giant cell tumor of bone

Summary

Summary: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Domovitov S, Healey J. Primary malignant giant-cell tumor of bone has high survival rate. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:694-701 pubmed publisher
    ..This study compared malignant to benign GCTs and defined the clinical outcome of the patients in a large series of case-matched patients from a single institution...
  2. Szalay K, Antal I, Kiss J, Szendroi M. Comparison of the degenerative changes in weight-bearing joints following cementing or grafting techniques in giant cell tumour patients: medium-term results. Int Orthop. 2006;30:505-9 pubmed
  3. de la Roza G. p63 expression in giant cell-containing lesions of bone and soft tissue. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011;135:776-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although routine histology is often all that is required to diagnose giant cell tumor of bone, immunohistochemistry could prove useful to distinguish it from other benign and malignant giant cell-..
  4. Gaston C, Bhumbra R, Watanuki M, Abudu A, Carter S, Jeys L, et al. Does the addition of cement improve the rate of local recurrence after curettage of giant cell tumours in bone?. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011;93:1665-9 pubmed publisher
    ..001). In patients who developed local recurrence, 75.0% (9 of 12) of those with previous cementation required a joint replacement, compared with 45.2% (33 of 73) of those without cement (p = 0.044)...
  5. Singh S, Mak I, Cowan R, Turcotte R, Singh G, Ghert M. The role of TWIST as a regulator in giant cell tumor of bone. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:2287-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is an aggressive tumor consisting of multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells and proliferating osteoblast-like stromal cells...
  6. Ruka W, Rutkowski P, Morysiński T, Nowecki Z, Zdzienicki M, Makula D, et al. The megavoltage radiation therapy in treatment of patients with advanced or difficult giant cell tumors of bone. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;78:494-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the outcomes of radiotherapy, in terms of local control and treatment complications, of advanced or difficult giant cell tumors of bone (GCTB) that could not be treated by surgery...
  7. Thangaraj R, Grimer R, Carter S, Stirling A, Spilsbury J, Spooner D. Giant cell tumour of the sacrum: a suggested algorithm for treatment. Eur Spine J. 2010;19:1189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Embolisation and curettage are the preferred first option with radiotherapy as a possible adjunct. Spinopelvic fusion may be needed when the sacrum collapses...
  8. Miller I, Blank A, Yin S, McNickle A, Gray R, Gitelis S. A case of recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with malignant transformation and benign pulmonary metastases. Diagn Pathol. 2010;5:62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a case of GCT of bone that at the time of recurrence was found to have undergone malignant transformation. Concurrent metastases were found in the lung, but these were non-transformed GCT...
  9. Babeto E, Conceição A, Valsechi M, Peitl Junior P, de Campos Zuccari D, de Lima L, et al. Differentially expressed genes in giant cell tumor of bone. Virchows Arch. 2011;458:467-76 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications62

  1. Cowan R, Singh G, Ghert M. PTHrP increases RANKL expression by stromal cells from giant cell tumor of bone. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:877-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) presents with numerous osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells that are principally responsible for the extensive bone resorption by the tumor...
  2. Kivioja A, Blomqvist C, Hietaniemi K, Trovik C, Walloe A, Bauer H, et al. Cement is recommended in intralesional surgery of giant cell tumors: a Scandinavian Sarcoma Group study of 294 patients followed for a median time of 5 years. Acta Orthop. 2008;79:86-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Giant cell tumors of bone rarely metastasize but often recur locally after surgery. There is limited knowledge about the risk of recurrence related to different types of treatment...
  3. Thomas D. RANKL, denosumab, and giant cell tumor of bone. Curr Opin Oncol. 2012;24:397-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign, osteolytic neoplasm of bone. The receptor activator of NF-KB ligand (RANKL) pathway has recently been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of GCT...
  4. Ghert M, Simunovic N, Cowan R, Colterjohn N, Singh G. Properties of the stromal cell in giant cell tumor of bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;459:8-13 pubmed
    ..The spindle like stromal cells of GCT have characteristics of osteoblast progenitors and produce active matrix-degrading proteases. These cells may therefore play a central role in bone destruction...
  5. Behjati S, Tarpey P, Presneau N, Scheipl S, Pillay N, Van Loo P, et al. Distinct H3F3A and H3F3B driver mutations define chondroblastoma and giant cell tumor of bone. Nat Genet. 2013;45:1479-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Gly34Val alterations in childhood brain tumors, a remarkable picture of tumor type specificity for histone H3.3 driver alterations emerges, indicating that histone H3.3 residues, mutations and genes have distinct functions. ..
  6. Gortzak Y, Kandel R, Deheshi B, Werier J, Turcotte R, Ferguson P, et al. The efficacy of chemical adjuvants on giant-cell tumour of bone. An in vitro study. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010;92:1475-9 pubmed
    ..No multinucleated cell formation was seen in these cultures. These results suggest that the use of chemical adjuvants other than water could help improve local control in the treatment of GCT of bone...
  7. Futani H, Okumura Y, Fukuda Y, Fukunaga S, Hasegawa S, Yoshiya S. Giant cell tumor of the sternum: a case report and review of the literature. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:4117-20 pubmed
    ..The initial treatment should be extended curettage followed by filling with PMMA...
  8. Hammas N, Laila C, Youssef A, Hind E, Harmouch T, Siham T, et al. Can p63 serve as a biomarker for giant cell tumor of bone? A Moroccan experience. Diagn Pathol. 2012;7:130 pubmed publisher
    ..Differential diagnosis can be challenging, particularly in instances of limited sampling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the P63 in the positive and differential diagnosis of giant cell tumor of bone.
  9. Kudo N, Ogose A, Ariizumi T, Kawashima H, Hotta T, Hatano H, et al. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in giant cell tumor of bone. Anticancer Res. 2009;29:2219-25 pubmed
    ..Although the bone formation in GCT in supposedly due to bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), the expression pattern of BMPs in GCT has not been well investigated...
  10. Hoch B, Inwards C, Sundaram M, Rosenberg A. Multicentric giant cell tumor of bone. Clinicopathologic analysis of thirty cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88:1998-2008 pubmed
    b>Giant cell tumor of bone accounts for 4% to 5% of primary bone tumors. Approximately 1% of cases present as multiple synchronous or metachronous lesions...
  11. Viswanathan S, Jambhekar N. Metastatic giant cell tumor of bone: are there associated factors and best treatment modalities?. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468:827-33 pubmed publisher
    ..None of the patients died of their metastatic disease. None of the risk factors we studied was associated with metastasis in giant cell tumors. Although the overall outcome was favorable, metastasectomy is recommended where feasible...
  12. Branstetter D, Nelson S, Manivel J, Blay J, Chawla S, Thomas D, et al. Denosumab induces tumor reduction and bone formation in patients with giant-cell tumor of bone. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:4415-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The RANKL inhibitor denosumab is being investigated for treatment of GCTB. We describe histologic analyses of GCTB tumor samples from a phase II study of denosumab in GCTB...
  13. Atkins G, Kostakis P, Vincent C, Farrugia A, Houchins J, Findlay D, et al. RANK Expression as a cell surface marker of human osteoclast precursors in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and giant cell tumors of bone. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:1339-49 pubmed
    ..We describe the lineages that express RANK in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and GCTs. We show that CD14(+)RANK(high) cells constitute a circulating pre-osteoclast pool...
  14. Kang L, Manoso M, Boland P, Healey J, Athanasian E. Features of grade 3 giant cell tumors of the distal radius associated with successful intralesional treatment. J Hand Surg Am. 2010;35:1850-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to identify radiographic and anatomic features of Campanacci grade 3 distal radius giant cell tumors that are associated with an acceptable rate of local recurrence after intralesional treatment...
  15. Lau C, Huang L, Tsui S, Ng P, Leung P, Kumta S. Pamidronate, farnesyl transferase, and geranylgeranyl transferase-I inhibitors affects cell proliferation, apoptosis, and OPG/RANKL mRNA expression in stromal cells of giant cell tumor of bone. J Orthop Res. 2011;29:403-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support that the combination of bisphosphonates with GGTIs or FTIs with GGTIs may be used as potential adjuvants in the treatment of GCT of bone...
  16. Balke M, Campanacci L, Gebert C, Picci P, Gibbons M, Taylor R, et al. Bisphosphonate treatment of aggressive primary, recurrent and metastatic Giant Cell Tumour of Bone. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:462 pubmed publisher
    ..GCTB frequently recurs and can produce metastatic lesions in the lungs. Bisphosphonates are anti-resorptive drugs which act mainly on osteoclasts...
  17. Xu S, Yu X, Xu M, Fu Z. Inactivated autograft-prosthesis composite has a role for grade III giant cell tumor of bone around the knee. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:319 pubmed publisher
  18. Balke M, Schremper L, Gebert C, Ahrens H, Streitbuerger A, Koehler G, et al. Giant cell tumor of bone: treatment and outcome of 214 cases. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2008;134:969-78 pubmed publisher
    Two hundred and fourteen patients with benign giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), treated from 1980 to 2007 at the Department of Orthopedics of the University of Muenster (Germany), were analyzed in a retrospective study.
  19. Mosakhani N, Pazzaglia L, Benassi M, Borze I, Quattrini I, Picci P, et al. MicroRNA expression profiles in metastatic and non-metastatic giant cell tumor of bone. Histol Histopathol. 2013;28:671-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a skeletal neoplasm, a locally aggressive tumor that occasionally metastasizes to the lungs...
  20. Alberghini M, Kliskey K, Krenacs T, Picci P, Kindblom L, Forsyth R, et al. Morphological and immunophenotypic features of primary and metastatic giant cell tumour of bone. Virchows Arch. 2010;456:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that most lung nodules associated with primary conventional GCTBs are implants derived from tumour emboli formed in areas of haemorrhage and thrombus formation within the primary tumour...
  21. Yu X, Xu M, Song R, Fu Z, Liu X. Long-term outcome of giant cell tumors of bone around the knee treated by en bloc resection of tumor and reconstruction with prosthesis. Orthop Surg. 2010;2:211-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the long-term outcomes and complications of giant cell tumors around the knee treated with en bloc resection and reconstruction with prosthesis...
  22. Dickson B, Li S, Wunder J, Ferguson P, Eslami B, Werier J, et al. Giant cell tumor of bone express p63. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:369-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate p63 expression in giant cell tumor of bone and to determine whether it can be used to discriminate between other giant cell-rich tumors...
  23. Karpik M. Giant Cell Tumor (tumor gigantocellularis, osteoclastoma) - epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2010;12:207-15 pubmed
    ..b>Giant Cell Tumor of Bone accounts for 4-8% of primary bone tumors. It is most commonly seen in women aged 20 to 40 years...
  24. Moskovszky L, Szuhai K, Krenacs T, Hogendoorn P, Szendroi M, Benassi M, et al. Genomic instability in giant cell tumor of bone. A study of 52 cases using DNA ploidy, relocalization FISH, and array-CGH analysis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2009;48:468-79 pubmed publisher
    Genetic instability in relation to clinical behavior was studied in 52 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). Ploidy was determined in the mononuclear cell population by using native cell smears and image cytometry...
  25. Errani C, Ruggieri P, Asenzio M, Toscano A, Colangeli S, Rimondi E, et al. Giant cell tumor of the extremity: A review of 349 cases from a single institution. Cancer Treat Rev. 2010;36:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Special attention must be given to giant cell tumors not only in the distal radius, but also in the proximal femur, where the treatment is more difficult and associated with a higher rate of local recurrence...
  26. Raskin K, Schwab J, Mankin H, Springfield D, Hornicek F. Giant cell tumor of bone. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2013;21:118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Medical therapy and radiotherapy can alter the management of GCT of bone, especially in multifocal disease, local recurrences, and bulky central/axial disease...
  27. Lee C, Espinosa I, Jensen K, Subramanian S, Zhu S, Varma S, et al. Gene expression profiling identifies p63 as a diagnostic marker for giant cell tumor of the bone. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:531-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings altogether show that p63 can be used as a diagnostic marker to aid the clinical diagnosis of GCTOB...
  28. Balke M, Neumann A, Szuhai K, Agelopoulos K, August C, Gosheger G, et al. A short-term in vivo model for giant cell tumor of bone. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:241 pubmed publisher
    Because of the lack of suitable in vivo models of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT), little is known about its underlying fundamental pro-tumoral events, such as tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis...
  29. Mak I, Cowan R, Popovic S, Colterjohn N, Singh G, Ghert M. Upregulation of MMP-13 via Runx2 in the stromal cell of Giant Cell Tumor of bone. Bone. 2009;45:377-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Giant Cell Tumor of bone (GCT) is an aggressively osteolytic and cytokine-rich bone tumor...
  30. Bassiony A. Giant cell tumour of the distal radius: wide resection and reconstruction by non-vascularised proximal fibular autograft. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2009;38:900-4 pubmed
    ..Out of the various reconstructive procedures described, non-vascularised fibular autograft has been widely used with satisfactory functional results...
  31. Thomas D, Henshaw R, SKUBITZ K, Chawla S, Staddon A, Blay J, et al. Denosumab in patients with giant-cell tumour of bone: an open-label, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the potential therapeutic effect of denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL, on tumour-cell survival and growth in patients with GCT...
  32. Thomas D, Skubitz K. Giant cell tumour of bone. Curr Opin Oncol. 2009;21:338-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Giant cell tumour of bone (GCT) is the most common benign bone tumour and afflicts a young population. Treatment options for patients with unresectable disease have remained fairly static for the past three decades...
  33. Arpornchayanon O, Leerapun T. Effectiveness of intravenous bisphosphonate in treatment of giant cell tumor: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Assoc Thai. 2008;91:1609-12 pubmed
    ..The patient's gait was normal. From the present study, the authors demonstrate the effectiveness of zoledronate for treatment of giant cell tumor at the sacrum. It can reduce the morbidity from major surgery...
  34. Dominkus M, Ruggieri P, Bertoni F, Briccoli A, Picci P, Rocca M, et al. Histologically verified lung metastases in benign giant cell tumours--14 cases from a single institution. Int Orthop. 2006;30:499-504 pubmed
    ..We conclude that even metastatic benign giant cell tumours have an excellent prognosis after adequate resection. No prognostic factors despite high-grade lesions were detectable...
  35. Gong L, Sun X, Meng S, Huang X. [Giant cell tumor of bone and malignancies in giant cell tumor: a clinicopathologic analysis]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2009;38:312-5 pubmed
    ..To study the clinicopathologic features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of malignancies in giant cell tumor (MGCT)...
  36. Cowan R, Singh G. Giant cell tumor of bone: a basic science perspective. Bone. 2013;52:238-46 pubmed publisher
    Comprehending the pathogenesis of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is of critical importance for developing novel targeted treatments for this locally-aggressive primary bone tumor...
  37. van der Heijden L, van de Sande M, Dijkstra P. Soft tissue extension increases the risk of local recurrence after curettage with adjuvants for giant-cell tumor of the long bones. Acta Orthop. 2012;83:401-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was the identification of individual risk factors after curettage with adjuvants in GCTB...
  38. Liu Y, Li K, Sun B. Which treatment is the best for giant cell tumors of the distal radius? A meta-analysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470:2886-94 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unclear whether one provides lower rates of recurrences and fewer complications, and whether the use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) after curettage reduces the risk of recurrence...
  39. Asavamongkolkul A, Waikakul S, Phimolsarnti R, Kiatisevi P. Functional outcome following excision of a tumour and reconstruction of the distal radius. Int Orthop. 2009;33:203-9 pubmed
    ..5 (average 60.5) months. All patients had good and excellent functional results. Three patients in the group reconstructed with osteoarticular allograft had plate loosening and graft fractures which were successfully treated subsequently...
  40. Niu X, Zhang Q, Hao L, Ding Y, Li Y, Xu H, et al. Giant cell tumor of the extremity: retrospective analysis of 621 Chinese patients from one institution. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:461-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to review the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of surgical management in a large series of Chinese patients with giant cell tumor of an extremity, treated at a single institution...
  41. Knowles H, Athanasou N. Hypoxia-inducible factor is expressed in giant cell tumour of bone and mediates paracrine effects of hypoxia on monocyte-osteoclast differentiation via induction of VEGF. J Pathol. 2008;215:56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This is potentially an important mechanism of pathogenesis for GCTB and other osteolytic lesions...
  42. Ng P, Tsui S, Lau C, Wong C, Wong W, Huang L, et al. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is up-regulated in giant cell tumor of bone and regulates RANKL expression. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:438-46 pubmed publisher
  43. Balke M, Ahrens H, Streitbuerger A, Koehler G, Winkelmann W, Gosheger G, et al. Treatment options for recurrent giant cell tumors of bone. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009;135:149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible surgical procedures range from repeated intralesional curettage to wide resection...
  44. Wei F, Liu X, Liu Z, Jiang L, Dang G, Ma Q, et al. Interferon alfa-2b for recurrent and metastatic giant cell tumor of the spine: report of two cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:E1418-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Case report...
  45. Kremen T, Bernthal N, Eckardt M, Eckardt J. Giant cell tumor of bone: are we stratifying results appropriately?. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470:677-83 pubmed publisher
    There is no consensus as to which surgical approach to the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone is most appropriate or which patients are at a higher risk for recurrence or metastasis.
  46. Chadha M, Arora S, Singh A, Gulati D, Singh A. Autogenous non-vascularized fibula for treatment of giant cell tumor of distal end radius. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2010;130:1467-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We report outcome of wide resection and non-vascularized fibular grafting in biopsy-proven giant cell tumors...
  47. Lewis V. What's new in musculoskeletal oncology. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89:1399-407 pubmed
  48. Mak I, Seidlitz E, Cowan R, Turcotte R, Popovic S, Wu W, et al. Evidence for the role of matrix metalloproteinase-13 in bone resorption by giant cell tumor of bone. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:1320-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is an aggressively osteolytic primary bone tumor that is characterized by the presence of abundant multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells, hematopoietic monocytes, and a distinct mesenchymal stromal cell ..
  49. Alacacioglu A, Bengi G, Oztop I, Canda T, Balci P, Osma E, et al. Metastasis of giant cell tumor to the breast: case report and review of the literature. Tumori. 2006;92:351-3 pubmed
  50. Conti A, Rodriguez G, Chiechi A, Blazquez R, Barbado V, Krenacs T, et al. Identification of potential biomarkers for giant cell tumor of bone using comparative proteomics analysis. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:88-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Giant cell tumor of bone can be locally aggressive and occasionally can metastasize in the lungs...
  51. Salerno M, Avnet S, Alberghini M, Giunti A, Baldini N. Histogenetic characterization of giant cell tumor of bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:2081-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased number of giant cells in GCT may be secondary to an autocrine circuit mediated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kB...
  52. Lewis V, Wei A, Mendoza T, Primus F, Peabody T, Simon M. Argon beam coagulation as an adjuvant for local control of giant cell tumor. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;454:192-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest argon beam coagulation as an adjuvant therapy is associated with in a low rate of local recurrence and is a reasonable adjuvant treatment option...
  53. Gupta R, Seethalakshmi V, Jambhekar N, Prabhudesai S, Merchant N, Puri A, et al. Clinicopathologic profile of 470 giant cell tumors of bone from a cancer hospital in western India. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2008;12:239-48 pubmed publisher
    Over 20 years, 470 cases of giant cell tumor of bone diagnosed at a tertiary cancer hospital were analyzed. Male predominance (57%), predilection for bones around the knee joint (42%), and occurence in the 21- to 30-year-old age group (49...