antigen. Int J Cancer. 1997;70:349-56 pubmed
    ..Again, the absence of MHC class-I molecules on these cells provides a plausible explanation for placental protection, although other mechanisms may also play a role. ..
  8. Valent P, Horny H, Escribano L, Longley B, Li C, Schwartz L, et al. Diagnostic criteria and classification of mastocytosis: a consensus proposal. Leuk Res. 2001;25:603-25 pubmed
    ..In typical cases, circulating MC amount to >or=10% of leukocytes (classical form of MCL). Mast cell sarcoma is a unifocal tumor that consists of atypical MC and shows a destructive growth without (primary) systemic ..
  9. Wakkach A, Cottrez F, Groux H. Differentiation of regulatory T cells 1 is induced by CD2 costimulation. J Immunol. 2001;167:3107-13 pubmed
    ..The possibility to rapidly induce the differentiation of Ag-specific regulatory T cells will certainly accelerate their characterization and their potential use as regulators of T cell-mediated diseases. ..
  10. Jacobs T, Hoppe B, Moore F. Visceral mast cell tumour in a dog with haemabdomen and mastocytaemia. J Small Anim Pract. 2007;48:180 pubmed
  11. Litster A, Sorenmo K. Characterisation of the signalment, clinical and survival characteristics of 41 cats with mast cell neoplasia. J Feline Med Surg. 2006;8:177-83 pubmed
    ..However, multiple cutaneous tumours, recurrent tumours and primary splenic disease should receive a guarded prognosis due to the relatively short median survival times associated with these forms of the disease. ..
  12. Hess M. What is your diagnosis? Mast cell tumour. J Small Anim Pract. 2006;47:555-6 pubmed
  13. Crawford B, Olson S, Esko J, Pinhal M. Cloning, Golgi localization, and enzyme activity of the full-length heparin/heparan sulfate-glucuronic acid C5-epimerase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:21538-43 pubmed
    ..The amino-terminally truncated epimerase does not localize to any cellular compartment, whereas the full-length enzyme is in the Golgi, where heparan sulfate synthesis is thought to occur. ..
  14. Mauch C, Grimm C, Meckel S, Wands J, Blum H, Roggendorf M, et al. Induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against hepatitis delta virus antigens which protect against tumor formation in mice. Vaccine. 2001;20:170-80 pubmed
  15. Sfiligoi G, Rassnick K, Scarlett J, Northrup N, Gieger T. Outcome of dogs with mast cell tumors in the inguinal or perineal region versus other cutaneous locations: 124 cases (1990-2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;226:1368-74 pubmed
    ..Treatment recommendations for dogs with cutaneous MCTs should be based on confirmed predictors of biological behavior, such as histologic grade and clinical stage. ..
  16. Tokunaka K, Ohno N, Adachi Y, Miura N, Yadomae T. Application of Candida solubilized cell wall beta-glucan in antitumor immunotherapy against P815 mastocytoma in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2002;2:59-67 pubmed
    ..Third, CSBG enhanced antitumor immunity in gene therapy using B7-1-transfected P815 cells. These results strongly suggest that CSBG enhances the host defense response to tumor due in part to an adjuvant effect. ..
  17. Hahn K, Legendre A, Shaw N, Phillips B, Ogilvie G, PRESCOTT D, et al. Evaluation of 12- and 24-month survival rates after treatment with masitinib in dogs with nonresectable mast cell tumors. Am J Vet Res. 2010;71:1354-61 pubmed publisher
  18. Murphy S, Sparkes A, Blunden A, Brearley M, Smith K. Effects of stage and number of tumours on prognosis of dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumours. Vet Rec. 2006;158:287-91 pubmed
    ..8. This study found no evidence that dogs with multiple tumours had different survival times than those with single tumours, although there was evidence that the presence of lymph node metastasis generally carried a poorer prognosis. ..
  19. Fröberg G, Lindberg R, Ritter M, Nordlind K. Expression of serotonin and its 5-HT1A receptor in canine cutaneous mast cell tumours. J Comp Pathol. 2009;141:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..5-HT and the 5-HT1A receptor may be involved in the differentiation of canine MCTs and in the microvascular complications associated with these neoplasms. ..
  20. Pikas D, Li J, Vlodavsky I, Lindahl U. Substrate specificity of heparanases from human hepatoma and platelets. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:18770-7 pubmed
    ..In particular, selective O-desulfation of the heparin octasaccharide implicated a 2-O-sulfate group on a hexuronic acid residue located two monosaccharide units from the cleavage site, toward the reducing end. ..
  21. Reiter I, Krammer B, Schwamberger G. Cutting edge: differential effect of apoptotic versus necrotic tumor cells on macrophage antitumor activities. J Immunol. 1999;163:1730-2 pubmed
    ..Given the fact that apoptosis is a consequence of various cancer treatment modalities, this may lead to a suppression of local antitumor reactions and thus actually counteract endogenous immune-mediated tumor defense mechanisms. ..
  22. Heller D, Clifford C, Goldschmidt M, Holt D, Manfredi M, Sorenmo K. Assessment of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in canine hemangiosarcoma, histiocytic sarcoma, and mast cell tumor. Vet Pathol. 2005;42:350-3 pubmed
    ..Although COX-2 has been shown to be overexpressed in selected human sarcomas and hematopoeitic tumors, these results indicate that canine HSA, HS, and MCT do not express COX-2 in any appreciable fashion...
  23. Wolpert E, Petersson M, Chambers B, Sandberg J, Kiessling R, Ljunggren H, et al. Generation of CD8+ T cells specific for transporter associated with antigen processing deficient cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:11496-501 pubmed
    ..These findings are discussed in relation to the biochemical nature of MHC class I dependent CTL epitopes associated with impaired TAP function, as well as implications for immunotherapy and autoimmunity...
  24. Gieger T, Theon A, Werner J, McEntee M, Rassnick K, Decock H. Biologic behavior and prognostic factors for mast cell tumors of the canine muzzle: 24 cases (1990-2001). J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17:687-92 pubmed
    ..Eight of 9 dogs dying of MCT had local or regional disease progression. Muzzle MCT a rebiologically aggressive tumors with higher regional metastatic rates than previously reported for MCT in other sites. ..
  25. Isotani M, Ishida N, Tominaga M, Tamura K, Yagihara H, Ochi S, et al. Effect of tyrosine kinase inhibition by imatinib mesylate on mast cell tumors in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22:985-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Imatinib mesylate has clinical activity against MCT in dogs. Response could not be predicted based on presence of absence of a mutation in exon 11 of c-kit. ..
  26. Azaña J, Torrelo A, Matito A. Update on Mastocytosis (Part 2): Categories, Prognosis, and Treatment. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2016;107:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..aggressive SM, SM with an associated clonal hematological non-mast cell lineage disease, mast cell leukemia, mast cell sarcoma, and extracutaneous mastocytoma. The two latest systemic variants are rare...
  27. Kacha A, Fallarino F, Markiewicz M, Gajewski T. Cutting edge: spontaneous rejection of poorly immunogenic P1.HTR tumors by Stat6-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2000;165:6024-8 pubmed
    ..Rejection was accompanied by augmented tumor-specific IFN-gamma production and CTL activity. These results suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of Stat6 signaling could potentiate anti-tumor immunity in vivo. ..
  28. Kitamura Y, Hirota S, Nishida T. A loss-of-function mutation of c-kit results in depletion of mast cells and interstitial cells of Cajal, while its gain-of-function mutation results in their oncogenesis. Mutat Res. 2001;477:165-71 pubmed
    ..Mutations of the c-kit gene are a good model for understanding the relationship between mutations and diseases in both humans and mice. ..
  29. Wang J, Shaw J, Mullen C. Down-regulation of antihost alloreactivity after bone marrow transplant permits relapse of hematological malignancy. Cancer Res. 2002;62:208-12 pubmed
  30. Silbert J, Sugumaran G, Cogburn J. Sulphation of proteochondroitin and 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside-chondroitin formed by mouse mastocytoma cells cultured in sulphate-deficient medium. Biochem J. 1993;296 ( Pt 1):119-26 pubmed
  31. Fields P, Finch R, Gray G, Zollner R, Thomas J, Sturmhoefel K, et al. B7.1 is a quantitatively stronger costimulus than B7.2 in the activation of naive CD8+ TCR-transgenic T cells. J Immunol. 1998;161:5268-75 pubmed
    ..2. Further, our results indicate that the activation state of the responding T cell may influence the efficiency with which the T cell can respond to a costimulatory signal provided by either B7.1 or B7.2. ..
  32. Rassnick K, Moore A, Williams L, London C, Kintzer P, Engler S, et al. Treatment of canine mast cell tumors with CCNU (lomustine). J Vet Intern Med. 1999;13:601-5 pubmed
    ..The median and mean neutrophil counts 7 days after CCNU were 1,452 cells/microL and 1,683 cells/microL, respectively (n = 17). Other toxicoses were uncommon. CCNU should be considered an active agent in the treatment of MCT in dogs. ..
  33. Shepherd D, Kerkvliet N. Disruption of CD154:CD40 blocks generation of allograft immunity without affecting APC activation. J Immunol. 1999;163:2470-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the generation of allograft immunity is dependent on the interaction of CD154 with CD40 but not primarily for the activation of APCs. ..
  34. Markiewicz M, Fallarino F, Ashikari A, Gajewski T. Epitope spreading upon P815 tumor rejection triggered by vaccination with the single class I MHC-restricted peptide P1A. Int Immunol. 2001;13:625-32 pubmed
    ..A broadened CTL response may help eliminate outgrowth of antigen-negative tumor variants. ..
  35. Hall B. Full-thickness labial advancement flap following mast cell tumor excision. J Vet Dent. 2006;23:27-31 pubmed
  36. Zhao X, Mohaupt M, Jiang J, Liu S, Li B, Qin Z. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2-mediated tumor suppression is nitric oxide dependent and involves angiostasis. Cancer Res. 2007;67:4443-50 pubmed
    ..Our results show for the first time that TNFR2 expressed on host innate immune cells is sufficient to mediate the antitumor effect of TNF, and NO is necessary for this process, possibly by inhibition of angiogenesis in the tumor. ..
  37. Laxmanan S, Stuart G, Ghosh S. A stable single-chain variable fragment expressing transfectoma demonstrates induction of idiotype-specific cytotoxic T-cells during early growth stages of a murine B-lymphoma. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2001;50:437-44 pubmed
    ..It appears that scFv-containing transfectomas expressing antibody variable region epitopes would be useful for both elucidating CTL-defined idiopeptides and monitoring TAA-specific CTL response in tumor-bearing animals. ..
  38. Kurihara H, Koda H, Asami S, Kiso Y, Tanaka T. Contribution of the antioxidative property of astaxanthin to its protective effect on the promotion of cancer metastasis in mice treated with restraint stress. Life Sci. 2002;70:2509-20 pubmed
    ..o., 14 days) markedly attenuated the promotion of hepatic metastasis induced by restraint stress. These results suggested that astaxanthin improves antitumor immune responses by inhibiting of lipid peroxidation induced by stress. ..
  39. Ploss A, Lauvau G, Contos B, Kerksiek K, Guirnalda P, Leiner I, et al. Promiscuity of MHC class Ib-restricted T cell responses. J Immunol. 2003;171:5948-55 pubmed
    ..monocytogenes. Although this degree of Ag receptor promiscuity is unusual for the adaptive immune system, it may be a more common feature of T cell responses restricted by nonpolymorphic MHC class Ib molecules. ..
  40. Mullins M, Dernell W, Withrow S, Ehrhart E, Thamm D, Lana S. Evaluation of prognostic factors associated with outcome in dogs with multiple cutaneous mast cell tumors treated with surgery with and without adjuvant treatment: 54 cases (1998-2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006;228:91-5 pubmed
    ..Results suggested that multiple cutaneous MCTs in dogs are associated with a low rate of metastasis and a good prognosis for long-term survival with adequate excision of all MCTs. ..
  41. Ksander B, Streilein J. Recovery of activated cytotoxic T cells from minor H incompatible tumor graft rejection sites. 1989. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2007;15:205-13 pubmed
  42. Turrel J, Farrelly J, Page R, McEntee M. Evaluation of strontium 90 irradiation in treatment of cutaneous mast cell tumors in cats: 35 cases (1992-2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006;228:898-901 pubmed
    ..Results indicated that strontium 90 beta irradiation resulted in long-term tumor control and should be considered an effective alternative to surgical resection in management of CMCTs in cats. ..
  43. Matsuda K, Sakaguchi K, Kobayashi S, Tominaga M, Hirayama K, Kadosawa T, et al. Systemic candidiasis and mesenteric mast cell tumor with multiple metastases in a dog. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:229-32 pubmed
    ..Bacteriologically and immunohistochemically, the fungi were consistent with Candida albicans. ..
  44. London C, Galli S, Yuuki T, Hu Z, Helfand S, Geissler E. Spontaneous canine mast cell tumors express tandem duplications in the proto-oncogene c-kit. Exp Hematol. 1999;27:689-97 pubmed
  45. Takahashi T, Kitani S, Nagase M, Mochizuki M, Nishimura R, Morita Y, et al. IgG-mediated histamine release from canine mastocytoma-derived cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2001;125:228-35 pubmed
    ..Recent data suggest that normal tissue mast cells can express functional receptors for IgG under certain conditions. However, little is known about IgG receptor expression and functional consequences in mast cell neoplasms...
  46. Baek J, Tefferi A, Pardanani A, Li C. Immunohistochemical studies of c-kit, transforming growth factor-beta, and basic fibroblast growth factor in mast cell disease. Leuk Res. 2002;26:83-90 pubmed
    ..The results confirm the diagnostic value of Kit immunohistochemistry in MCD and suggest a biologically relevant heterogeneity in TGFbeta1R expression among patients with SMCD-HD...
  47. Webster J, Kiupel M, Yuzbasiyan Gurkan V. Evaluation of the kinase domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:85 pubmed
    ..However, some canine MCTs have aberrant KIT localization but lack ITD c-KIT mutations, suggesting that other mutations or other factors may be responsible for aberrant KIT localization in these tumors...
  48. Hughes D, Crispe I. A naturally occurring soluble isoform of murine Fas generated by alternative splicing. J Exp Med. 1995;182:1395-401 pubmed
    ..We propose that Fas B is a new cytokine that acts physiologically to limit apoptosis induced by Fas ligand...
  49. Brenner B, Gulbins E, Schlottmann K, Koppenhoefer U, Busch G, Walzog B, et al. L-selectin activates the Ras pathway via the tyrosine kinase p56lck. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:15376-81 pubmed
    ..Our results point to a signaling cascade from L-selectin via p56lck, Grb2/Sos, Ras, and Rac2 to 2-O...
  50. Nagata Y, Furugen R, Hiasa A, Ikeda H, Ohta N, Nakamura H, et al. Peptides derived from a wild-type murine proto-oncogene c-erbB-2/HER2/neu can induce CTL and tumor suppression in syngeneic hosts. J Immunol. 1997;159:1336-43 pubmed
    ..The growth of CMS7ME was suppressed in mice immunized with the murine c-erbB-2-derived peptide, p63-71(A) or p780-788. There was no apparent pathologic change in mice that rejected CMS7ME after vaccination with these peptides...
  51. Ginn P, Fox L, Brower J, Gaskin A, Kurzman I, Kubilis P. Immunohistochemical detection of p53 tumor-suppressor protein is a poor indicator of prognosis for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors. Vet Pathol. 2000;37:33-9 pubmed
  52. Ivanova P, Cerda B, Horn D, Cohen J, McLafferty F, Brown H. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis of changes in phospholipids in RBL-2H3 mastocytoma cells during degranulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7152-7 pubmed
    ..The patterns of changes of these lipids provide an extraordinarily rich source of data for evaluating the effects of specific lipid species generated during cellular processes, such as exocytosis...
  53. Matera J, Tatarunas A, Fantoni D, Vasconcellos C. Use of the scrotum as a transposition flap for closure of surgical wounds in three dogs. Vet Surg. 2004;33:99-101 pubmed
    ..To describe use of the scrotum as a pedicle flap to cover defects created by tumor excision in the perineum or caudal and medial aspect of the thigh...
  54. London C, Malpas P, Wood Follis S, Boucher J, Rusk A, Rosenberg M, et al. Multi-center, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study of oral toceranib phosphate (SU11654), a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of dogs with recurrent (either local or distant) mast cell tumor following surgical excisi. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:3856-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Secondary objectives were to determine biological response rate, time to tumor progression, duration of objective response, health-related quality of life, and safety of Palladia...
  55. Den Otter W, Balemans L, Battermann J, Bernsen M, Cadee J, Dobrowolski Z, et al. Local low-dose IL-2 therapy. Hepatogastroenterology. 1999;46 Suppl 1:1280-6 pubmed
    ..It is becoming clear that even a single injection of IL-2 can cure cancer. IL-2 can also enhance the therapeutic effects of irradiation and Cisplatin. Locally applied IL-2 therapy is virtually non-toxic...
  56. Worobec A. Treatment of systemic mast cell disorders. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2000;14:659-87, vii pubmed
    ..This article presents a summary of treatment strategies for indolent and aggressive forms of mastocytosis along with a discussion of future therapeutic directions...
  57. Tang L. Molecular cloning of canine IL-13 receptor alpha chain (alpha1 and alpha2) cDNAs and detection of corresponding mRNAs in canine tissues. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2001;79:181-95 pubmed
    ..In addition, RT-PCR detected caIL-13Ralpha1 mRNA in one of two canine mastocytoma (C2 but not Br) cell lines and in a canine macrophage-derived cell line (DH82). CaIL-13Ralpha2 mRNA was detected in all three canine cell lines...
  58. Rivas F, O Herrin S, Gajewski T. CD28 is not required for c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation in T cells. J Immunol. 2001;167:3123-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, CD28 coligation is not necessary, and stimulation through the TCR is sufficient, for JNK activation in normal murine T cells. The concept that JNK mediates the costimulatory function of CD28 needs to be reconsidered...
  59. Brière C. Use of a reverse saphenous skin flap for the excision of a grade II mast cell tumor on the hind limb of a dog. Can Vet J. 2002;43:620-2 pubmed
    ..Metastasis was identified in the popliteal lymph node. Amputation was not an option. A reverse saphenous skin flap was used to cover the skin defect caused by excision of the tumor. Surgery was followed with adjunctive chemotherapy...
  60. Cahalane A, Payne S, Barber L, Duda L, Henry C, Mauldin G, et al. Prognostic factors for survival of dogs with inguinal and perineal mast cell tumors treated surgically with or without adjunctive treatment: 68 cases (1994-2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004;225:401-8 pubmed
  61. Baldi A, Colloca E, Spugnini E. Lomustine for the treatment of gastrointestinal mast cell tumour in a dog. J Small Anim Pract. 2006;47:465-7 pubmed
    ..At that time, the tumour was still in partial remission. This case report suggests that a combination of lomustine and prednisone is an effective protocol for the palliation of aggressive visceral mast cell tumours...
  62. Hosoya K, Kisseberth W, Alvarez F, Lara Garcia A, Beamer G, Stromberg P, et al. Adjuvant CCNU (lomustine) and prednisone chemotherapy for dogs with incompletely excised grade 2 mast cell tumors. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2009;45:14-8 pubmed
    ..The 1- and 2-year progression-free rates of surviving dogs were 100% and 77%, respectively. Postoperative adjuvant CCNU appears to be a useful alternative to radiation therapy for incompletely excised canine cutaneous MCTs...
  63. De Plaen E, Lurquin C, Van Pel A, Mariame B, Szikora J, Wolfel T, et al. Immunogenic (tum-) variants of mouse tumor P815: cloning of the gene of tum- antigen P91A and identification of the tum- mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:2274-8 pubmed
    ..The essential role of this mutation, which produces an amino acid change, was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. No significant sequence similarity was found between the 800-base-pair fragment and any recorded gene...
  64. Kuramoto Y, Tagami H. Solitary mastocytoma with massive eosinophilic infiltration. Pediatr Dermatol. 1994;11:256-7 pubmed
    ..This histologic feature made determining the correct diagnosis of cutaneous solitary mastocytoma difficult until we performed specific histochemical staining for mast cells...
  65. Richardson P, Zon L. Molecular cloning of a cDNA with a novel domain present in the tre-2 oncogene and the yeast cell cycle regulators BUB2 and cdc16. Oncogene. 1995;11:1139-48 pubmed
    ..Within these tissues, expression of Tbc1 is cell- and stage-specific. Based on sequence similarity, pattern of expression and subcellular localization, Tbc1 may play a role in the cell cycle and differentiation of various tissues...
  66. Fulcher R, Ludwig L, Bergman P, Newman S, Simpson A, Patnaik A. Evaluation of a two-centimeter lateral surgical margin for excision of grade I and grade II cutaneous mast cell tumors in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006;228:210-5 pubmed
    ..To evaluate completeness of excision and clinical outcome in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) excised with a lateral margin of 2 cm and a deep margin of 1 fascial plane...
  67. Scase T, Edwards D, Miller J, Henley W, Smith K, Blunden A, et al. Canine mast cell tumors: correlation of apoptosis and proliferation markers with prognosis. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:151-8 pubmed
    ..This study shows that both mean AgNOR score and Ki-67 score are prognostic markers for canine MCTs. The Ki-67 score can be used to divide Patnaik grade 2 MCTs into 2 groups with markedly different expected survival times...
  68. Thamm D, Turek M, Vail D. Outcome and prognostic factors following adjuvant prednisone/vinblastine chemotherapy for high-risk canine mast cell tumour: 61 cases. J Vet Med Sci. 2006;68:581-7 pubmed
    ..High-grade and mucocutaneous tumors had a worse outcome, and the use of prophylactic nodal irradiation appeared to improve outcome in this group of dogs...
  69. Cooper M, Bennett P, Laverty P. Metastatic mast cell tumour in a dog presenting with spinal pain. Aust Vet J. 2009;87:157-9 pubmed publisher
  70. Taylor F, Gear R, Hoather T, Dobson J. Chlorambucil and prednisolone chemotherapy for dogs with inoperable mast cell tumours: 21 cases. J Small Anim Pract. 2009;50:284-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the response of measurable canine mast cell tumours unsuitable for other treatment modalities to a chemotherapy protocol comprising chlorambucil and prednisolone...
  71. Stoll J, Kozak C, Goldman D. Characterization and chromosomal mapping of a cDNA encoding tryptophan hydroxylase from a mouse mastocytoma cell line. Genomics. 1990;7:88-96 pubmed
    ..Because TPH has been mapped to human chromosome 11, this assignment further defines regions of homology between these mouse and human chromosomes...
  72. Truitt K, Hicks C, Imboden J. Stimulation of CD28 triggers an association between CD28 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in Jurkat T cells. J Exp Med. 1994;179:1071-6 pubmed
    ..However, because CD28 is not known to be phosphorylated, it remains possible that CD28 interacts with PI3-K through a mechanism independent of tyrosine phosphorylation...
  73. Tsujimura T, Furitsu T, Morimoto M, Isozaki K, Nomura S, Matsuzawa Y, et al. Ligand-independent activation of c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase in a murine mastocytoma cell line P-815 generated by a point mutation. Blood. 1994;83:2619-26 pubmed
    ..The data presented here provide evidence for a novel activating mutation of c-kit gene that might be involved in neoplastic growth or oncogenesis of some cell types, including mast cells...
  74. Kahn Perles B, Salamero J, Jouans O. Biogenesis of MHC class I antigens: involvement of multiple chaperone molecules. Eur J Cell Biol. 1994;64:176-85 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that BiP release is neither related to the process of class I oligomerization nor to the ER retention of class I assembly intermediates...
  75. London C, Seguin B. Mast cell tumors in the dog. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2003;33:473-89, v pubmed
    ..This article reviews the current understanding of MCT biology with regard to diagnosis, staging, identification of prognostic indicators, and appropriate treatment planning...
  76. Cowgill E, Neel J. Pleural fluid from a dog with marked eosinophilia. Vet Clin Pathol. 2003;32:147-9 pubmed
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