Summary: A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)

Top Publications

  1. Kew C, Putti T, Razvi K. Malignant mesenchymoma arising from a uterine leiomyoma in the menopause. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;95:712-5 pubmed
    Malignant mesenchymoma is a rare tumor and location in the uterus is even rarer. We describe the first case of malignant mesenchymoma arising from a uterine fibroid in the menopause.
  2. Chow L, Kumta S. Primary osteochondrorhabdomyosarcoma (malignant mesenchymoma) of the fibula: a rare tumour in an unusual site -- case report and review of the literature. APMIS. 2004;112:617-23 pubmed
    Malignant mesenchymoma, defined by Stout as sarcomas comprising two or more unrelated differentiated tissue elements other than a fibrosarcoma component, is rare...
  3. Yoshioka K, Nagata R, Ueda M, Yamaguchi T, Konishi Y, Hosoi M, et al. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor with symptoms related to osteomalacia that appeared one year after tumorectomy. Intern Med. 2006;45:1157-60 pubmed
    ..However, subcutaneous administration of octreotide had no clinical effect. Clinicians and pathologists should be aware of the existence of PMTMCT especially nonphosphaturic or asymptomatic variants of this disorder...
  4. Adachi T, Oda Y, Sakamoto A, Terashi T, Tamiya S, Hachitanda Y, et al. Prognostic factors in the so-called malignant mesenchymoma: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Oncol Rep. 2003;10:803-11 pubmed
    The term "malignant mesenchymoma" (MM) has traditionally been applied to a group of malignant soft tissue tumors that are characterized by the presence of two or more different mesenchymal tissue components in the same neoplasm...
  5. Ito R, Fujiwara M, Takagaki K, Nagasako R. Chondrolipoma of the toe. J Dermatol. 2007;34:570-2 pubmed
    Chondrolipoma is a rare benign mesenchymoma composed of mature cartilage and adipose tissue. We present a 71-year-old man with a chondrolipoma of the great toe...
  6. Candocia F, Barlev D. Chondrolipoma in the palm of a child: sonographic and MR findings. Clin Imaging. 2004;28:206-8 pubmed
    Chondrolipoma is a rare form of benign mesenchymoma. We report the case of a chondrolipoma in the palm of a 9-year-old boy with corresponding sonographic, magnetic resonance (MR) and pathological findings.
  7. Kutsal A, Tansal S, Okutan H, Tuncer I. Primary malignant mesenchymoma of the heart. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;21:124-6 pubmed
    Primary malignant cardiac tumours are uncommon, and cardiac malignant mesenchymoma is extremely rare...
  8. Sheldon E, Howe R, Selman T, Mann C, Ganesan R. Uterine malignant mesenchymoma, arising in a leiomyoma, with pulmonary metastases. Histopathology. 2007;50:397-400 pubmed
  9. Tanimura S, Saito Y, Honma K, Koizumi K. Surgical case of giant malignant mesenchymoma in the posterior mediastinum that recurred in the bilateral mediastinum. J Nippon Med Sch. 2008;75:212-5 pubmed
    Malignant mesenchymoma is a soft-tissue tumor arising preferentially in the extremities and the retroperitoneum...

More Information


  1. Shi H, Wang C, Wei L, Lu S, Cao D. Malignant mesenchymoma of the thyroid: case report and literature review. Tumori. 2010;96:345-8 pubmed
    Malignant mesenchymoma of the thyroid is extremely rare...
  2. Brannan P, Schneider S, Grossniklaus H, Mutema G, Tarle I, Kersten R, et al. Malignant mesenchymoma of the orbit: case report and review of the literature. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:314-7 pubmed
    Malignant mesenchymoma are rare tumors of the orbit. From 1961 using English-language literature, we present the sixth such case and the first case with three malignant components.
  3. Ganzer D, Follak N, Lorenz G. Cartilage and bone containing benign mesenchymoma of the thigh and popliteal fossa. Int Orthop. 2000;24:115-7 pubmed
    We report a case of a large cartilage and bone containing mesenchymoma of the thigh and popliteal fossa in a 56-year-old man. Mesenchymomas are rare tumors with a histologically benign pattern...
  4. Uramoto N, Furukawa M, Yoshizaki T. Malignant phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant of the tongue. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2009;36:104-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest clinical feature of malignant PMTMCT could be changed by radiation therapy. Thus, this report could add an insight to the nature of PMTMCT...
  5. Jung H, Park W, Choi S, Kwon K, Lee S. Intestinal chondrolipoma: uncommon cause of bowel obstruction. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:E21-3 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this seems to be the first report of chondrolipoma arising from the small bowel in English language literatures...
  6. Paul R, Leyh H, Hillemanns M, Hofler H, Hartung R. Giant malignant mesenchymoma of the spermatic cord with bidirectional differentiation. Onkologie. 2001;24:73-5 pubmed
    ..Malignant tumors of the spermatic cord are mostly of mesenchymal origin. We present the unusual case of a giant malignant mesenchymoma of the spermatic cord with bidirectional differentiation into a liposarcoma and a leiomyosarcoma.
  7. Kudawara I, Araki N, Nakanishi H, Mano M, Ishiguro S. Malignant mesenchymoma of the lower leg. J Clin Pathol. 2001;54:877-9 pubmed
    ..Given the results, the definitive histological diagnosis is malignant mesenchymoma. This is the first report of malignant mesenchymoma of the lower leg with immunohistochemical and molecular ..
  8. Anh Tran T, Holloway R. Metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the uterus with heterologous differentiation to malignant mesenchymoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2012;31:453-7 pubmed publisher of a metastatic leiomyosarcoma from the uterus with an unusual pattern of tumor progression to malignant mesenchymoma after chemotherapy...
  9. den Bakker M, Hegt V, Sleddens H, Nuijten A, Dinjens W. Malignant mesenchymoma of the uterus, arising in a leiomyoma. Histopathology. 2002;40:65-70 pubmed
    ..The tumour seemed histologically diverse in its composition. The possibility of malignant progression of the benign leiomyoma with divergent mesenchymal differentiation was entertained...
  10. Weidner N, Santa Cruz D. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors. A polymorphous group causing osteomalacia or rickets. Cancer. 1987;59:1442-54 pubmed
  11. Jones A, Trochesset D, Freedman P. Intraoral benign mesenchymoma: a report of 10 cases and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003;95:67-76 pubmed
    A benign mesenchymoma is an unencapsulated soft tissue neoplasm composed of 2 or more mature mesenchymal tissues not normally associated with each other, excluding fibrous connective tissue...
  12. Jacob J, Finny P, Thomas M, Thomas N, John M. Oncogenic osteomalacia. J Assoc Physicians India. 2007;55:231-3 pubmed
    ..The biopsy of the specimen obtained by excision was reported to be consistent with a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour. The patient had complete resolution of symptoms six months following excision of the lesion...
  13. Bahrami A, Weiss S, Montgomery E, Horvai A, Jin L, Inwards C, et al. RT-PCR analysis for FGF23 using paraffin sections in the diagnosis of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors with and without known tumor induced osteomalacia. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33:1348-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding of expression of FGF23 in 75% of histologically identical tumors without known TIO confirms the reproducibility of the diagnosis of PMTMCT, even in the absence of known phosphaturia...
  14. Folpe A, Fanburg Smith J, Billings S, Bisceglia M, Bertoni F, Cho J, et al. Most osteomalacia-associated mesenchymal tumors are a single histopathologic entity: an analysis of 32 cases and a comprehensive review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:1-30 pubmed
    ..Recognition of PMTMCT is critical, as complete resection cures intractable OO. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR for FGF-23 confirm the role of this protein in PMTMCT-associated OO...
  15. Oba K, Takei A, Natori S, Arai K, Nakanishi K, Oda Y. [Tumor-induced osteomalacia in a patient with a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor revealing feature of an ossifying fasciitis of the left abdominal wall]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2002;91:1870-2 pubmed
  16. Di Cataldo A, Sgroi A, Occhipinti R, Nicotra A, Magro G, Li Destri G, et al. [Rare malignant tumors of the thyroid]. G Chir. 2004;25:420-3 pubmed
    ..It arises often in a setting of a long history of goitre and Hashimoto thyroiditis. Fine-needle aspirate is important to make diagnosis and to start a correct treatment which allows a 5-year survival up to 85% in the favourable cases. ..
  17. Agaimy A, Michal M, Chiosea S, Petersson F, Hadravsky L, Kristiansen G, et al. Phosphaturic Mesenchymal Tumors: Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical and Molecular Analysis of 22 Cases Expanding their Morphologic and Immunophenotypic Spectrum. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41:1371-1380 pubmed publisher
    ..The unifying immunophenotype of the neoplastic cells irrespective of the histologic pattern suggests a specific disease entity with diverse morphotypes/variants rather than different neoplasms unified by TIO. ..
  18. Gunawan B, Schulten H, von Heydebreck A, Schmidt B, Enders C, Höer J, et al. Site-independent prognostic value of chromosome 9q loss in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumours. J Pathol. 2004;202:421-9 pubmed
    ..03) and overall survival (p = 0.002). Furthermore, 9q loss also appeared to carry prognostic value in predicting overall survival for patients with advanced or progressive GISTs (p = 0.003). ..
  19. Pedrazzoli M, Colletti G, Ferrari M, Rossetti G, Moneghini L, Autelitano L. Mesenchymal phosphaturic neoplasm in the maxillary sinus: a case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;39:1027-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Oncogenic osteomalacia is rare, particularly in the maxillofacial region, and only a few cases have been reported. ..
  20. Ellis M, Gridley D, Lal S, Nair G, Feiz Erfan I. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of the brain without tumor-induced osteomalacia in an 8-year-old girl: case report. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016;17:573-7 pubmed publisher
    ..At the 42-month follow-up, the patient is doing well, has no abnormalities, and is free of recurrence. PMT-MCTs are rare tumors that may involve the brain parenchyma. A gross-total resection may be effective to cure these lesions. ..
  21. Ohta H, Nozawa S, Hosoda Y. Endolymphatic stromal myosis coexisting with adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Ultrastruct Pathol. 1988;12:559-66 pubmed
    ..In addition to the ultrastructural observations of our case, the electron-microscopic findings of previous reports are discussed. ..
  22. Ioannidis P, Trangas T, Dimitriadis E, Samiotaki M, Kyriazoglou I, Tsiapalis C, et al. C-MYC and IGF-II mRNA-binding protein (CRD-BP/IMP-1) in benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors. Int J Cancer. 2001;94:480-4 pubmed
    ..In particular, expression was significant in 14 Ewing's sarcomas, all of which were positive. The data suggest that hCRD-BP/IMP-1 plays a role in abnormal cell proliferation in mesenchymal tumors. ..
  23. Herrington C. What we could do now: molecular pathology of gynaecological cancer. Mol Pathol. 2001;54:222-4 pubmed
    ..This may help to refine diagnosis and guide treatment-for example, therapeutic vaccination for human papillomavirus related disease. ..
  24. Sebire N, Ramsay A, Malone M, Risdon R. Extensive posttreatment ganglioneuromatous differentiation of rhabdomyosarcoma: malignant ectomesenchymoma in an infant. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2003;6:94-6 pubmed
  25. Li R, Kelly D, Siegal G. Bilateral mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall in an infant boy. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2012;31:415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This extremely rare benign entity may be misdiagnosed as malignant tumor and shares features with another tumor of childhood-fibrocartilagenous mesenchymoma of bone.
  26. Zabezhinskii M, Arutiunov A. [Morphologic study of renal carcinogenesis in rats induced by dimethylnitrosamine]. Vopr Onkol. 2001;47:69-72 pubmed
    ..Renal tumor incidence increased during the experiment reaching 38.5% at month 12. No tumors were detected in controls. To summarize, our experiment failed to induce renal cell tumors only. ..
  27. Van Dorpe J, Dal Cin P, Weremowicz S, Van Leuven F, De Wever I, Van Den Berghe H, et al. Translocation of the HMGI-C ( HMGA2) gene in a benign mesenchymoma (chondrolipoangioma). Virchows Arch. 2002;440:485-90 pubmed
    ..Chondrolipoangioma is a rare type of mesenchymoma composed predominantly of cartilage and adipose tissue with vascular elements and myxoid tissue present in ..
  28. Mansouri D, Sassi S, Mrad K, Dhouib R, Koubaa W, Ben Romdhane K. [A mesenchymal tumor of the breast]. Ann Pathol. 2005;25:247-8 pubmed
  29. Reis Filho J, Paiva M, Lopes J. Pathologic quiz case. A 36-year-old woman with muscle pain and weakness. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (mixed connective tissue variant)/oncogenic osteomalacia. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2002;126:1245-6 pubmed
  30. Kaufman R, Gardner H. Tumors of the vulva and vagina. Benign mesodermal tumors. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1965;8:953-81 pubmed
  31. Zhong D, Liu T, Yang D, Feng R, Cui Q, Luo Y, et al. [Clinicopathologic study of 10 cases of osteomalacia or rickets-associated mesenchymal tumors]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2005;34:724-8 pubmed
    ..They can be mistaken as other neoplasms due to the morphologic heterogeneity present. Thorough understanding of the associated clinical features and laboratory investigation results is helpful in arriving at the correct diagnosis. ..
  32. Ito A, Kumabe T, Saito R, Sonoda Y, Watanabe M, Nakazato Y, et al. Malignant pediatric brain tumor of primitive small round cell proliferation with bland-looking mesenchymal spindle cell elements. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2013;30:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The more malignant part of MEM is the mesenchymal component in most cases. In the present case, the more malignant component was not the mesenchymal component, but the small round cells. ..
  33. Emile J, Théou N, Tabone S, Cortez A, Terrier P, Chaumette M, et al. Clinicopathologic, phenotypic, and genotypic characteristics of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;2:597-605 pubmed
    ..0001). Mutations in KIT or PDGFR were detected in 58.4% of the c-kit-positive and also in some c-kit-negative tumors. ..
  34. Dietrich C, Roeb E, Breuer E, Matern S. [Solitary fibrous thoracic wall tumor. Progression with percutaneous radiotherapy]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2001;126:12-5 pubmed
    ..In our case we conclude an accelerated progression of the solitary fibrous chest wall tumour in the course of irradiation. Whether the development of sarcomatic growth occurred as a result of radiotherapy remains speculative. ..
  35. Kim D, Kim K, Jung S, Lee S, Park K, Kim W. Undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma of the liver: combination treatment by surgery and chemotherapy. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:1419-23 pubmed
    ..Five children are alive without recurrence at 40, 45, 48, 60, and 122 months, respectively, after diagnosis. The combined therapy of surgery and chemotherapy in USL can improve the prognosis. ..
  36. Lae M, Pereira P, Keeney G, Nascimento A. Lipoblastoma-like tumour of the vulva: report of three cases of a distinctive mesenchymal neoplasm of adipocytic differentiation. Histopathology. 2002;40:505-9 pubmed
    ..The benign behaviour of these neoplasms militates against the diagnosis of liposarcoma. We believe these are benign lesions of adipocytic differentiation akin to infantile lipoblastomas. ..
  37. Paikos P, Papathanassiou M, Stefanaki K, Fotopoulou M, Grigorios S, Tzortzatou F. Malignant ectomesenchymoma of the orbit in a child: Case report and review of the literature. Surv Ophthalmol. 2002;47:368-74 pubmed
    ..The patient was successfully treated with combined surgical resection and chemotherapy. All the other reported cases of malignant ectomesenchymoma with various sites of origin are also reviewed. ..
  38. Liu F, Guo H. [Application of electron microscopy in the diagnosis of neoplasms]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 1992;21:272-4 pubmed
    ..It is obvious that in some cases, electron microscopy can be of help in establishing a correct diagnosis. ..
  39. Trabelsi A, Mestiri S, Stita W, Mokni M, Sriha B, Rammeh S, et al. [Mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract, immunohistochemistry contribution]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2007;65:365-8 pubmed
    ..The latter are defined usually by a spindle cell proliferation, often expressing the c-Kit protein which must be used in all mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. ..
  40. Atangana P, Gengler C, Bouzourene N, Genevay M, Guillou L. [A mesenchymal tumor of the tongue]. Ann Pathol. 2006;26:465-7 pubmed
  41. Freitas A, Aguiar P, Miura F, Yasuda A, Soglia J, Soglia F, et al. Malignant ectomesenchymoma. Case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg. 1999;30:320-30 pubmed
    ..The authors report the clinical and pathological findings of a 3-year-old girl with malignant ectomesenchymoma of the CNS. Embryogenesis of this tumor is discussed, and a review of the literature with 39 other cases is done. ..
  42. Preston R, Narayana N. Peripheral odontogenic keratocyst. J Periodontol. 2005;76:2312-5 pubmed
    ..A differential diagnosis included a gingival cyst, neuroma, neurilemoma, and mesenchymoma. The cyst ruptured during excisional biopsy revealing contents typical of an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC)...
  43. Mussack T, Szeimies U, Arbogast S, Schiemann U, Siebeck M, Hallfeldt K. Extraluminal gastrointestinal stromal tumour in the second portion of the duodenum. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;15:1043-6 pubmed
    ..The combination of endoscopic ultrasonography and non-invasive multislice computed tomography provided an early suggestion of gastrointestinal stromal tumour. ..
  44. Chambonniere M, Mosnier Damet M, Cavillon C, Mosnier J. Mixed neuronal-glial tumor of the digestive tract: distinctive entity from gastrointestinal stromal tumor?. Pathol Int. 2002;52:153-7 pubmed
    ..Such histological and immunohistochemical features could be misinterpreted as features of digestive schwannoma. We suggest that this tumor is distinct from gastrointestinal stromal tumors in lacking CD34 and CD117 expression. ..
  45. Qari H, Hamao Sakamoto A, Fuselier C, Cheng Y, Kessler H, Wright J. Phosphaturic Mesenchymal Tumor: 2 New Oral Cases and Review of 53 Cases in the Head and Neck. Head Neck Pathol. 2016;10:192-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to the indeterminate biological behavior of PMT and its rarity, a comprehensive evaluation of medical, laboratory, radiographic, and histological findings are crucial for a definitive diagnosis and treatment. ..
  46. Wang Q, Zhang P, Zhang Q, Wang X, Li J, Ma C, et al. Analysis of CD137 and CD137L expression in human primary tumor tissues. Croat Med J. 2008;49:192-200 pubmed
    ..2.15 with CD137 triggered tumor cells to produce IL-8. CD137 and CD137L are expressed in different human primary tumor tissues, suggesting that they may influence the progression of tumors. ..
  47. White K, Jonsson K, Carn G, Hampson G, Spector T, Mannstadt M, et al. The autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) gene is a secreted polypeptide overexpressed by tumors that cause phosphate wasting. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:497-500 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that FGF-23 may be a candidate phosphate wasting factor, previously designated "phosphatonin". ..
  48. Laricchiuta P, Campolo M, Martelli P, Cantore A, Menga G, Tortorella G, et al. Diagnosis and treatment considerations in a case of malignant mesenchymoma in an African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2013;44:466-9 pubmed
    ..classification of neoplastic processes in domestic animals, the tumor was consistent with malignant mesenchymoma. The margins of resection revealed the presence of neoplastic cells...
  49. Jollimore J, Zamakhshary M, Giacomantonio M, Yu W. Undifferentiated mesenchymal neoplasm of the esophagus in a child: case report and comparison with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2003;6:257-60 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of such a neoplasm occurring in the esophagus of either an adult or child. ..
  50. de Faria P, Batista J, Duriguetto A, Souza K, Candelori I, Cardoso S, et al. Giant leiomyomatous hamartoma of the tongue. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:1476-80 pubmed publisher
  51. Takahashi Y, Oda Y, Yamamoto H, Ishii T, Setsu N, Endo M, et al. Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma arising in the pubic bone: a case report. Pathol Int. 2013;63:226-9 pubmed publisher
    Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma (FCM) of the bone is a rare tumor, with only 21 reported cases since 1984. It usually occurs in the long bones of children and adolescents, but in this case, the tumor arose in the pubic bone...
  52. Guschmann M, Frege J, Lübbert E, Golla S, Rudolph B, Haake K, et al. [Rare mesenchymal lesions in siblings. Two case reports]. Pathologe. 2003;24:220-5 pubmed
    ..The entities present a tumor-like development with an abnormal mixture of tissue indigenous to the specific area of the body without notable atypical cytologic features. These features are typical criteria for hamartoma lesions...
  53. Bradatsch A, Kornprat P, Haybaeck J, Mischinger H. A case report of an intraabdominal microcystic and pseudopapillary spindle and round cell neoplasm and a comparison to other intraabdominal mesenchymal tumors. Anticancer Res. 2013;33:991-5 pubmed
    ..We present a case of a new mesenchymal tumor entity named 'distinctive microcystic and pseudopapillary spindle and round cell neoplasm', of which only 30 cases have been reported worldwide...
  54. Okai T, Minamoto T, Ohtsubo K, Minato H, Kurumaya H, Oda Y, et al. Endosonographic evaluation of c-kit-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Abdom Imaging. 2003;28:301-7 pubmed
    ..Endosonographic features of c-kit-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) were compared with those of leiomyomas and schwannomas...
  55. Lam J, Lara Corrales I, Cammisuli S, Somers G, Pope E. Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy in a preterm infant. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27:635-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the case and clinical course of a preterm boy with a primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy that occurred following excision of a congenital juvenile xanthogranuloma...
  56. Bezerra M, Costa F, Pereira K, Cavalcante R, Pouchain E. Chondrolipoma of the posterior tongue. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:1982-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we reviewed the international literature from 1976 to 2009...
  57. Lam K. Oesophageal mesenchymal tumours: clinicopathological features and absence of Epstein-Barr virus. J Clin Pathol. 1999;52:758-60 pubmed
    ..Leiomyoma is the most common mensenchymal tumour found in the oesophagus...
  58. Hatori M, Watanabe M, Okada K, Hosaka M, Kokubun S. Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma arising in the femur. Pathology. 2002;34:199-201 pubmed
  59. Lazar C, Liard A, Lechevallier J, Bachy B, Michot C. Secondary localisation of an intra-thoracic benign mesenchymoma in the fossa poplitea: a rare paediatric case. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2006;16:49-51 pubmed
    ..Multiple localisation and/or extra-thoracic recurrence of thymomas in children also appears to be exceptional with no reported cases in the English literature. We report one rare paediatric case...
  60. Slootweg P. [Dissertation 25 years later, part 2. Development of teeth and odontogenic tumors, now and then]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 2004;111:226-9 pubmed
    ..Analysis of protein and gene expression have deepened the understanding of mechanisms playing a role in odontogenesis but thus far has not contributed very much to the knowledge on the pathogenesis of odontogenic tumours...
  61. Jenney M, Oberlin O, Audry G, Stevens M, Rey A, Merks J, et al. Conservative approach in localised rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder and prostate: results from International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) studies: malignant mesenchymal tumour (MMT) 84, 89 and 95. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61:217-22 pubmed publisher
  62. Mathis D, Stehel E, Beshay J, Mickey B, Folpe A, Raisanen J. Intracranial phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors: report of 2 cases. J Neurosurg. 2013;118:903-7 pubmed publisher
  63. Viscasillas G, Maiz J, Lao X, Zschaeck C, Sanz J. [Oncogenic osteomalacia due to phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour in infratemporal fossa]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2010;61:392-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Head and neck is the second most frequent location of these tumours. We describe a case of a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour in the infratemporal fossa that caused oncogenic osteomalacia, resolved by means of surgical excision...
  64. Puthenveetil P, Hattab E, Peacock M, Horn E. Thoracic phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors causing oncogenic osteomalacia. J Clin Neurosci. 2013;20:1057-61 pubmed publisher
  65. Rossi G, Turchetti D, Longo L, Maiorana A. Primary malignant ectomesenchymoma of the kidney. Histopathology. 2002;41:374-6 pubmed
  66. Cokelaere K, Debiec Rychter M, De Wolf Peeters C, Hagemeijer A, Sciot R. Hyaline vascular Castleman's disease with HMGIC rearrangement in follicular dendritic cells: molecular evidence of mesenchymal tumorigenesis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:662-9 pubmed
    ..It also provides a possible molecular pathway explaining stromal overgrowths and stromal neoplasms developing from this disorder...
  67. Li S, O Leary T, Sobin L, Erozan Y, Rosenthal D, Przygodzki R. Analysis of KIT mutation and protein expression in fine needle aspirates of gastrointestinal stromal/smooth muscle tumors. Acta Cytol. 2000;44:981-6 pubmed
    ..To determine if sequencing the KIT gene could facilitate more definitive FNA diagnosis...
  68. Ozdemir H, Kiris A, Kocakoc E, Boztosun Y. [Case report: Radiologic findings of retroperitoneal malignant mesenchymoma]. Tani Girisim Radyol. 2003;9:354-6 pubmed
    ..Here we present radiologic findings of a case with malignant mesenchymoma in the retroperitoneum.
  69. Koch C, Chrousos G, Chandra R, Evangelista R, Gilbert J, Nobuhara K, et al. Two-hit model for tumorigenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma (Gorlin) syndrome-associated hepatic mesenchymal tumor. Am J Med Genet. 2002;109:74-6 pubmed
  70. Yu X, White K. FGF23 and disorders of phosphate homeostasis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2005;16:221-32 pubmed
    ..Our understanding of FGF23 will help to develop novel therapies for phosphate wasting disorders, as well as for disorders of increased serum phosphate, such as tumoral calcinosis, a rare disorder, and renal failure, a common disorder...
  71. Schenker T, Trueb B. Down-regulated proteins of mesenchymal tumor cells. Exp Cell Res. 1998;239:161-8 pubmed
    ..It is likely that these gene products play an important role in the maintenance of the normal phenotype...
  72. Palma Guzmán J, de Andrade B, Rizo V, Romañach M, Leon J, de Almeida O. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor: histopathologic and immunohistochemical study of two cases without a chondroid component. J Cutan Pathol. 2012;39:781-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It is important to consider that the cellular ECT usually exhibits predominance of an infiltrative atypical cellular component that may mimic a malignant tumor...
  73. Wei S, Pan Z, Siegal G, Winokur T, Carroll A, Jhala D. Complex analysis of a recurrent pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts. Hum Pathol. 2012;43:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The controversies in classification of these lesions are also discussed...
  74. Omalu B, Wiley C, Hamilton R. February 2003: a 53-year-old male with new onset seizures. Brain Pathol. 2003;13:419-20, 423 pubmed
    ..Transition to osteochondrosarcoma has rarely been documented...
  75. Krajnik M, Schafer M, Sobanski P, Kowalewski J, Bloch Boguslawska E, Zylicz Z, et al. Enkephalin, its precursor, processing enzymes, and receptor as part of a local opioid network throughout the respiratory system of lung cancer patients. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:632-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings encourage future studies to examine the functional role of local opioid peptides within the respiratory system...
  76. Mulligan L, O Meara A, Orr D, Eadie P, Hayes R, McDermott M. Primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy: a report of a further case with locally aggressive behavior. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2011;14:75-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient remains free of disease 5 years after this radical surgery. This is the 1st report of such a tumor since it was initially described by Alaggio and colleagues in 2006. The pathologic differential diagnosis is discussed...
  77. Puff C, Kehler W, Baumgartner W, Herden C. Malignant mesenchymoma in the nasal cavity of a bull. J Comp Pathol. 2011;145:148-51 pubmed publisher
    ..There was suppurative and ulcerative inflammation where the tumour extended through the hard palate and into the pharynx. A nasal malignant mesenchymoma was diagnosed on the basis of these features.
  78. Altenburger D, Wagner A, Eslin D, Pearl G, Pattisapu J. A rare case of malignant pediatric ectomesenchymoma arising from the falx cerebri. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2011;7:94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ki 67 immunostaining had < 25% reactivity. The patient was treated with a sarcoma-based chemotherapy regimen and radiation to the craniospinal axis, and was found to be without recurrence or metastatic disease at 20 months...
  79. Yu K, Liu Y, Wang H, Hu S, Long C. Epidemiological and pathological characteristics of cardiac tumors: a clinical study of 242 cases. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2007;6:636-9 pubmed
    ..6% vs. 9.4%, P<0.01). The most common benign cardiac tumor was myxoma (86.8%). Mesenchymoma and angiosarcoma were the most common primary malignant cardiac tumors...
  80. Bowe A, Finnegan R, Jan de Beur S, Cho J, Levine M, Kumar R, et al. FGF-23 inhibits renal tubular phosphate transport and is a PHEX substrate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:977-81 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that FGF-23 is involved in the pathogenesis of these three hypophosphatemic disorders and directly link PHEX and FGF-23 within the same biochemical pathway...
  81. Siddiq M, East D, Hock Y, Warfield A. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the pharynx. J Laryngol Otol. 2004;118:315-6 pubmed
    ..Although well described elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract, from our literature search, this is the first reported case of such a tumour occurring in the pharynx..
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    ..Clinical features, histologic types, prognosis were very different from those seen in older children, facing oncologists with diagnostic, therapeutic and ethical problems...
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    ..The neoplasms of the small intestine are rare and the preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The aim of this study is to review difficulties in diagnosis, treatment options and important prognostic factors...
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    ..It is postulated that this lesion results from biphenotypic expression of tumor cells that previously expressed only rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. The role of prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy in this particular case is unclear...
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    ..Nonabsorbable suture material was admixed with the neoplastic tissue in the histologic section. This material was birefringent when viewed microscopically under polarized light...