Summary: A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Tseng Y, Hsieh C, Huang H, Huang C, Hsu W, Huang B, et al. Is thymectomy necessary in nonmyasthenic patients with early thymoma?. J Thorac Oncol. 2013;8:952-8 pubmed publisher
    In thymoma patients without myasthenia gravis, it is debatable whether thymectomy should be performed in addition to thymomectomy, the procedure in which the thymoma alone is resected...
  2. Mussi A, Fanucchi O, Davini F, Lucchi M, Picchi A, Ambrogi M, et al. Robotic extended thymectomy for early-stage thymomas. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;41:e43-6; discussion e47 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to report a single referral centre experience in robotic extended thymectomy for clinical early-stage thymomas, evaluating its safety, feasibility and efficacy, with special regard to oncological outcomes...
  3. Wei M, Kang D, Gu L, Qiu M, Zhengyin L, Mu Y. Chemotherapy for thymic carcinoma and advanced thymoma in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD008588 pubmed publisher
    Thymic carcinoma or advanced thymoma is a rare cancer of the thymus gland that tends to be aggressive and infiltrate neighbouring organs, making total resection very difficult...
  4. Pennathur A, Qureshi I, Schuchert M, Dhupar R, Ferson P, Gooding W, et al. Comparison of surgical techniques for early-stage thymoma: feasibility of minimally invasive thymectomy and comparison with open resection. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;141:694-701 pubmed publisher
    ..approach to resection of the thymus is frequently practiced for benign disease; however, a VATS approach for thymoma remains controversial...
  5. Qiao J, Zhou G, Ding Y, Zhu D, Fang H. Multiple paraneoplastic syndromes: myasthenia gravis, vitiligo, alopecia areata, and oral lichen planus associated with thymoma. J Neurol Sci. 2011;308:177-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is rare that four paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders co-occur in a single patient. We describe a thymoma patient with diagnoses of myasthenia gravis, vitiligo, alopecia areata, and oral lichen planus associated with a ..
  6. Harris K, Elsayegh D, Azab B, Alkaied H, Chalhoub M. Thymoma calcification: is it clinically meaningful?. World J Surg Oncol. 2011;9:95 pubmed publisher
    Among anterior mediastinal lesions, thymoma is the most common. Thymomas are tumors of thymic epithelial cell origin that are distinguished by inconsistent histological and biologic behavior...
  7. Spaggiari L, Casiraghi M, Guarize J. Multidisciplinary treatment of malignant thymoma. Curr Opin Oncol. 2012;24:117-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Although surgery remains the only curative treatment, the use of multimodality therapy for primary unresectable thymomas has led to change the clinical management of these tumors...
  8. Qu Y, Liu G, Shi H, Liao M, Yang G, Tian Z. Preoperative CT findings of thymoma are correlated with postoperative Masaoka clinical stage. Acad Radiol. 2013;20:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between these two staging systems...
  9. Petrini I, Rajan A, Pham T, Voeller D, Davis S, Gao J, et al. Whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of a B3 thymoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60572 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present the first comprehensive view of a B3 thymoma at whole genome and transcriptome levels...

More Information


  1. Marom E. Advances in thymoma imaging. J Thorac Imaging. 2013;28:69-80; quiz 81-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymoma is the most common primary neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum, but it accounts for <1% of all adult malignancies...
  2. Gokmen Polar Y, Sanders K, Goswami C, Cano O, Zaheer N, Jain R, et al. Establishment and characterization of a novel cell line derived from human thymoma AB tumor. Lab Invest. 2012;92:1564-73 pubmed publisher, we report a novel cell line, designated as IU-TAB-1, which was established from a patient with stage II thymoma (World Health Organization-type AB)...
  3. Yanagawa M, Tomiyama N. Prediction of thymoma histology and stage by radiographic criteria. Thorac Surg Clin. 2011;21:1-12, v pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes the prediction of thymoma histology and stage on the basis of radiographic criteria by reviewing the following: the WHO histologic ..
  4. Moonim M, Breen R, Gill Barman B, Santis G. Diagnosis and subclassification of thymoma by minimally invasive fine needle aspiration directed by endobronchial ultrasound: a review and discussion of four cases. Cytopathology. 2012;23:220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the cytomorphological features of three cases of type B thymoma (one each of B1, B2 and B3 subtypes) and one case of thymic carcinoma diagnosed on EBUS-TBNA using cell blocks, ..
  5. Evert M, Calvisi D, Evert K, De Murtas V, Gasparetti G, Mattu S, et al. V-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog/mammalian target of rapamycin activation induces a module of metabolic changes contributing to growth in insulin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Hepatology. 2012;55:1473-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the metabolic and growth properties of the v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) pathway, a major downstream effector of insulin ..
  6. Mariano C, Ionescu D, Cheung W, Ali R, Laskin J, Evans K, et al. Thymoma: a population-based study of the management and outcomes for the province of British Columbia. J Thorac Oncol. 2013;8:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our primary study aim was to analyze treatment practices and outcomes in a population-based cohort of thymoma patients...
  7. Bae M, Lee C, Lee J, Park I, Kim D, Yang W, et al. Predictors of recurrence after thymoma resection. Yonsei Med J. 2013;54:875-82 pubmed publisher
    Recurrence rate is considered a better measure of clinical outcomes after thymoma resection than overall survival due to the indolent behavior of thymomas...
  8. Yu L, Zhang X, Ma S, Li F, Zhang Y. Thoracoscopic thymectomy for myasthenia gravis with and without thymoma: a single-center experience. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012;93:240-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to analyze the outcome of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) extended thymectomy and to compare characteristics of patients with MG with and without thymoma.
  9. Toker A, Erus S, Ozkan B, Ziyade S, Tanju S. Does a relationship exist between the number of thoracoscopic thymectomies performed and the learning curve for thoracoscopic resection of thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis?. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2011;12:152-5 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to analyze surgeons' learning curve for thymoma resection with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)...
  10. Tateyama H, Sugiura H, Yamatani C, Yano M. Expression of podoplanin in thymoma: its correlation with tumor invasion, nodal metastasis, and poor clinical outcome. Hum Pathol. 2011;42:533-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the role of podoplanin in thymoma, we examined 111 thymomas by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody D2-40, which recognizes podoplanin...
  11. Tsugawa J, Tsuboi Y, Inoue H, Suzuki S, Yamada T. [Recurrent syncope due to sick sinus syndrome in a patient with myasthenia gravis associated with thymoma]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2011;51:32-4 pubmed
    ..symptoms with the presence of anti-AchR antoantibody, he was diagnosed as myasthenia gravis (MG) associated with thymoma. However, Holter ECG showed long pause with maximum R-R interval of 3...
  12. Weksler B, Tavares J, Newhook T, Greenleaf C, Diehl J. Robot-assisted thymectomy is superior to transsternal thymectomy. Surg Endosc. 2012;26:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Robot-assisted thymectomy has emerged as an alternative to open transsternal surgery. The goal of this study was to compare perioperative outcomes in patients who underwent transsternal or robot-assisted thymectomy...
  13. Sakamoto M, Murakawa T, Konoeda C, Inoue Y, Kitano K, Sano A, et al. Survival after extended thymectomy for thymoma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012;41:623-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymoma is a relatively rare tumour and is uniquely associated with autoimmune diseases such as myasthenia gravis (MG). However, the factors involved in the prognosis of thymoma remain under discussion.
  14. Benveniste M, Rosado de Christenson M, Sabloff B, Moran C, Swisher S, Marom E. Role of imaging in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thymoma. Radiographics. 2011;31:1847-61; discussion 1861-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymoma is a rare mediastinal neoplasm but is the most common primary neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum. There have been only a few published reports assessing this disease...
  15. Shinohara S, Hanagiri T, So T, Yasuda M, Takenaka M, Nagata Y, et al. Results of surgical resection for patients with thymoma according to World Health Organization histology and Masaoka staging. Asian J Surg. 2012;35:144-8 pubmed publisher
    Thymomas are relatively rare tumors. In this study, we investigated the clinical features of patients who underwent surgical resection for thymoma.
  16. Badve S, Goswami C, Gokmen Polar Y, Nelson R, Henley J, Miller N, et al. Molecular analysis of thymoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42669 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of potential candidates for therapeutics were also identified...
  17. Granato F, Ambrosio M, Spina D, Lazzi S, Rocca B, Voltolini L, et al. Patients with thymomas have an increased risk of developing additional malignancies: lack of immunological surveillance?. Histopathology. 2012;60:437-42 pubmed publisher
    To assess the risk, for patients with thymoma, of developing an additional malignancy (AM).
  18. Schwartz J, Solomon J, Henkelman K, Leininger J, Iverson W. Spontaneous thymoma in a juvenile cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Toxicol Pathol. 2011;39:706-10 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no evidence of vascular invasion or metastasis. Features of the thymoma indicated it was a pre-existing condition and not treatment related.
  19. Bae M, Byun C, Lee C, Lee J, Park I, Kim D, et al. Clinical outcomes and prognosis of recurrent thymoma management. J Thorac Oncol. 2012;7:1304-14 pubmed publisher
    Clinical outcomes and prognosis of recurrent thymoma are not well known because of its rarity and indolent clinical course. This study was designed to determine the clinical outcomes and prognosis of recurrent thymoma.
  20. Cimpean A, Encica S, Raica M, Ribatti D. SOX2 gene expression in normal human thymus and thymoma. Clin Exp Med. 2011;11:251-4 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, in thymoma immunoreactivity to SOX2 increased parallel to pathological stage, and a peculiar distribution was observed in ..
  21. Ruffini E, Filosso P, Mossetti C, Bruna M, Novero D, Lista P, et al. Thymoma: inter-relationships among World Health Organization histology, Masaoka staging and myasthenia gravis and their independent prognostic significance: a single-centre experience. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;40:146-53 pubmed publisher
  22. Hosaka Y, Tsuchida M, Umezu H, Eimoto T, Hashimoto T, Shinohara H, et al. Primary thymic adenocarcinoma coexisting with type AB thymoma: a rare case with long-term survival. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;58:488-91; discussion 491-2 pubmed publisher
    ..A case of papillary adenocarcinoma of thymic origin that coexisted with type AB thymoma as a separate nodule is presented herein...
  23. Vladislav T, Jain R, Alvarez R, Mehta R, Gokmen Polar Y, Kesler K, et al. Extrathoracic metastases of thymic origin: a review of 35 cases. Mod Pathol. 2012;25:370-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The exact incidence of extrathoracic metastases from thymoma is not known...
  24. Detterbeck F, Zeeshan A. Thymoma: current diagnosis and treatment. Chin Med J (Engl). 2013;126:2186-91 pubmed
    To review the presentation, diagnosis, staging and treatment of thymoma.
  25. Sajithlal G, Hamed H, Cruickshanks N, Booth L, Tavallai S, Syed J, et al. Sorafenib/regorafenib and phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase/thymoma viral proto-oncogene inhibition interact to kill tumor cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;84:562-71 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitors sorafenib/regorafenib cooperated with clinically relevant , phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-thymoma viral proto-oncogene (AKT) inhibitors to kill tumor cells...
  26. Kisand K, Lilic D, Casanova J, Peterson P, Meager A, Willcox N. Mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmunity against cytokines in APECED and thymoma patients: clinical and pathogenetic implications. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1517-27 pubmed publisher
  27. Lemma G, Lee J, Aisner S, Langer C, Tester W, Johnson D, et al. Phase II study of carboplatin and paclitaxel in advanced thymoma and thymic carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:2060-5 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced previously untreated thymoma and thymic carcinoma.
  28. Ma Y, Zhang C, Cui W, Gulinaer A, Zhang W, Wang J. [Correlation of amplification of chromosome 1 with histologic typing of thymic epithelial tumors]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2011;40:820-4 pubmed
    ..To study the correlation between amplification of chromosome 1 and histological typing and clinical staging of thymic epithelial tumors according to the WHO classification...
  29. Pye G, White A, Robbins P, Burns R, Rideout B. Preventive medicine success: thymoma removal in an African spot-necked otter (Lutra maculicollis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2010;41:732-4 pubmed
    ..Cytology from an ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate was suggestive of a thymoma. Surgical removal was performed and this diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology...
  30. Moran C, Kalhor N, Suster S. Invasive spindle cell thymomas (WHO Type A): a clinicopathologic correlation of 41 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 2010;134:793-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study stresses the fact that histologic features do not correlate with invasion or encapsulation because all thymomas, regardless of their histologic type, are capable of invasion...
  31. Fujii Y. Published guidelines for management of thymoma. Thorac Surg Clin. 2011;21:125-9, viii pubmed publisher
    Guidelines for treatment of thymoma are prevalent in US literature, and many have been published by organizations in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Japan. This article reviews these many guidelines and summarizes them for the reader.
  32. Venuta F, Rendina E, Anile M, De Giacomo T, Vitolo D, Coloni G. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;60:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..From the histological point of view, thymoma and thymic carcinoma are the most frequent subtypes and arise only from thymic epithelial cells...
  33. Schmitt J, Loehrer P. The role of chemotherapy in advanced thymoma. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:S357-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymoma and thymic carcinomas are rare malignancies. Most thymomas and about one-third of thymic carcinomas can be cured with local therapy. The remainder of will be candidates for systemic therapy...
  34. Engels E. Epidemiology of thymoma and associated malignancies. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:S260-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymoma is a rare malignancy of unknown etiology.
  35. Florizoone K. Thymoma-associated exfoliative dermatitis in a rabbit. Vet Dermatol. 2005;16:281-4 pubmed
    ..At necropsy a mass was found in the anterior mediastinum. Histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of thymoma. A possible paraneoplastic skin disease was suspected, based on similarities with thymoma-associated exfoliative ..
  36. Shiraishi J, Nomori H, Orikasa H, Mori T, Yamazaki K. Atypical thymoma (WHO B3) with neuroendocrine differentiation: report of a case. Virchows Arch. 2006;449:234-7 pubmed
    We report a case of type-B3 thymoma manifesting neuroendocrine differentiation. The patient was a 42-year-old woman who complained of shoulder pain but had no symptoms of myasthenia gravis or anemia...
  37. Kondo K. Optimal therapy for thymoma. J Med Invest. 2008;55:17-28 pubmed
    b>Thymoma is the most common tumor of the anterior mediastinum. This tumor is associated with unique paraneoplastic syndromes (myasthenia gravis, pure red cell aplasia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and other autoimmune diseases)...
  38. Davenport E, Malthaner R. The role of surgery in the management of thymoma: a systematic review. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86:673-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of surgery as the sole therapeutic maneuver in thymoma depends on the stage considered...
  39. Detterbeck F. Clinical value of the WHO classification system of thymoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:2328-34 pubmed
    Since the World Health Organization (WHO) histologic classification system for thymoma was introduced in 1999, several centers have published results using this system...
  40. Marom E. Imaging thymoma. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:S296-303 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymoma is a rare tumor, although it is the most common primary neoplasm of the anterior mediastinum...
  41. Choi H, Koh S, Park M, Kim S. Myasthenia gravis associated with ectopic cervical thymoma. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:1393-5 pubmed publisher
    It is well known that thymoma is often associated with myasthenia gravis...
  42. Casey E, Kiel P, Loehrer P. Clinical management of thymoma patients. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2008;22:457-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymoma and thymic carcinomas are rare epithelial tumors that arise from the thymus gland. Current management depends on staging, with surgery being the mainstay of therapy for stages I and II disease...
  43. Hsu I, Wu M, Lai W, Lin M, Chang J, Yen Y, et al. Cervical ectopic thymoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007;133:1658-9 pubmed
  44. Nakagawa K, Asamura H, Matsuno Y, Suzuki K, Kondo H, Maeshima A, et al. Thymoma: a clinicopathologic study based on the new World Health Organization classification. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126:1134-40 pubmed
    This study explored the relationship between the histologic subtype of thymoma according to the new World Health Organization histologic classification and the clinical findings, as well as the prognostic significance of the ..
  45. Sasaki H, Yukiue H, Kobayashi Y, Fukai I, Fujii Y. Cten mRNA expression is correlated with tumor progression in thymoma. Tumour Biol. 2003;24:271-4 pubmed
    ..We attempted to determine the influence of cten expression on clinicopathological features in patients with thymoma who had undergone surgery...
  46. Kondo K, Monden Y. Myasthenia gravis appearing after thymectomy for thymoma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005;28:22-5 pubmed
    A few thymoma patients without myasthenia gravis (MG) have been observed to develop MG after total removal of the thymoma (postoperative MG). However, the cause of this is not yet known because of the rarity of postoperative MG patients...
  47. Ecco R, Langohr I, Türy E, Santos Júnior H, Jacobina G. Mixed thymoma in a cow. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:503-7 pubmed
    ..Based on the gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings, the neoplasm was diagnosed as a mixed thymoma.
  48. Chau N, Kim E, Wistuba I. The multidisciplinary approach to thymoma: combining molecular and clinical approaches. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:S313-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes recently identified molecular characteristics of thymoma and thymic carcinoma that may potentially impact disease classification, targeted therapeutic decision making, ..
  49. Meyer S, Kroiss M, Landthaler M, Vogt T. Thymoma, myasthenia gravis, eruptions of pemphigus vulgaris and a favourable course of relapsing melanoma: an immunological puzzle. Br J Dermatol. 2006;155:638-40 pubmed
  50. Miller D, Tazelaar H, Handy J, Young D, Hernandez J. Thymoma arising within cardiac myxoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29:1208-13 pubmed
    ..myxoma (with characteristic rings and syncytial chains of myxoma cells in a loose myxoid matrix) and cellular thymoma-like elements (characterized by a lobulated sheet-like growth of epithelioid spindle cells admixed with small ..
  51. Evans T, Lynch T. Role of chemotherapy in the management of advanced thymic tumors. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;17:41-50 pubmed
    ..For best results, it is important that thoracic surgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists work together to obtain the best local control of tumor and optimal treatment of metastases. ..
  52. Venuta F, Rendina E, Longo F, De Giacomo T, Anile M, Mercadante E, et al. Long-term outcome after multimodality treatment for stage III thymic tumors. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;76:1866-72; discussion 1872 pubmed
    ..The introduction of multimodality protocols has substantially modified survival and recurrence rate. We reviewed our 13-year prospective experience with multimodality treatment of stage III thymoma and thymic carcinoma.
  53. Sakurai H, Kaji M, Suemasu K. Thymoma of the middle mediastinum: 11C-acetate positron emission tomography imaging. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009;87:1271-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Their occurrence is likely to be related to ectopic thymus tissue. We report a case of thymoma in the middle mediastinum, right paratracheal region. There have been few reports of middle mediastinal thymoma...
  54. Shiono H, Wong Y, Matthews I, Liu J, Zhang W, Sims G, et al. Spontaneous production of anti-IFN-alpha and anti-IL-12 autoantibodies by thymoma cells from myasthenia gravis patients suggests autoimmunization in the tumor. Int Immunol. 2003;15:903-13 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, at diagnosis, >70% of MG/thymoma patients also have high-titer neutralizing autoantibodies to IFN-alpha, and >50% to IL-12; moreover, titers ..
  55. Shiono H, Roxanis I, Zhang W, Sims G, Meager A, Jacobson L, et al. Scenarios for autoimmunization of T and B cells in myasthenia gravis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;998:237-56 pubmed
    We have studied responses in thymoma patients to interferon-alpha and to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in early-onset myasthenia gravis (EOMG), seeking clues to autoimmunizing mechanisms...
  56. Lu H, Gan M, Zhou T, Wang S. Sarcomatoid thymic carcinoma arising in metaplastic thymoma: a case report. Int J Surg Pathol. 2011;19:677-80 pubmed publisher
    Metaplastic thymoma is an extremely rare tumor. To date, only 17 cases of metaplastic thymoma have been reported...
  57. Baldi A, Ambrogi V, Mineo D, Mellone P, Campioni M, Citro G, et al. Analysis of cell cycle regulator proteins in encapsulated thymomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:5078-83 pubmed
    ..In this study, three components of the cell cycle machinery (i.e., p21, p27 and p53) were examined in a series of well-characterized encapsulated thymoma specimens to analyze coregulation and influence on recurrence and survival.
  58. Strobel P, Marx A, Zettl A, Muller Hermelink H. Thymoma and thymic carcinoma: an update of the WHO Classification 2004. Surg Today. 2005;35:805-11 pubmed
    ..We herein briefly update the reader with the most important new changes in the 2004 WHO classification of tumors of the thymus and to important new trends in the treatment of some of these tumors...
  59. Joudinaud T, Fadel E, Thomas de Montpréville V, Mussot S, Flecher E, Dartevelle P. Fatal giant cell myocarditis after thymoma resection in myasthenia gravis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;131:494-5 pubmed
  60. Nakazono T, Yamaguchi K, Egashira R, Satoh T, Yamasaki F, Mitsuoka M, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging features of spontaneously regressed thymoma: report of 2 cases. J Thorac Imaging. 2009;24:62-5 pubmed publisher
    The authors describe 2 cases in which thymoma spontaneously regressed. The first patient was a 49-year-old woman with myasthenia gravis...
  61. Strobel P, Marino M, Feuchtenberger M, Rouzière A, Tony H, Wulbrand U, et al. Micronodular thymoma: an epithelial tumour with abnormal chemokine expression setting the stage for lymphoma development. J Pathol. 2005;207:72-82 pubmed
    ..The present paper reports a high frequency of monoclonal B-cell populations (6 of 18 cases; 33%) in micronodular thymoma (MNT), a peculiar thymic epithelial neoplasm with a B-cell-rich stroma, while B cells were consistently ..
  62. Welsh J, Thurman S, Howard S. Thymoma and multiple malignancies: a case of five synchronous neoplasms and literature review. Clin Med Res. 2003;1:227-32 pubmed
    ..This is a report of a patient with a malignant (invasive) thymoma and four other independent primary neoplasms including: gliosarcoma, papillary thyroid cancer, meningioma and ..
  63. Jeong Y, Lee K, Kim J, Shim Y, Han J, Kwon O. Does CT of thymic epithelial tumors enable us to differentiate histologic subtypes and predict prognosis?. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183:283-9 pubmed
    ..The aims of our study were to describe the CT findings of thymic epithelial tumors and to correlate these findings with the histopathologic subtypes and prognosis...
  64. Riedel R, Burfeind W. Thymoma: benign appearance, malignant potential. Oncologist. 2006;11:887-94 pubmed
    b>Thymoma is a rare tumor with a largely indolent growth pattern. It does, however, have malignant potential as a result of its ability to invade locally and metastasize regionally...
  65. Myers P, Kritikos N, Bongiovanni M, Triponez F, Collaud S, Pache J, et al. Primary intrapulmonary thymoma: a systematic review. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2007;33:1137-41 pubmed
    This article reviews the literature on the clinical features, diagnosis and management of primary intrapulmonary thymoma.
  66. Makihara S, Umemori Y, Kotani K. [Invasive thymoma with thymic cyst; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka. 2007;60:512-5 pubmed
    ..Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed anterior mediastinal solid mass with cystic lesion. A thymoma was suspected. The tumor was removed in June 2000, through a longitudinal incision of the sternum...
  67. Tormoehlen L, Pascuzzi R. Thymoma, myasthenia gravis, and other paraneoplastic syndromes. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2008;22:509-26 pubmed publisher
    The relationship between myasthenia gravis and thymic pathology, including thymoma, is well known. Approximately 10% to 15% of patients who have myasthenia gravis are observed to have a thymoma...
  68. Meager A, Visvalingam K, Peterson P, Möll K, Murumägi A, Krohn K, et al. Anti-interferon autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e289 pubmed
  69. Hirokawa M, Sawada K, Fujishima N, Nakao S, Urabe A, Dan K, et al. Long-term response and outcome following immunosuppressive therapy in thymoma-associated pure red cell aplasia: a nationwide cohort study in Japan by the PRCA collaborative study group. Haematologica. 2008;93:27-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Thymoma-associated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) accounts for a significant proportion of cases of secondary PRCA and immunosuppressive therapy has been reported to be useful in this condition...
  70. Romi F, Gilhus N, Varhaug J, Myking A, Aarli J. Disease severity and outcome in thymoma myasthenia gravis: a long-term observation study. Eur J Neurol. 2003;10:701-6 pubmed
    ..However, the factors that influence MG outcome in thymoma MG patients are not known...
  71. Kertesz G, Hauser P, Varga P, Dabasi G, Schuler D, Garami M. Advanced pediatric inoperable thymus carcinoma (type C thymoma): case report on a novel therapeutic approach. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007;29:774-5 pubmed
    ..techniques but still there are some illnesses that continue to exhibit a rather poor curability, such as thymoma. This report highlights the benefit of octreotide and prednisolone therapy in a 15-year-old girl, who was ..