chondroblastoma

Summary

Summary: A usually benign tumor composed of cells which arise from chondroblasts or their precursors and which tend to differentiate into cartilage cells. It occurs primarily in the epiphyses of adolescents. It is relatively rare and represents less than 2% of all primary bone tumors. The peak incidence is in the second decade of life; it is about twice as common in males as in females. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1846)

Top Publications

  1. Ishikawa E, Tsuboi K, Onizawa K, Hara A, Kusakari J, Noguchi M, et al. Chondroblastoma of the temporal base with high mitotic activity. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2002;42:516-20 pubmed
    A 24-year-old man presented with a rare chondroblastoma of the temporal base manifesting as local pain accompanied by difficulty in opening the mouth...
  2. Lin P, Thenappan A, Deavers M, Lewis V, Yasko A. Treatment and prognosis of chondroblastoma. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005;438:103-9 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is an aggressive tumor of bone with the capacity for recurrence and metastasis...
  3. Clapper A, DeYoung B. Chondroblastoma of the femoral diaphysis: report of a rare phenomenon and review of literature. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:803-6 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma (CB) is a relatively rare yet well-studied benign neoplasm of bone. The purported neoplastic cell is the chondroblast, a cell which normally populates areas of secondary ossification...
  4. Romeo S, Eyden B, Prins F, Briaire de Bruijn I, Taminiau A, Hogendoorn P. TGF-beta1 drives partial myofibroblastic differentiation in chondromyxoid fibroma of bone. J Pathol. 2006;208:26-34 pubmed
    ..Fibronectin-EDA levels were low. We have therefore substantiated the presence of morphological, immunohistochemical, and immuno-electron microscopic partial myofibroblastic differentiation in CMF, driven by TGF-beta1 signalling...
  5. Zhang K, Gao Y, Dai H, Zhang S, Li G, Yu B. Chondroblastoma of the talus: a case report and literature review. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2012;51:262-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Chondroblastoma is a rare, benign cartilaginous neoplasm that accounts for approximately 1% of all bone tumors, and approximately 4% of all chondroblastomas arise in the talus. Here we report a case of chondroblastoma in the left talus...
  6. Joshi D, Anderson P, Matsumoto J, Moir C, Shives T, Unni K, et al. Metastatic chondroblastoma with elevated creatine kinase and paraneoplastic neurologic autoimmunity. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2003;25:900-4 pubmed
    A 17-year-old girl presented with chondroblastoma of the fibula and pulmonary metastases. Serum creatine kinase (CK) was elevated for a decade preoperatively and fell to near normal after tumor excision...
  7. Aigner T, Loos S, Inwards C, Perris R, Perissinotto D, Unni K, et al. Chondroblastoma is an osteoid-forming, but not cartilage-forming neoplasm. J Pathol. 1999;189:463-9 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is defined as a 'benign tumour, characterized by highly cellular and relatively undifferentiated tissue composed of rounded or polygonal chondroblast-like cells' and the 'presence of cartilaginous intercellular matrix' (..
  8. Soder S, Oliveira A, Inwards C, Muller S, Aigner T. Type II collagen, but not aggrecan expression, distinguishes clear cell chondrosarcoma and chondroblastoma. Pathology. 2006;38:35-8 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma and clear cell chondrosarcoma are uncommon skeletal neoplasms that have a strong tendency to involve the epiphysis of long bones. They also share some overlapping histological features...
  9. Ozkoc G, Gonlusen G, Ozalay M, Kayaselcuk F, Pourbagher A, Tandogan R. Giant chondroblastoma of the scapula with pulmonary metastases. Skeletal Radiol. 2006;35:42-8 pubmed
    ..A 39x30x18-cm and 14.440-kg mass including the scapula was resected. Pathologic features were specific for chondroblastoma. During the 36-month follow-up, he had multiple inoperable metastatic lesions in his lungs...

More Information

Publications71

  1. Sessions W, Siegel H, Thomas J, Pitt M, Said Al Naief N, Casillas M. Chondroblastoma with associated aneurysmal bone cyst of the cuboid. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2005;44:64-7 pubmed
    The authors describe a young adult patient with a chondroblastoma and associated aneurysmal bone cyst of the cuboid. Although chondroblastoma has been reported to occur in tarsal bones, the cuboid is a very rare location...
  2. Masui F, Ushigome S, Kamitani K, Asanuma K, Fujii K. Chondroblastoma: a study of 11 cases. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2002;28:869-74 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is an infrequent and unique neoplasm that is histologically characterized by chondroblastoma cells, osteoclast-like giant cells and sometimes reactive osteoid...
  3. Otsuka T, Kobayashi M, Yonezawa M, Kamiyama F, Matsushita Y, Matsui N. Treatment of chondroblastoma of the calcaneus with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst using endoscopic curettage without bone grafting. Arthroscopy. 2002;18:430-5 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is a relatively rare benign bone tumor. Approximately 7% of chondroblastomas occur in the calcaneus, and 17% of chondroblastoma associated with cystic lesions...
  4. Accadbled F, Brouchet A, Salmeron F, Darodes P, Cahuzac J, Sales de Gauzy J. [Recurrent aggressive chondroblastoma: two cases and a review of the literature]. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 2001;87:718-23 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is a rare benign bone tumor. Treatment currently consists of curettage and bone graft...
  5. Moorthy R, Daniel R, Rajshekhar V, Chacko G. Skull base chondroblastoma: a case report. Neurol India. 2002;50:534-6 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is a rare tumor of the skull. Temporal bone is the commonest site of involvement in the skull...
  6. Ilaslan H, Sundaram M, Unni K. Vertebral chondroblastoma. Skeletal Radiol. 2003;32:66-71 pubmed
    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.
  7. Al Mestady R, Alorainy I, El Watidy S, Arafah M. Intracranial extraosseous chondroblastoma simulating meningioma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007;28:1880-1 pubmed
    Extraosseous chondroblastoma had been reported in different parts of the body but not intracranially...
  8. van der Geest I, van Noort M, Schreuder H, Pruszczynski M, de Rooy J, Veth R. The cryosurgical treatment of chondroblastoma of bone: long-term oncologic and functional results. J Surg Oncol. 2007;96:230-4 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma of bone is a rare tumor that occurs most often in the epiphysis or apophysis of long bones. This benign tumor sometimes shows aggressive or malignant behaviour, and rarely metastases occur...
  9. Romeo S, Bovée J, Jadnanansing N, Taminiau A, Hogendoorn P. Expression of cartilage growth plate signalling molecules in chondroblastoma. J Pathol. 2004;202:113-20 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma (CB) is a rare benign tumour (<1% of all bone tumours) involving epiphyseal long bones (male:female 1.5:1)...
  10. Behjati S, Tarpey P, Presneau N, Scheipl S, Pillay N, Van Loo P, et al. Distinct H3F3A and H3F3B driver mutations define chondroblastoma and giant cell tumor of bone. Nat Genet. 2013;45:1479-82 pubmed publisher
    ..3 driver alterations. In 73 of 77 cases of chondroblastoma (95%), we found p...
  11. Sterling G, Wilson A. Chondroblastoma of the talus: a case report. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2002;41:178-82 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma of bone is an uncommon condition that has a predilection for secondary ossification centers, particularly of the humerus, tibia, and femur. Treatment usually involves surgical curettage and autogenous bone graft...
  12. Kirchhoff C, Buhmann S, Mussack T, Müller Höcker J, Schmitt Sody M, Jansson V, et al. Aggressive scapular chondroblastoma with secondary metastasis--a case report and review of literature. Eur J Med Res. 2006;11:128-34 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is a benign bone tumor, accounting for approximately one percent of all benign bone tumors. It mostly occurs in typical locations such as long bones...
  13. Fukunaga M, Asanuma K, Irie T. Peculiar chondroblastoma involving multiple tarsal bones. Skeletal Radiol. 2010;39:709-14 pubmed publisher
    A case of peculiar chondroblastoma involving multiple tarsal bones in a 49-year-old woman is described. The patient presented with pain and swelling of the right foot...
  14. Romeo S, Hogendoorn P, Dei Tos A. Benign cartilaginous tumors of bone: from morphology to somatic and germ-line genetics. Adv Anat Pathol. 2009;16:307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This group includes common tumors, that is, osteochondroma and (en)chondroma as well as rare tumors such as chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma. Several benign and malignant tumors may mimic benign cartilaginous tumors of bones...
  15. Kurokawa R, Uchida K, Kawase T. Surgical treatment of temporal bone chondroblastoma. Surg Neurol. 2005;63:265-8; discussion 268 pubmed
    Temporal bone chondroblastoma is a rare primary bone tumor that affects the floor of the middle cranial fossa. This tumor is known to have high recurrence rate after curettage, and wide resection is therefore recommended...
  16. Rybak L, Rosenthal D, Wittig J. Chondroblastoma: radiofrequency ablation--alternative to surgical resection in selected cases. Radiology. 2009;251:599-604 pubmed publisher
    To demonstrate that radiofrequency (RF) ablation can be used safely and effectively to treat selected cases of chondroblastoma.
  17. Atalar H, Basarir K, Yildiz Y, Erekul S, Saglik Y. Management of chondroblastoma: retrospective review of 28 patients. J Orthop Sci. 2007;12:334-40 pubmed
    This study retrospectively reviewed 28 patients who presented with chondroblastoma in our hospital during the period March 1986 to February 2006. We investigated factors associated with local recurrence of the tumors after surgery.
  18. de Silva M, Reid R. Chondroblastoma: varied histologic appearance, potential diagnostic pitfalls, and clinicopathologic features associated with local recurrence. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2003;7:205-13 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is a rare, benign bone tumor. Although it has distinctive clinicopathologic features, its wide morphologic spectrum may pose diagnostic problems...
  19. Bousdras K, O DONNELL P, Vujovic S, Henderson S, Boshoff C, Flanagan A. Chondroblastomas but not chondromyxoid fibromas express cytokeratins: an unusual presentation of a chondroblastoma in the metaphyseal cortex of the tibia. Histopathology. 2007;51:414-6 pubmed
  20. Vukasinovic Z, Spasovski D, Slavkovic N, Slavković S, Zivkovic Z. [Chondroblastoma--current opinion]. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2006;134:567-70 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma of bone is rare bone tumor, representing around 1% of benign bone lesions...
  21. Huang L, Cheng Y, Chow L, Zheng M, Kumta S. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) is expressed in chondroblastoma: possible involvement in osteoclastic giant cell recruitment. Mol Pathol. 2003;56:116-20 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is a rare, locally aggressive bone tumour that causes osteolytic destruction at the epiphyseal end of the affected bone...
  22. Garin I, Wang E. Chondroblastoma. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2008;16:84-7 pubmed
    To review all patients with chondroblastoma treated in our hospital between 1993 and 2004.
  23. Cates J, Rosenberg A, O Connell J, Nielsen G. Chondroblastoma-like chondroma of soft tissue: an underrecognized variant and its differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001;25:661-6 pubmed
    ..This histologic appearance closely resembles that of chondroblastoma of bone...
  24. Tins B, Cassar Pullicino V, McCall I, Cool P, Williams D, Mangham D. Radiofrequency ablation of chondroblastoma using a multi-tined expandable electrode system: initial results. Eur Radiol. 2006;16:804-10 pubmed
    The standard treatment for chondroblastoma is surgery, which can be difficult and disabling due to its apo- or epiphyseal location. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation potentially offers a minimally invasive alternative...
  25. Romeo S, Oosting J, Rozeman L, Hameetman L, Taminiau A, Cleton Jansen A, et al. The role of noncartilage-specific molecules in differentiation of cartilaginous tumors: lessons from chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma. Cancer. 2007;110:385-94 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma (CB) and chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) are benign tumors of bone morphologically recapitulating cartilage differentiation. CMF can resemble high-grade central chondrosarcoma (HGCCS) because of its cellular atypia...
  26. Lehner B, Witte D, Weiss S. Clinical and radiological long-term results after operative treatment of chondroblastoma. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2011;131:45-52 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was the investigation of radiological and clinical long-term results after surgery for chondroblastoma in a single orthopedic oncological center.
  27. Park H, Park Y, Jang K, Unni K. Expression of collagen type II, S100B, S100A2 and osteocalcin in chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma. Oncol Rep. 2002;9:1087-91 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) has been investigated in numerous histological studies, but its biological nature and histogenetic origin are still a matter of debate...
  28. Romeo S, Szuhai K, Nishimori I, Ijszenga M, Wijers Koster P, Taminiau A, et al. A balanced t(5;17) (p15;q22-23) in chondroblastoma: frequency of the re-arrangement and analysis of the candidate genes. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:393 pubmed publisher
    b>Chondroblastoma is a benign cartilaginous tumour of bone that predominantly affects the epiphysis of long bones in young males. No recurrent chromosomal re-arrangements have so far been observed.
  29. Mishra K, Khanna G, Sharma S. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2004;47:263-5 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma accounts for less than one percent of osseous neoplasms, and is one fifth as common as giant cell tumor, a lesion with which it is very frequently confused. It has a marked predilection for the epiphysis of long bones...
  30. Christie Large M, Evans N, Davies A, James S. Radiofrequency ablation of chondroblastoma: procedure technique, clinical and MR imaging follow up of four cases. Skeletal Radiol. 2008;37:1011-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to describe the procedure technique, clinical and imaging outcomes of patients treated with radiofrequency ablation for chondroblastoma.
  31. Maezawa K, Nozawa M, Takagi T, Imai D, Shitoto K, Kurosawa H. Rotational acetabular osteotomy for benign chondroblastoma of the femoral head. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:1358-62 pubmed
  32. Azorin D, Gonzalez Mediero I, Colmenero I, de Prada I, Lopez Barea F. Diaphyseal chondroblastoma in a long bone: first report. Skeletal Radiol. 2006;35:49-52 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is a rare benign bone tumor typically located in the epiphysis. We describe the first case of chondroblastoma arising in the diaphysis of a long bone...
  33. Erickson J, Rosenthal D, Zaleske D, Gebhardt M, Cates J. Primary treatment of chondroblastoma with percutaneous radio-frequency heat ablation: report of three cases. Radiology. 2001;221:463-8 pubmed
    ..in whom minimally invasive percutaneous radio-frequency heat ablation was used to treat pathologically proven chondroblastoma to determine whether this treatment demonstrated long-term success...
  34. Hsu C, Wang J, Chen C, Lin J. Results of curettage and high-speed burring for chondroblastoma of the bone. Chang Gung Med J. 2003;26:761-7 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to report the results of 10 cases of chondroblastomas of the bone treated with curettage and high-speed burring...
  35. Sjögren H, Orndal C, Tingby O, Meis Kindblom J, Kindblom L, Stenman G. Cytogenetic and spectral karyotype analyses of benign and malignant cartilage tumours. Int J Oncol. 2004;24:1385-91 pubmed
  36. Ozkurt B, Basarir K, Yildiz Y, Saglik Y. [Chondroblastoma of the metatarsal bone and its 17-year follow-up]. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2008;42:292-5 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is a rare bone tumor of cartilaginous origin. Metatarsal involvement is very rare, with a few cases. We presented a case of chondroblastoma localized in the fourth metatarsal bone...
  37. Chung O, Yip S, Ngan K, Ng W. Chondroblastoma of the lumbar spine with cauda equina syndrome. Spinal Cord. 2003;41:359-64 pubmed
    ..Case report...
  38. Erler K, Yildiz C, Demiralp B, Ozdemir M, Basbozkurt M. Chondroblastoma of the distal femur. A case report. Acta Orthop Belg. 2003;69:467-72 pubmed
    The authors report a case of chondroblastoma which was localised in the distal femoral epiphysis in a 16-year-old boy. The lesion was large, rapidly expanding and extended into the knee joint...
  39. Kaim A, Hügli R, Bonel H, Jundt G. Chondroblastoma and clear cell chondrosarcoma: radiological and MRI characteristics with histopathological correlation. Skeletal Radiol. 2002;31:88-95 pubmed
    To analyze and compare the radiological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of chondroblastoma and clear cell chondrosarcoma with histopathological correlation.
  40. Papachristou D, Goodman M, Cieply K, Hunt J, Rao U. Comparison of allelic losses in chondroblastoma and primary chondrosarcoma of bone and correlation with fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Hum Pathol. 2006;37:890-8 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma (CBL) is a benign neoplasm of bone for which the genomic characteristics remain unclear...
  41. Kudo T, Okada K, Hirano Y, Sageshima M. Chondroblastoma of a metacarpal bone mimicking an aneurysmal bone cyst: a case report and a review of the literature. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2001;194:251-7 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma of the metacarpal bone has been extremely rare and only seven cases have been reported in the English literature...
  42. Anderson A, Ramsey J. Chondroblastoma of the talus treated with osteochondral autograft transfer from the lateral femoral condyle. Foot Ankle Int. 2003;24:283-7 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is a benign cartilaginous lesion of bone. When occurring in a position juxtaposed to articular cartilage, treatment is directed at removal of the tumor with preservation of the articular cartilage...
  43. Suneja R, Grimer R, Belthur M, Jeys L, Carter S, Tillman R, et al. Chondroblastoma of bone: long-term results and functional outcome after intralesional curettage. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87:974-8 pubmed
    ..study to determine the rate of recurrence and functional outcome after intralesional curettage for chondroblastoma of bone. The factors associated with aggressive behaviour of the tumour were also analysed...
  44. Ishida T, Goto T, Motoi N, Mukai K. Intracortical chondroblastoma mimicking intra-articular osteoid osteoma. Skeletal Radiol. 2002;31:603-7 pubmed
    We report a case of intra-articular intracortical chondroblastoma of the femoral condyle which radiologically appeared to be osteoid osteoma...
  45. Fang D, Gan H, Wang H, Zhou H, Zhang Z. Probe the function of histone lysine 36 methylation using histone H3 lysine 36 to methionine mutant transgene in mammalian cells. Cell Cycle. 2017;16:1781-1789 pubmed publisher
    b>Chondroblastoma is a cartilaginous tumor that typically arises under 25 y of age (80%)...
  46. Yang J, Tian W, Zhu X, Wang J. Chondroblastoma in the long bone diaphysis: a report of two cases with literature review. Chin J Cancer. 2012;31:257-64 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the clinical characteristics of chondroblastoma with an emphasis on lesions located in the long bone diaphysis, we reviewed the clinical data of 7 patients with histologically proven chondroblastoma treated in Tianjin ..
  47. Sreedharanunni S, Gupta N, Rajwanshi A, Bansal S, Vaiphei K. Fine needle aspiration cytology in two cases of chondromyxoid fibroma of bone and review of literature. Diagn Cytopathol. 2013;41:904-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The cases are being discussed to highlight the usefulness of FNAC to diagnose these uncommon benign bone lesions and the potential pitfalls in the cytological diagnosis of chondroid lesions. ..
  48. Arikan M, Togral G, Yildirim A, Irkkan C. A rare case of chondroblastoma of the acromion. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2016;50:691-693 pubmed publisher
    We present a 37-year-old patient with a chondroblastoma in his right acromion. The acromion is an unusual site for this type of tumor and the typical surgical treatment involves resection of the involved acromion bone...
  49. Keenan S, Bui Mansfield L. Musculoskeletal lesions with fluid-fluid level: a pictorial essay. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2006;30:517-24 pubmed
    ..We will review both osseous and soft tissue lesions, focusing on their imaging characteristics and other important findings. ..
  50. Slavković S, Tomić S, Slavkovic N, Apostolovic M. [Review of thirty patients with bone chondroblastoma]. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2005;62:705-13 pubmed
    To analyse the results of the treatment of the patients with the diagnosis of chondroblastoma, to confirm the possible malignancy and to recommend the best and the safest method of the treatment...
  51. Gebhardt M, Rosenthal D, Arnell P. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 8-2005. A 10-year-old boy with pain in the right thigh. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1122-9 pubmed
  52. Trebse R, Rotter A, Pisot V. Chondroblastoma of the patella associated with an aneurysmal bone cyst. Acta Orthop Belg. 2001;67:290-6 pubmed
    b>Chondroblastoma is a rare, benign tumor of bone, accounting for about 1% of all bone tumor cases. It tends to affect the epiphyseal ends of long bones, most often in males during the first and second decades of life...
  53. Ogose A, Hotta T, Kawashima H, Hatano H, Umezu H, Inoue Y, et al. Elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase in clear cell chondrosarcoma of bone. Anticancer Res. 2001;21:649-55 pubmed
    ..Enzyme histochemical and molecular analyses demonstrated that the tumor produced ALP. Clear cell chondrosarcoma produces ALP, which can be used as a tumor marker in diagnosis and follow-up. ..
  54. Papaioannou G, Sebire N, McHugh K. Imaging of the unusual pediatric 'blastomas'. Cancer Imaging. 2009;9:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We present examples of the more unusual blastematous pediatric tumors (lipoblastoma, osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma, hemangioblastoma, gonadoblastoma, sialoblastoma, pleuropulmonary blastoma, pancreatoblastoma, pineoblastoma, ..
  55. Streitbuerger A, Hardes J, Gebert C, Ahrens H, Winkelmann W, Gosheger G. [Cartilage tumours of the bone. Diagnosis and therapy]. Orthopade. 2006;35:871-81; quiz 882 pubmed
    ..This article discusses the problems in the diagnosis and treatment of cartilage tumours from an orthopaedic point of view...
  56. Jager M, Schultheis A, Westhoff B, Krauspe R. Osteogenic progenitor cell potency after high-dose chemotherapy (COSS-96). Anticancer Res. 2005;25:947-54 pubmed
    ..The uniform treatment concept of a high-dose polychemotherapy pre- and postoperatively improved the survival rate of these patients significantly. One severe side-effect of COSS chemotherapy is multiple osteonecrosis...
  57. Bhatti A, Mahmood A, Minhas M, Mehboob G. Frequency, presentation and postintervention prognosis of chondroblastoma. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2003;13:644-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the frequency of clinico-radiological presentation and the prognosis after treatment of chondroblastoma.
  58. Lopez Ben R, Siegal G, Hadley M. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the cervical spine: case report. Neurosurgery. 2002;50:409-11 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of C2 involvement and craniocervical instability...
  59. Jaovisidha S, Siriapisith R, Chitrapazt N, De Zordo T, Woratanarat P, Subhadrabandhu T, et al. Radiological findings in 31 patients with chondroblastoma in tubular and non-tubular bones. Singapore Med J. 2013;54:275-80 pubmed
    This study aimed to evaluate radiological findings in patients with chondroblastoma (CB) in tubular and non-tubular bones (NTBs).
  60. Romeo S, Bovee J, Grogan S, Taminiau A, Eilers P, Cleton Jansen A, et al. Chondromyxoid fibroma resembles in vitro chondrogenesis, but differs in expression of signalling molecules. J Pathol. 2005;206:135-42 pubmed
    ..Morphological similarities reflect common steps in cartilage differentiation, albeit driven by different molecular mechanisms. The proteins we have found to be differentially expressed seem crucial for neoplastic chondrogenesis...
  61. Yang X, Yang Z, Liu F, Zeng K, Qian M, Chen G, et al. Inhibition of mTOR and HIF pathways diminishes chondro-osteogenesis and cell proliferation in chondroblastoma. Tumour Biol. 2013;34:3111-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Chondroblastoma (CBL) is a benign bone tumor occurring mostly in teenagers. Despite this, CBL can recur and metastasize after curettage, which may impede normal epiphysis...
  62. Kang L, Chamyan G, Barness Gilbert E. Pathology teach and tell: chondroblastoma. Pediatr Pathol Mol Med. 2002;21:71-4 pubmed