mullerian mixed tumor


Summary: A tumor, basically a carcinoma with a single sarcoma such as leiomyosarcoma or angiosarcoma or multiple sarcomas of uterine origin. The role of estrogen has been postulated as a possible etiological factor in this tumor. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1703)

Top Publications

  1. Mikami Y, Hata S, Kiyokawa T, Manabe T. Expression of CD10 in malignant müllerian mixed tumors and adenosarcomas: an immunohistochemical study. Mod Pathol. 2002;15:923-30 pubmed
    ..CD10 expression might be one of the characteristics of müllerian system-derived neoplastic mesenchymal cells...
  2. Moe M, El Sharkawi S. Is there any association between uterine malignant mixed Mullerian tumour, breast cancer and prolonged tamoxifen treatment?. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;23:301-3 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this article is to draw the attention of other professionals on this subject...
  3. Maitra R, Lee J, McConnell D, Kenwright D, Dady P. Malignant mixed mullerian tumour of the fallopian tube occurring in a patient with Peutz-Jegher's syndrome. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;44:77-9 pubmed
  4. Navarini R, Pineda R. Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2006;18:20-3 pubmed
    ..The relatively low number of reported cases and the difficulty of preoperative diagnosis make it difficult to ascertain the biology of these tumors...
  5. Vaidya A, Horowitz N, Oliva E, Halpern E, Duska L. Uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumors should not be included in studies of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;103:684-7 pubmed
    ..The current study was undertaken to compare outcomes, stage for stage, of uterine MMMT with poor prognosis endometrial adenocarcinomas...
  6. Hoskins P, Le N, Ellard S, Lee U, Martin L, Swenerton K, et al. Carboplatin plus paclitaxel for advanced or recurrent uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumors. The British Columbia Cancer Agency experience. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;108:58-62 pubmed
    ..Carboplatin and paclitaxel (CT) are easy to deliver and is effective against endometrial carcinoma and should be against MMMT (as they are now regarded as epithelial in nature)...
  7. Kawaguchi W, Itamochi H, Kigawa J, Kanamori Y, Oishi T, Shimada M, et al. Chemotherapy consisting of paclitaxel and carboplatin benefits a patient with malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the fallopian tube. Int J Clin Oncol. 2008;13:461-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient received an additional five courses of adjuvant TC therapy. The patient is alive and free of disease 28 months after the debulking surgery. TC therapy may be effective for MMMT of the fallopian tube...
  8. Gagner J, Mittal K. Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube: origin as an intraepithelial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;97:219-22 pubmed
    ..A paucity of examples of malignant mixed Mullerian tumors (MMMT) of the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube has been reported...
  9. Robinson Bennett B, Belch R, Han A. Loss of p16 in recurrent malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the uterus. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:1354-7 pubmed
    ..We did not observe any difference in antigen expression between areas of epithelial or sarcomatous differentiation, which would support a single pluripotential malignant clone in the histogenesis of these tumors...

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Handa Y, Kato H, Kaneuchi M, Saitoh Y, Yamashita K. High-grade broad ligament cancer of müllerian origin: immunohistochemical analysis of a case and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007;17:705-9 pubmed
    ..This feature, together with the positive expression of ER in this case, may raise the possible hormonal influence on the etiology of broad ligament cancer of müllerian origin...
  2. Sebenik M, Yan Z, Khalbuss W, Mittal K. Malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the vagina: case report with review of the literature, immunohistochemical study, and evaluation for human papilloma virus. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:1282-8 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization detected high-risk human papillomavirus DNA in both the carcinoma and the sarcoma components...
  3. Hammond D, Becker J, Elliott T, Holubee K, Baker T, Love J. Antigenic protein in microgravity-grown human mixed Mullerian ovarian tumor (LN1) cells preserved in RNA stabilizing agent. Gravit Space Biol Bull. 2005;18:99-100 pubmed
  4. Michener C, Simon N. Ovarian conservation in a woman of reproductive age with müllerian adenosarcoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;83:424-7 pubmed
    ..We present a reproductive-age woman with a müllerian adenosarcoma and review the literature on conservative surgical management of this class of tumors...
  5. Quddus M, Sung C, Cook S, Wang C, Steinhoff M, Hansen K. Loss of Fhit protein in carcinoma of primary and secondary müllerian systems. Histopathology. 2004;44:87-8 pubmed
  6. Callister M, Ramondetta L, Jhingran A, Burke T, Eifel P. Malignant mixed Müllerian tumors of the uterus: analysis of patterns of failure, prognostic factors, and treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;58:786-96 pubmed
    ..To determine the survival outcomes, prognostic factors, and patterns of failure in patients with malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the uterus...
  7. Walker F, Genestie C. [Mixed mullerian tumours of the endometrium. Four cases developed while on tamoxifen treatment]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2004;32:1091-2 pubmed
  8. Broaddus R, Lynch H, Chen L, Daniels M, Conrad P, Munsell M, et al. Pathologic features of endometrial carcinoma associated with HNPCC: a comparison with sporadic endometrial carcinoma. Cancer. 2006;106:87-94 pubmed
  9. Hussein M, Hussein S, Abd Elwahed A. Primary peritoneal malignant mixed mesodermal (Müllerian) tumor. Tumori. 2009;95:525-31 pubmed
    ..The neoplastic elements of extragenital MMMT presumably arise directly from the mesothelium or submesothelial stroma and hence parallel the biphasic pattern of the genital (uterine or ovarian) counterpart...
  10. Takano M, Shibasaki T, Sato K, Aida S, Kikuchi Y. Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the uterine corpus with alpha-fetoprotein-producing hepatoid adenocarcinoma component. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;91:444-8 pubmed
    ..This is, to our knowledge, the first report of malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the uterus with an AFP-producing hepatoid adenocarcinoma component. ..
  11. Barresi V, Cerasoli S, Vitarelli E, Donati R. Spinal intradural müllerianosis: a case report. Histol Histopathol. 2006;21:1111-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These features were consistent with a diagnosis of müllerianosis. This is a very uncommon form of presentation of müllerianosis that must be correctly identified since patients can benefit from hormonal therapy. ..
  12. Shetty M, Lal N, Vu N. Müllerian adenosarcoma of the ovary: case report and review of the literature. Ultrasound Q. 2007;23:189-91 pubmed
    ..A very low resistive index on ultrasound may also be suggestive of this diagnosis. ..
  13. Cho S, Park C, Park S, Kim S, Kim K, Cha S, et al. Malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the ovary: imaging findings. Eur Radiol. 2001;11:1147-50 pubmed
    ..Ovarian MMMTs usually present as aggressive, bilateral, large, solid and cystic tumors, combined with ascites, frequent peritoneal seeding, and adjacent organ invasion. ..
  14. del Carmen M, Fuller A, Matulonis U, Horick N, Goodman A, Duska L, et al. Phase II trial of anastrozole in women with asymptomatic müllerian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;91:596-602 pubmed
    ..In summary, anastrozole is a well-tolerated oral agent but with minimal tumoricidal activity in women with recurrent/persistent müllerian cancers. A minority of patients demonstrated prolonged stable disease while on this agent. ..
  15. Diebold J. [Molecular carcinogenesis of ovarian carcinoma]. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol. 2005;89:77-83 pubmed
    ..High grade endometrioid and serous carcinomas as well as carcinosarcoma putatively develop directly (de novo) from the ovarian surface epithelium or inclusion cysts. ..
  16. Dede M, Gezginc K, Alanbay I, Fidan U, Yenen M. A sarcomatous-type peritoneal malign mixed mullerian tumor implant in association with ovarian adenocarcinoma: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2008;29:193-5 pubmed
    ..Postoperatively six courses of adjuvant and consolidation chemotherapy were administered to the patient. Further studies are needed to set a consensus about evaluation of treatment and prognosis for this kind of pathology. ..
  17. Song Y, Lim M, Kang S, Seo S, Park J, Choi H, et al. Total colectomy as part of primary cytoreductive surgery in advanced Müllerian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;114:183-7 pubmed publisher
    ..6% and 74.4%, respectively. Total colectomy is a feasible and safe procedure in terms of minimizing residual tumor in most patients with advanced Müllerian cancer with acceptable morbidities. ..
  18. Curtis R, Freedman D, Sherman M, Fraumeni J. Risk of malignant mixed mullerian tumors after tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:70-4 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that tamoxifen may have delayed effects, such as the increased risk of MMMTs, rare but aggressive tumors of unclear pathogenesis. ..
  19. Mikami M, Kuwabara Y, Tanaka K, Komiyama S, Ishikawa M, Hirose T. Malignant mixed müllerian tumor of primary mesenteric origin. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2005;15:1249-53 pubmed
    ..5%). Peritoneal MMMT are frequently associated with gynecologic tumors. ..
  20. Yavuz E, Tuzlali S, Iplikci A, Ilhan R. Adenomyolipoma of the uterus: a case report. Pathology. 2001;33:96-100 pubmed
    ..The lesion had an irregular surface. Microscopic diagnosis was an adenomyolipoma. The peculiar shape and microscopic features of this lesion suggested that it was a variant of benign Müllerian mixed tumour...
  21. Sinkre P, Hoang M, Albores Saavedra J. Mullerianosis of inguinal lymph nodes: report of a case. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2002;21:60-4 pubmed
    ..Because of gland rupture, mucin extravasated into the stroma but did not elicit a desmoplastic response. Surgical pathologists should be aware of mullerianosis in lymph nodes to avoid confusing it with metastatic adenocarcinoma. ..
  22. Hanprasertpong J, Wootipoom V, Hanprasertpong T. Non-puerperal uterine inversion and uterine sarcoma (malignant mixed müllerian tumor): report of an unusual case. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2004;30:105-8 pubmed
    ..She underwent postoperative pelvic radiation. No recurrence was found during the 13 months follow up period. This rare case of chronic non-puerperal uterine inversion due to malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) is herein reported. ..
  23. Dikarev K. [Morphological structure and classification of Muller mixed uterine tumors]. Arkh Patol. 2006;68:13-6 pubmed
    ..Prognostic factors and survival rates are considered. Further study of MMT is necessary for verification of their histo- and morphogenesis and for development of their classification. ..
  24. Ferrer F, Sabater S, Farrus B, Guedea F, Rovirosa A, Anglada L, et al. Impact of radiotherapy on local control and survival in uterine sarcomas: a retrospective study from the Grup Oncologic Català-Occità. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999;44:47-52 pubmed
    ..We conclude that postoperative radiotherapy in our series of patients diagnosed with uterine sarcoma has an impact on loco-regional and disease-free progression intervals and survival. ..
  25. Klein W, Kurman R. Lack of expression of c-kit protein (CD117) in mesenchymal tumors of the uterus and ovary. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2003;22:181-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is unlikely that patients with these tumors will benefit from treatment with the currently available tyrosine kinase inhibitors. ..
  26. Barnholtz Sloan J, Morris R, Malone J, Munkarah A. Survival of women diagnosed with malignant, mixed mullerian tumors of the ovary (OMMMT). Gynecol Oncol. 2004;93:506-12 pubmed
    ..60, 95% CI = 1.40,1.84). There was no difference in risk of death for these two groups of women with early-stage disease. OMMMT is a rare malignancy compared to EOC and had a significantly worse prognosis compared to EOC. ..
  27. Nappi L, Indraccolo U, Matteo M, Rosenberg P, Greco P. Malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the fallopian tube coincident with a primary serous carcinoma of the ovary. Case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2007;28:511-2 pubmed
    ..Such coexistence of these two tumors does not afford adequate staging of the malignancy. Therapy for the very rare cases similar to the one reported here needs to be improved. ..
  28. Chiu S, Twu N, Lai C, Yen M, Chao K. Primary malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the ovary. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;49:87-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Ovarian malignant mixed müllerian tumor usually yields poor outcomes; hence, aggressive treatment with optimal debulking surgery followed by combination chemotherapy using ifosfamide and cisplatin may improve patient outcomes. ..
  29. Angeles Angeles A, Gutiérrez Villalobos L, Lome Maldonado C, Jiménez Moreno A. Polypoid Brenner tumor of the uterus. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2002;21:86-7 pubmed
    ..The histogenesis of BT remains controversial; in this particular case the location of the BT suggests a mullerian origin...
  30. Duska L, Garrett A, Eltabbakh G, Oliva E, Penson R, Fuller A. Paclitaxel and platinum chemotherapy for malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;85:459-63 pubmed
    ..An aggressive approach with surgery and combination paclitaxel-platinum chemotherapy appears to offer very effective therapy. ..
  31. Cura M, Blanco M, Esserman L. Axillary metastasis from a malignant mullerian mixed tumor. Breast J. 2002;8:305-6 pubmed
  32. Mainkhard K, Raicheva S, Sirakov M. [Mullerian papilloma in the vagina of a two year old girl--a case report]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2002;41:48-9 pubmed
  33. Schildhaus H, Mikuz G, Fisang C, Steiner S, Buttner R, Wardelmann E. [Malignant mixed Müllerian tumor of the urinary bladder]. Pathologe. 2008;29:375-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, such a neoplasm has not yet been reported in the literature. ..
  34. Kushner D, Webster K, Belinson J, Rybicki L, Kennedy A, Markman M. Safety and efficacy of adjuvant single-agent ifosfamide in uterine sarcoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2000;78:221-7 pubmed
    ..It can easily be given in the outpatient setting if mesna is administered via a subcutaneous pump. Our data, consistent with previous studies in advanced sarcoma, suggest a potentially greater role for ifosfamide in MMT than in LMS. ..
  35. Ribeiro Silva A, Novello Vilar A, Cunha Mercante A, De Angelo Andrade L. Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the uterine cervix with neuroendocrine differentiation. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2002;12:223-7 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge this is the first report of a malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the uterine cervix with neuroendocrine differentiation...
  36. Levine P, Mittal K. Rhabdoid epithelioid leiomyosarcoma of the uterine corpus: a case report and literature review. Int J Surg Pathol. 2002;10:231-6 pubmed
    ..The recognition of a rhabdoid phenotype is of clinical importance since these tumors are prone to be aggressive. ..
  37. Kajo K, Zubor P, Spacek J, Ryska A. Carcinosarcoma of the uterus with melanocytic differentiation. Pathol Res Pract. 2007;203:753-8 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, only one case of uterine CS with melanocytic differentiation has been reported in the English literature. ..
  38. Fehmian C, Jones J, Kress Y, Abadi M. Adenosarcoma of the uterus with extensive smooth muscle differentiation: ultrastructural study and review of the literature. Ultrastruct Pathol. 1997;21:73-9 pubmed
    ..The smooth muscle features were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Multiple theories of the histogenesis of this tumor are discussed. ..
  39. Bhandare D, Madiwale C, Kothari K, Pandit A, Kane S. Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterine cervix. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2001;44:371-2 pubmed
    ..The tumor was composed of benign glandular elements and malignant stromal component, thus justifying its nomenclature. We wish to emphasize the distinctive morphological features of this rare cervical tumor. ..
  40. Rousselot C, Chapiron C, Blechet C, Arbion F, Fetissof F. [Mullerian "inclusions" within an intramammary lymph node]. Ann Pathol. 2006;26:204-6 pubmed
    ..Mullerian inclusions within lymph nodes are rather frequent below the diaphragm but exceptional above. Even in a supra-diaphragmatic localization, they can be associated with a pelvic serous tumor. ..
  41. Farhat F, Fakhruddine N. A case of synchronous relapse of breast cancer and uterine müllerian adenosarcoma post tamoxifen in a premenopausal woman. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2008;29:95-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, it is one of the rare cases occurring in a premenopausal woman since all except two cases were postmenopausal. ..
  42. Fisang C, Bastian P, Mikuz G, Oberpenning F, Muller S. Malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the urinary bladder in a 73 year old woman. Eur J Med Res. 2008;13:215-7 pubmed
    ..A giant tumor of the urinary bladder in a 73 year old female patient consisting of mesenchymal and epithelial parts turned out to be the first case of a Malignant Mixed Muellerian tumor of the urinary bladder. ..
  43. Saim M, Cote J, Morel O, Malartic C, Akerman G, Gray F, et al. [Malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the uterus following tamoxifen for breast cancer: case report]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2008;36:166-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Since 1988, few cases of malignant mixed müllerian tumors following tamoxifen were described. We report a new case of uterine malignant mixed müllerian tumor four years after the end of tamoxifen for breast cancer...
  44. Purdie D, Bain C, Siskind V, Russell P, Hacker N, Ward B, et al. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer. 1999;81:559-63 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the risk may be increased predominantly in women with an intact genital tract. These associations could reflect a possible role of endometriosis in the development of endometrioid or clear cell ovarian tumours...
  45. Meyer J, Gersell D, Yim S. Cell proliferation in ovarian carcinoma: superior accuracy of S-phase fraction (SPF) by DNA labeling index versus flow cytometric SPF, lack of independent prognostic power for SPF and DNA ploidy, and limited effect of SPF on tumor growth rate. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;81:466-76 pubmed
  46. Nicotina P, Zanghi A, Catone G. Uterine malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (Metaplasic carcinoma) in the cat: clinicopathologic features and proliferation indices. Vet Pathol. 2002;39:158-60 pubmed
    ..The histologic features and proliferation rate of this tumor were similar to the corresponding human neoplasms, which occur mainly in postmenopausal women. The possible hormone dependence of the tumor is briefly discussed...
  47. McCluggage W. Uterine carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Mullerian tumors) are metaplastic carcinomas. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2002;12:687-90 pubmed
    ..Prospective studies should be performed to ascertain whether such adjuvant therapies are more effective than traditional sarcoma based therapies in the treatment of these aggressive neoplasms...
  48. Dube V, Roy M, Plante M, Renaud M, Tetu B. Mucinous ovarian tumors of Mullerian-type: an analysis of 17 cases including borderline tumors and intraepithelial, microinvasive, and invasive carcinomas. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2005;24:138-46 pubmed
    ..This indolent behavior of MMTs is similar to that previously reported, but additional cases of invasive carcinomas in this category are needed to better define their outcome...
  49. Rieck G, Freites O, Williams S. Is tamoxifen associated with high-risk endometrial carcinomas? A retrospective case series of 196 women with endometrial cancer. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;25:39-41 pubmed
    ..01). Further research is needed to analyse the precise tumour types and pathophysiology...
  50. Agaimy A, Wünsch P. Unexpected and potentially misleading TTF-1 expression: a word of caution. Virchows Arch. 2006;449:603-5 pubmed
  51. García Galvis O, Cabrera Ozoria C, Fernández J, Stolnicu S, Nogales F. Malignant Müllerian mixed tumor of the ovary associated with yolk sac tumor, neuroepithelial and trophoblastic differentiation (teratoid carcinosarcoma). Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008;27:515-20 pubmed publisher
    ..All neoplastic tissue patterns present in the neoplasm were malignant per se without an apparent gradient of maturation or presence of organoid structures...
  52. Cokelaere K, Michielsen P, de Vos R, Sciot R. Primary mesenteric malignant mixed mesodermal (müllerian) tumor with neuroendocrine differentiation. Mod Pathol. 2001;14:515-20 pubmed
    ..The primary mesenteric origin of the tumor was established at autopsy. Along with a brief review of previously reported extragenital MMMT some histogenetic concepts relevant to this case are discussed...
  53. Takeshima N, Tabata T, Nishida H, Arai Y, Tsuzuku M, Hirai Y, et al. Müllerian adenosarcoma of the uterus: report of a case with imprint cytology. Acta Cytol. 2001;45:613-6 pubmed
    ..Müllerian adenosarcoma is a rare morphologic variant of uterine sarcoma that, although well described histologically, is scarcely mentioned in the cytologic literature...
  54. Gastrell F, Brasch H, Johnson C, Bethwaite P, McConnell D. Malignant mixed Müllerian tumour of the cervix treated with concurrent chemoradiation. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2001;41:352-4 pubmed
    ..Historically, treatment has been with radiation or surgery or a combination of both. We describe a locally advanced case treated with concurrent chemoradiation...
  55. Amant F, Vergote I. PTEN mutation analysis in uterine leiomyosarcomas and mixed mullerian sarcomas. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:258 pubmed
  56. Matulonis U, Campos S, Duska L, Fuller A, Berkowitz R, Gore S, et al. A phase II trial of three sequential doublets for the treatment of advanced müllerian malignancies. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;91:293-8 pubmed
    ..The primary endpoints were surgically defined response rates and evaluation of toxicity...
  57. Dusenbery K, Potish R, Judson P. Limitations of adjuvant radiotherapy for uterine sarcomas spread beyond the uterus. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;94:191-6 pubmed
    ..The present review analyzes patients with advanced uterine sarcomas with the goal of identifying patients likely to benefit from larger volumes and higher dosages of radiotherapy...
  58. Borowsky M, Das B, Axiotis C, Malka E, Abulafia O, Norin A. Haymaker gene expression in malignant and normal gynecologic tissues. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006;54:753-61 pubmed
  59. Bedaiwy M, Hussein M, Biscotti C, Falcone T. Pelvic endometriosis is rarely associated with ovarian borderline tumours, cytologic and architectural atypia: a clinicopathologic study. Pathol Oncol Res. 2009;15:81-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings recommend surgical excision of these foci rather than their simple cauterization...
  60. Franko A, Magliocco A, Duan Q, Duggan M. WT1 immunoprofiling and comparison of malignant Mullerian mixed tumors of the female genital tract. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2010;29:452-8 pubmed publisher
    A malignant Mullerian mixed tumor (MMMT) is a biphasic homologous or heterologous malignancy of the female genital tract...
  61. Sotiropoulou M, Haidopoulos D, Vlachos G, Pilalis A, Rodolakis A, Diakomanolis E. Primary malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the vagina immunohistochemically confirmed. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2005;271:264-6 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical study of the neoplasm revealed that the malignant stromal tumor was a high-grade leiomyosarcoma. Despite the multimodal therapeutic approach, the patient died within 11 months...
  62. Jelovsek J, Winans C, Brainard J, Falcone T. Endometriosis of the liver containing mullerian adenosarcoma: case report. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;191:1725-7 pubmed
    ..After failed management with leuprolide acetate, the mass was resected and contained focal areas of mullerian adenosarcoma. This is a rare case of mullerian adenosarcoma that appeared to arise within an endometrioma of the liver...
  63. Swerdlow A, Jones M. Tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer and risk of endometrial cancer: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:375-84 pubmed
    ..We conducted a case-control study in Britain to investigate these risks...
  64. Huang Y, Huang K, Ueng S, Shaw S. Irradiation-induced uterine malignant mixed müllerian tumor. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;45:353-5 pubmed
    ..To report a case of a patient with cervical squamous cell carcinoma stage IIIB who was diagnosed with malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) 5 years after radiotherapy...
  65. Chen X, Shi H, Zhang X. [Clinicopathologic analysis of 102 cases of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumors of the uterus]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2007;42:219-21 pubmed
    ..To study the clinical and pathologic features, histological criteria and pathologic factors contributing to diagnosis of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumors (mixed müllerian tumors, MMT) of the uterus...
  66. Benedetti Panici P, Basile S, Maneschi F, Alberto Lissoni A, Signorelli M, Scambia G, et al. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy vs. no lymphadenectomy in early-stage endometrial carcinoma: randomized clinical trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100:1707-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a randomized clinical trial to determine whether the addition of pelvic systematic lymphadenectomy to standard hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy improves overall and disease-free survival...
  67. Moodley M, Moodley J. Non-puerperal uterine inversion in association with uterine sarcoma: clinical management. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2003;13:244-5 pubmed
    ..We describe a patient with this condition managed by the Haultain procedure...
  68. Woo M, Gilks C, Verhage H, Longacre T, Leung P, Auersperg N. Oviductal glycoprotein, a new differentiation-based indicator present in early ovarian epithelial neoplasia and cortical inclusion cysts. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;93:315-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the expression of oviduct-specific glycoprotein (OGP), a marker of normal oviductal epithelium, for use as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for ovarian cancer...
  69. Markman M. Chemotherapeutic management of recurrent/metastatic uterine carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed mullerian tumors): time for a re-appraisal?. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2004;130:645-8 pubmed
  70. N Kanza A, Jobanputra S, Farmer P, Lovecchio J, Yelon J, Rudloff U. Central nervous system involvement from malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the uterus. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2005;273:63-8 pubmed
    ..Attention should be paid to possibility of unusual distant metastases associated to MMMT in order to avoid delay in diagnosis and treatment of these patients...
  71. Abulafia O, Lee Y, Wagreich A, Economos K, Serur E, Nacharaju V. Sulfatase activity in normal and neoplastic endometrium. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2009;67:57-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is metabolized to active androgens and estrogens, which may have a role in the development of endometrial cancer...
  72. Wang X, Khoo U, Xue W, Cheung A. Cervical and peritoneal fluid cytology of uterine sarcomas. Acta Cytol. 2002;46:465-9 pubmed
    ..To study the cytologic features of uterine sarcoma...
  73. Casey M, Caudill J, Salomao D. Cervicovaginal (Papanicolaou) smear findings in patients with malignant mixed Müllerian tumors. Diagn Cytopathol. 2003;28:245-9 pubmed
    ..The usual finding is large numbers of high-grade epithelial malignant cells in a necrotic background. The mesenchymal component rarely sheds cells visible on Papanicolaou smear...
  74. Kondi Pafiti A, Papadias K, Kairi Vassilatou E, Chatzistamou Kiari I, Kontogianni K, Smyrniotis V. Extraovarian mullerian-type cystic tumors of the female. A report of six cases and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2004;25:657-9 pubmed
    ..Four tumors were of mucinous type (1/4 of borderline malignancy) and two of serous type. These tumors clinically and histopathologically mimic other primary tumors of the peritoneum. The problems of differential diagnosis are discussed...
  75. Mok J, Kim Y, Jung M, Kim K, Kim D, Kim J, et al. Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary: experience with cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:101-5 pubmed
    ..The overall survival rate was 60.0% at 1 year, 40.0% at 2 years, and 20.0% at 5 years. Platinum-based combination chemotherapy after optimal cytoreductive surgery may be effective in the treatment of ovarian MMMT...
  76. Edwards C, Bradlow W, Taylor G, Christiansen J. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Ovarian malignancy presenting as multiple intracardiac masses. Circulation. 2006;113:e399-400 pubmed
  77. Kuroda N, Inui Y, Ohara M, Hirouchi T, Mizuno K, Kubo A, et al. Hyaline globule-like structures in undifferentiated sarcoma cells of malignant müllerian mixed tumor of the fallopian tube. Med Mol Morphol. 2007;40:46-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, pathologists should keep in mind that undifferentiated sarcoma cells in MMMT of the fallopian tube may contain hyaline globule-like structures in the cytoplasm...
  78. Thai T, Du F, Tsan J, Jin Y, Phung A, Spillman M, et al. Mutations in the BRCA1-associated RING domain (BARD1) gene in primary breast, ovarian and uterine cancers. Hum Mol Genet. 1998;7:195-202 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest an occasional role for BARD1 mutations in the development of sporadic and hereditary tumors...
  79. Mariappan M, Lagera J, Fadare O, Sibley R. A 69-year-old woman with a vulvar lesion. Phyllodes tumor of the vulva. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130:e11-2 pubmed
  80. Ruiz Tovar J, Reguero Callejas M, Arano Bermejo J, Capote Armas L, González Palacios Martínez F, Cabañas Navarro L. Malignant mixed Mullerian tumors. Clin Transl Oncol. 2006;8:129-32 pubmed
    ..Because of the high incidence of recurrence and poor prognosis of these tumours, they should be studied and managed by a multidisciplinary team composed by surgeons, oncologists, radiotherapists and pathologists...
  81. Manoharan M, Azmi M, Soosay G, Mould T, Weekes A. Mullerian adenosarcoma of uterine cervix: report of three cases and review of literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;105:256-60 pubmed
    ..It presents as cervical polyps and is a low-grade malignancy with a tendency for local recurrence. Diagnosis can be difficult since it can easily be mistaken for benign polyps, both clinically and pathologically...
  82. Vasconcelos C, Felix A, Cunha T. Preoperative assessment of deep myometrial and cervical invasion in endometrial carcinoma: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic evaluation. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;27:65-70 pubmed
    ..The high accuracy achieved makes MRI an adequate method for determine the depth of myometrial and cervical invasion in endometrial carcinoma...
  83. Wang L, Xiong Y, Li Y, Li J, Feng Y, Li Y, et al. [Clinical analysis of 12 cases of uterine carcinosarcoma]. Ai Zheng. 2008;27:516-9 pubmed
    ..Uterine carcinosarcoma, also known as malignant mixed mullerian tumors, is an uncommon neoplasm that carries a poor prognosis. This study was to analyze the clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease...
  84. Roche M, Rudd P, Krasner C, Matulonis U, Berlin S, Lee H, et al. Phase II trial of GM-CSF in women with asymptomatic recurrent müllerian tumors. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;116:168-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The primary objective was to define the median time to treatment termination (TTT) with women with relapsed ovarian cancer treated with single agent GM-CSF delivered subcutaneously (SC)...
  85. Dincer A, Timmins P, Pietrocola D, Fisher H, Ambros R. Primary peritoneal mullerian adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth associated with endometriosis: a case report. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2002;21:65-8 pubmed
    ..Multiple foci of endometriosis were associated with the pelvic masses. To our knowledge, primary peritoneal mullerian adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth associated with endometriosis has not been previously reported...
  86. Bouchardy C, Verkooijen H, Fioretta G, Sappino A, Vlastos G. Increased risk of malignant mullerian tumor of the uterus among women with breast cancer treated by tamoxifen. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:4403 pubmed
  87. Gunawan B, Baumhoer D, Schulten H, Emons G, Fuzesi L. Polysomy 8 in three cases of homologous malignant mixed Müllerian tumors of the uterus. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:1379-83 pubmed
    ..These cytogenetic findings, together with 14 previously reported cases of MMMT and 5 cell lines, suggest a distinct subgroup of endometrial MMMT characterized by gain of chromosome 8 or 8q...
  88. Takeuchi K, Tsuzuki Y, Ando T, Sekihara M, Hara T, Kori T, et al. Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the ovary growing into an inguinal hernia sac: report of a case. Surg Today. 2003;33:797-800 pubmed
  89. Booth C, Zahn C, McBroom J, Maxwell G. Retroperitoneal müllerian carcinosarcoma associated with endometriosis: a case report. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;93:546-9 pubmed
    ..Mixed müllerian tumors are rare malignancies of the female genital tract and extremely uncommon in extragenital sites...
  90. Ko M, Jeng C, Huang S, Shen J, Tzeng C, Chen S. Primary peritoneal carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed mullerian tumor): Report of a case with five-year disease free survival after surgery and chemoradiation and a review of literature. Acta Oncol. 2005;44:756-60 pubmed
    ..Here we report a case of a primary carcinosarcoma of the pelvic peritoneum with five-year disease-free survival after managing the patient with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
  91. Rice L, Stone R, Xu M, Galgano M, Stoler M, Everett E, et al. Biologic targets for therapeutic intervention in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma and malignant mixed müllerian tumors. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194:1119-26; discussion 1126-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the AKT signaling cascade in endometrial cancers and to assess its therapeutic potential...
  92. Ebert A, Perez Canto A, Schaller G, Entezami M, Hopp H, Weitzel H. Stage I primary malignant mixed müllerian tumor of the fallopian tube. Report of a case with five-year survival after minimal surgery without adjuvant treatment. J Reprod Med. 1998;43:598-600 pubmed
    ..Sarcomas of the fallopian tube are rarities in gynecologic oncology, consisting of < 1% of all genital sarcomas...