walker carcinoma 256


Summary: A transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Ramos Lima M, de Mello M, Curi R. Walker 256 tumour growth causes marked changes of glutamine metabolism in rat small intestine. Cell Biochem Funct. 2002;20:107-13 pubmed
    ..Hexokinase and citrate synthase activities were not changed by the tumour. These findings led us to postulate that tumour growth impairs glutamine metabolism of small intestine but the mechanism involved remains to be elucidated...
  2. Yamaguchi Y, Sato K, Endo H. Depression of catalase gene expression in the liver of tumor bearing nude mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;189:1084-9 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the reduction of liver catalase activity in the tumor bearer may be due to down regulation of the catalase gene induced in the liver by a certain humoral factor(s) from the transplanted tumor...
  3. Gomes Marcondes M, Ventrucci G, Toledo M, Cury L, Cooper J. A leucine-supplemented diet improved protein content of skeletal muscle in young tumor-bearing rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2003;36:1589-94 pubmed
  4. Machado A, Costa Rosa L, Seelaender M. Adipose tissue in Walker 256 tumour-induced cachexia: possible association between decreased leptin concentration and mononuclear cell infiltration. Cell Tissue Res. 2004;318:503-14 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a possible modulation of the chronic locally produced TNFalpha and PGE2 upon leptin synthesis by the AT of the cachectic rats...
  5. Ventrucci G, Mello M, Gomes Marcondes M. Proteasome activity is altered in skeletal muscle tissue of tumour-bearing rats a leucine-rich diet. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2004;11:887-95 pubmed
    ..These findings clearly indicate that leucine can stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit protein breakdown in pregnant rats, probably by modulating the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system during tumour growth...
  6. Buffon A, Ribeiro V, Wink M, Casali E, Sarkis J. Nucleotide metabolizing ecto-enzymes in Walker 256 tumor cells: molecular identification, kinetic characterization and biochemical properties. Life Sci. 2007;80:950-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of NTPDases and 5'-nucleotidase enzymes in Walker 256 tumor cells may be important to regulate the ratio adenine nucleotides/adenine nucleoside extracellularly, therefore motivating tumor growth...
  7. Ventrucci G, Mello M, Gomes Marcondes M. Effect of a leucine-supplemented diet on body composition changes in pregnant rats bearing Walker 256 tumor. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001;34:333-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the leucine-supplemented diet had a beneficial effect, probably attenuating body wasting...
  8. Badraoui R, Blouin S, Moreau M, Gallois Y, Rebai T, Sahnoun Z, et al. Effect of alpha tocopherol acetate in Walker 256/B cells-induced oxidative damage in a rat model of breast cancer skeletal metastases. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;182:98-105 pubmed publisher
    ..ATA reduced the oxidative stress damage, enhanced osteosclerosis and tumor cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  9. Scharla S, Minne H, Lempert U, Krieg P, Rappel S, Maurer E, et al. Osteolytic activity of Walker carcinosarcoma 256 is due to parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Horm Metab Res. 1991;23:66-9 pubmed
    ..Bone resorbing activity of WCM in organ culture (calvaria of fetal rats) was not inhibited by indomethacin and glucocorticoids, suggesting a prostaglandin independent mechanism of osteoclast activation in this model. ..

More Information


  1. McSheehy P, Prior M, Griffiths J. Prediction of 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity towards the Walker carcinosarcoma using peak integrals of fluoronucleotides measured by MRS in vivo. Br J Cancer. 1989;60:303-9 pubmed
    ..Twenty-five mg kg-1 5FU also produced significantly less FUTP (36%) than the 50 mg kg-1 dose (P less than 5%). These results suggest that MRS-detectable changes in tumour FNuct (mostly in FUTP) can be used to predict 5FU cytotoxicity. ..
  2. Stubbs M, Rodrigues L, Griffiths J. Growth studies of subcutaneous rat tumours: comparison of 31P-NMR spectroscopy, acid extracts and histology. Br J Cancer. 1989;60:701-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that increasing numbers of hypoxic tumour cells, rather than large areas of necrotic tissue, contribute largely to the NMR spectrum. ..
  3. Guo W, Li J, Chen Z, Zhuang J, Gu W, Zhang L, et al. Transient increased expression of VEGF and MMP-1 in a rat liver tumor model after hepatic arterial occlusion. Hepatogastroenterology. 2004;51:381-6 pubmed
    ..Better understanding of the mechanisms involved with TAE-induced metastasis may lead to the enhancement of the long-term effects of TAE for liver cancer. ..
  4. Bonatto S, Folador A, Aikawa J, Yamazaki R, Pizatto N, Oliveira H, et al. Lifelong exposure to dietary fish oil alters macrophage responses in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Cell Immunol. 2004;231:56-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is still unclear how FO decreases the growth of Walker 256 tumors and the associated cachexia. ..
  5. Pavlaki M, Giannopoulou E, Niarakis A, Ravazoula P, Aletras A. Walker 256 cancer cells secrete tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-free metalloproteinase-9. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;328:189-99 pubmed publisher
    ..W256 cancer cells displayed high metastatic ability in rats that may be attributed in part to secretion of TIMP-free proMMP-9. ..
  6. Brito N, Carvalho R, Matos L, Lobato R, Brito R. The oophorectomy effect on Walker 256 tumor inoculated into the vagina and uterine cervix of female rats. Acta Cir Bras. 2009;24:26-9 pubmed
    ..The results of the study on the GO group presented a macroscopic behavior different from the TG group, however, both of them presented similar development in terms of tumor mass. ..
  7. Taveira V, Novaes M, Dos Anjos Reis M, da Silva M. Hematologic and metabolic effects of dietary supplementation with Agaricus sylvaticus fungi on rats bearing solid walker 256 tumor. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233:1341-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Abnormalities in biochemical parameters are also found due to alterations in carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism...
  8. Rotinberg P, Kelemen S, Gramescu M, Rotinberg H, Nuta V. Preclinical trial of the antitumoral therapeutic effectiveness of some natural polyphenolic biopreparations. Rom J Physiol. 2000;37:105-18 pubmed
    ..The quantitative preclinical evaluation of the specific pharmacodynamic effect will be complemented by the investigation of the new polyphenolic biopreparations therapeutic effectiveness in tumors with various degrees of development. ..
  9. Lira F, Tavares F, Yamashita A, Koyama C, Alves M, Caperuto E, et al. Effect of endurance training upon lipid metabolism in the liver of cachectic tumour-bearing rats. Cell Biochem Funct. 2008;26:701-8 pubmed publisher
    ..001). It is possible to affirm, therefore, that endurance training promoted the re-establishment of lipid metabolism in cachectic tumour-bearing animals, especially in relation to VLDL secretion and assembly. ..
  10. Dreifuss A, Bastos Pereira A, Avila T, Soley B, Rivero A, Aguilar J, et al. Antitumoral and antioxidant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) (Willd. Ex Roem. & Schult) in an in vivo carcinosarcoma model. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;130:127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The antineoplastic activity may result, partially at least, from the ability of UT to regulate redox and metabolism homeostasis. ..
  11. Niggli V, Keller H. Low concentrations of the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid stop tumor cell locomotion. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997;324:99-108 pubmed
    ..We conclude that constitutive phosphatase activity is required for motility and control of shape in Walker carcinosarcoma cells. ..
  12. Ferreira A, Martins E, Afeche S, Cipolla Neto J, Costa Rosa L. The profile of melatonin production in tumour-bearing rats. Life Sci. 2004;75:2291-302 pubmed
  13. Ikeda Y, Hayashi I, Kamoshita E, Yamazaki A, Endo H, Ishihara K, et al. Host stromal bradykinin B2 receptor signaling facilitates tumor-associated angiogenesis and tumor growth. Cancer Res. 2004;64:5178-85 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that BK generated from kininogens supplied from the host may facilitate tumor-associated angiogenesis and tumor growth by stimulating stromal B(2) signaling to up-regulate VEGF production mainly in fibroblasts. ..
  14. Mi Y, Sun C, Yao C, Xiong L, Wang S, Luo X, et al. [Effect of steep pulsed electric fields on the immune response of tumor-bearing Wistar mice]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2007;24:253-6 pubmed
    ..05). The results also showed that SPEFs could not only kill tumor cells but also induce antitumor immune response and improve the immune function of the host efficiently. ..
  15. Bacurau A, Belmonte M, Navarro F, Moraes M, Pontes F, Pesquero J, et al. Effect of a high-intensity exercise training on the metabolism and function of macrophages and lymphocytes of walker 256 tumor bearing rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232:1289-99 pubmed
    ..The reduction in tumor growth was associated with an impairment of tumor cell glucose and glutamine metabolism. These data suggest that high-intensity exercise training may be a viable strategy against tumors. ..
  16. Brito N, Brito M, Carvalho R, Matos L, Veloso T, Vasconcelos D, et al. Experimental inoculation model of Walker 256 carcinoma into vagina and cervix uteri of female rats. Acta Cir Bras. 2007;22:495-8 pubmed
  17. Zhang H, Yang J, Tian J, Wang P, Shao C, Zuo C, et al. Telomerase activity (TMA) in tumour and peritumoural tissues in a rat liver cancer model. Clin Invest Med. 2009;32:E8-12 pubmed
    ..TMA level in the peritumoural tissue increased with time suggesting that TMA activation in peritumoural tissue may be an important factor promoting tumour growth. ..
  18. Yin Q, Cheng W, Cheng M, Fan S, Shen W. Intrathecal injection of anti-CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody delayed and attenuated pain facilitation in rat tibial bone cancer pain model. Behav Pharmacol. 2010;21:595-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that intrathecal injection of anti-CX3CR1 neutralizing antibody delayed and attenuated pain facilitation in the rat tibial bone cancer pain model...
  19. Madeja Z, Sroka J. Contact guidance of Walker carcinosarcoma cells by the underlying normal fibroblasts is inhibited by RGD-containing synthetic peptides. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2002;40:251-60 pubmed
    ..This suggests that alignment and anisotropic distribution of fibronectin macromolecules may be responsible for contact guidance of tumour cells moving on the surface of fibroblasts. ..
  20. Jiang B, Lou Q, Ding X, Sa X, Chen L, Yu S, et al. [Histopathological changes in rat transplanted hepatoma after lipiodol transarterial embolization]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 2004;26:205-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to cellular necrosis, apoptosis may be another important mechanism leading to cell death in hepatoma treated with transarterial embolization. ..
  21. Freitas J, Pompeia C, Miyasaka C, Curi R. Walker-256 tumor growth causes oxidative stress in rat brain. J Neurochem. 2001;77:655-63 pubmed
    ..These combined findings indicate that Walker-256 tumor growth causes oxidative stress in the brain. ..
  22. Kaminskas L, Kelly B, McLeod V, Boyd B, Krippner G, Williams E, et al. Pharmacokinetics and tumor disposition of PEGylated, methotrexate conjugated poly-l-lysine dendrimers. Mol Pharm. 2009;6:1190-204 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study further illustrate the potential utility of biodegradable PEGylated poly-l-lysine dendrimers as long-circulating vectors for the delivery and tumor-targeting of hydrophobic drugs. ..
  23. Schanoski A, Cavalcanti T, Campos C, Viera Matos A, Rettori O, Guimarães F. Walker 256 tumor MHC class I expression during the shift from A variant to the immunogenic AR variant. Cancer Lett. 2004;211:119-27 pubmed
  24. Jumes F, Lugarini D, Pereira A, de Oliveira A, Christoff A, Linde G, et al. Effects of Agaricus brasiliensis mushroom in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;88:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..brasiliensis in tumor treatment, mainly related to cachexia. The benefits can be partly related to antioxidant activity and to reduction of weight loss and tumor growth. ..
  25. Yano C, Ventrucci G, Field W, Tisdale M, Gomes Marcondes M. Metabolic and morphological alterations induced by proteolysis-inducing factor from Walker tumour-bearing rats in C2C12 myotubes. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that WF has similar effects to those of proteolysis-inducing factor, but is less potent than the latter. Further studies are required to determine the precise role of WF in this experimental model. ..
  26. Folador A, Hirabara S, Bonatto S, Aikawa J, Yamazaki R, Curi R, et al. Effect of fish oil supplementation for 2 generations on changes in macrophage function induced by Walker 256 cancer cachexia in rats. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:344-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that fish oil supplementation for 2 generations improves macrophage function in association to reduced tumor growth and attenuated cancer cachexia, maintaining food intake and increasing animal survival. ..
  27. Pinto J, Folador A, Bonato S, Aikawa J, Yamazaki R, Pizato N, et al. Fish oil supplementation in F1 generation associated with naproxen, clenbuterol, and insulin administration reduce tumor growth and cachexia in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2004;15:358-65 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, chronic fish oil supplementation decreased tumor growth and partially recovered cachexia. This beneficial effect of fish oil supplementation was potentiated by treatment with naproxen plus clenbuterol plus insulin. ..
  28. Nunes E, Kuczera D, Brito G, Bonatto S, Yamazaki R, Tanhoffer R, et al. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation reduces tumor growth and tumor cell proliferation ex vivo and prevents cachexia in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats by modifying nuclear factor-kappaB expression. Nutr Res. 2008;28:487-93 pubmed publisher
  29. Lai M, Wang S, Zhang W, Wang Y, Huang S, Dong W, et al. [Effects of electroacupuncture on tumor growth and immune function in the Walker-256 model rat]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2008;28:607-9 pubmed
    ..01). Acupuncture at "Zusanli" (ST 36), "Hegu" (LI 4) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) can increase immune function and inhibit tumor growth in Walker-256 liver cancer, gastric cancer and hypodermic tumor rats. ..
  30. Khegay I, Popova N, Ganilova L, Shnyder E, Ivanova L. Dynamics of tumor growth in Brattleboro and WAG rats injected with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells in different doses. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008;145:81-3 pubmed
    ..This dose dependence suggests the involvement of the immune system into the dynamics of tumor growth. ..
  31. Kolganov A. [Experimental chemotherapy of malignant tumors in combination with short-term general hypoxia]. Vopr Onkol. 2001;47:81-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, hypoxy cannot be recommended for modifying chemotherapy of tumors irrespective of drug affinity with oxygen. ..
  32. Sroka J, Kaminski R, Michalik M, Madeja Z, Przestalski S, Korohoda W. The effect of triethyllead on the motile activity of walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2004;9:15-30 pubmed
    ..The control cells showed linear cortical F-actin distribution and somewhat less intense cytoplasmic staining at the same TriEL concentration. Cells treated with 5 microM TriEL showed an under-membrane pattern of actin distribution. ..
  33. Sasajima T, Shimada N, Naitoh Y, Takahashi M, Hu Y, Satoh T, et al. (99m)Tc-MIBI imaging for prediction of therapeutic effects of second-generation MDR1 inhibitors in malignant brain tumors. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:2637-45 pubmed
    ..Analysis of (99m)Tc-MIBI accumulation is considered informative for detecting MDR1-mediated drug resistance and for monitoring the therapeutic effects of MDR1 inhibitors in malignant brain tumors. ..
  34. Wybieralska E, Koza M, Sroka J, Czyz J, Madeja Z. Ascorbic acid inhibits the migration of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2008;13:103-11 pubmed
    ..However, our data does not support the hypothesis that the scavenging of intracellular ROS is the main mechanism in the inhibition of cancer cell migration by ascorbic acid. ..
  35. Qian F, Frankfater A, Miller R, Chan S, Steiner D. Molecular cloning of rat precursor cathepsin H and the expression of five lysosomal cathepsins in normal tissues and in a rat carcinosarcoma. Int J Biochem. 1990;22:1457-64 pubmed
    ..7. In contrast, the mRNA levels for the other four cathepsins show no comparable elevations. 8. This finding is consistent with previous observations reporting a correlation between cathepsins B expression and malignant tumors. ..
  36. Martins E, Fernandes L, Bartol I, Cipolla Neto J, Costa Rosa L. The effect of melatonin chronic treatment upon macrophage and lymphocyte metabolism and function in Walker-256 tumour-bearing rats. J Neuroimmunol. 1998;82:81-9 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the effect of melatonin upon tumour growth involves the stimulation of the immune system by the hormone. ..
  37. He Y, Wang Y, Cao J, Chen J, Pan D, Zhou Y. Effect of complex amino acid imbalance on growth of tumor in tumor-bearing rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9:2772-5 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effect of complex amino acid imbalance on the growth of tumor in tumor-bearing (TB) rats...
  38. Ventrucci G, Mello M, Gomes Marcondes M. Leucine-rich diet alters the eukaryotic translation initiation factors expression in skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing rats. BMC Cancer. 2007;7:42 pubmed
    ..Since the tumour effects are more pronounced when associated with pregnancy, ehancing muscle-wasting proteolysis, in this study, the influence of a leucine-rich diet on the protein synthesis caused by cancer were investigated...
  39. Pidgeon G, Tang K, Rice R, Zacharek A, Li L, Taylor J, et al. Overexpression of leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase promotes W256 tumor cell survival by enhancing alphavbeta5 expression. Int J Cancer. 2003;105:459-71 pubmed
    ..These results show that the 12-LOX pathway is a regulator of cell survival and apoptosis, by affecting the expression and localization of the alphavbeta5 integrin and actin microfilaments in Walker 256 cells...
  40. Crawford C, Belt J. Sodium-dependent, concentrative nucleoside transport in Walker 256 rat carcinosarcoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;175:846-51 pubmed
    ..The specificity of this transporter appears to correspond to one of the two Na(+)-dependent transporters previously described in mouse intestinal epithelial cells...
  41. Knox R, Boland M, Friedlos F, Coles B, Southan C, Roberts J. The nitroreductase enzyme in Walker cells that activates 5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (CB 1954) to 5-(aziridin-1-yl)-4-hydroxylamino-2-nitrobenzamide is a form of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone) (EC Biochem Pharmacol. 1988;37:4671-7 pubmed
    ..This observation could explain the reported antagonistic action of the aminoimidazole carboxamides to the antitumour effects of CB 1954...
  42. Mazerska Z, Lukowicz J, Konopa J. Antitumor activity of 1-nitro-9-aminoacridines including nitracrine against some ascitic experimental tumors. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990;40:472-7 pubmed
  43. Sharova N, Melnikova V, Khegai I, Karpovaa Y, Dmitrieva S, Astakhova T, et al. Pattern of proteasome expression in Walker 256 tumor cells after their transplantation into the Brattleboro rats with genetic defect of vasopressin synthesis. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2008;419:93-7 pubmed
  44. Zaletok S, Alexandrova N, Berdynskykh N, Ignatenko N, Gogol S, Orlovsky O, et al. Role of polyamines in the function of nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB in breast cancer cells. Exp Oncol. 2004;26:221-5 pubmed
  45. Fernandez R, Piechnik J, Fabris R, Malnic G, Fernandes L. Effect of chronic fish oil supplementation on renal function of normal and cachectic rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2004;37:1481-9 pubmed
    ..20%). In summary, the chronic supplementation with fish oil used in this study increased the amount of fat in the diet by only 0.1%, but caused remarkable changes in tumor growth rate and cachexia, also showing a renoprotective function...
  46. Mund R, Pizato N, Bonatto S, Nunes E, Vicenzi T, Tanhoffer R, et al. Decreased tumor growth in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats chronically supplemented with fish oil involves COX-2 and PGE2 reduction associated with apoptosis and increased peroxidation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007;76:113-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, FO may act simultaneously through multiple effects to reduce tumor growth. Whether these effects are connected through a single underlying mechanism remains to be seen...
  47. da Veiga R, da Silva M, Teodoro G, Yamamoto N, Constantin J, Bracht A. Metabolic fluxes in the liver of rats bearing the Walker-256 tumour: influence of the circulating levels of substrates and fatty acids. Cell Biochem Funct. 2008;26:51-63 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the high concentrations of fatty acids and lactate/pyruvate, which predominate in rats bearing the Walker-256 tumour, could be effective in normalizing the gluconeogenic response of livers from tumour-bearing rats...
  48. Kurth A, Kim S, Bauss F, Muller R, Hovy L. [Anti-osteolytic therapy preserves trabecular structure and mechanical properties of bone in tumor osteolysis]. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 2000;138:146-51 pubmed
  49. Keller H, Eggli P. Protrusive activity, cytoplasmic compartmentalization, and restriction rings in locomoting blebbing Walker carcinosarcoma cells are related to detachment of cortical actin from the plasma membrane. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1998;41:181-93 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that the dynamic events at the front of blebbing metazoan cells are similar to those previously found in Amoeba proteus [Grebecki, Protoplasma, 154:98-111, 1990] but different from those found in lamellipodia...
  50. Shi G, Wang S, Wang Q, Xu Q, Li R, Du Y, et al. [Effect of perfusion CT scan on hepatic hemodynamic changes in rats with liver micrometastases]. Ai Zheng. 2006;25:849-54 pubmed
    ..Early diagnosis confers better prognosis. This study was designed to investigate the hepatic hemodynamic changes by multi-slice helical perfusion CT in rats with liver micrometastatases of Walker-256 tumor cells...
  51. Silva S, Silva S, Farias I, Mota R, Moraes M, Campos H, et al. [A novel model for isolation of Walker's tumoral cells using the Ficoll-Hypaque gradient]. Acta Cir Bras. 2006;21:101-5 pubmed
    ..The purpose was to evaluate a novel technique for isolation of Walker's tumoral cells using a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient and its further influence on tumor development...
  52. Kremer P, Hartung G, Bauder Wüst U, Schrenk H, Wunder A, Heckl S, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of an aminopterin-albumin conjugate in tumor-bearing rats. Anticancer Drugs. 2002;13:615-23 pubmed
    ..These effects are attributed to the albumin carrier which seems to be an effective tool for selective tumor drug targeting...
  53. Tian Z, Wan M, Lu M, Wang X, Wang L. The alteration of protein profile of Walker 256 carinosarcoma cells during the apoptotic process induced by ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2005;31:121-8 pubmed
    ..Among them, Hsp60 and Bcl-2 like protein 13 were found to be involved in the process of cell apoptosis and US-induced apoptosis of the cells was probably performed through the pathway of promoting the activation of caspase-3...
  54. He Y, Cao J, Chen J, Pan D, Zhou Y. Influence of methionine/valine-depleted enteral nutrition on nucleic acid and protein metabolism in tumor-bearing rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9:771-4 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of methionine/valine-depleted enteral nutrition (EN) on RNA, DNA and protein metabolism in tumor-bearing (TB) rats...
  55. Sorger D, Patt M, Kumar P, Wiebe L, Barthel H, Seese A, et al. [18F]Fluoroazomycinarabinofuranoside (18FAZA) and [18F]Fluoromisonidazole (18FMISO): a comparative study of their selective uptake in hypoxic cells and PET imaging in experimental rat tumors. Nucl Med Biol. 2003;30:317-26 pubmed
    ..This advantage of a faster reduction of unspecific binding, in light of similar or marginally lower tumor uptake, warrants further investigation of (18)FAZA as a marker of regional hypoxia in tumors...
  56. Yao Y, Liu Q, Yang W, Zhang M, Ma Q, Pan C. Effect of spleen on immune function of rats with liver cancer complicated by liver cirrhosis. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2003;2:242-6 pubmed
    ..To establish a rat model of liver cancer complicated by liver cirrhosis and explore the effects of the spleen on immune function in this model...
  57. Zivkovic M, Poljak Blazi M, Egger G, Sunjic S, Schaur R, Zarkovic N. Oxidative burst and anticancer activities of rat neutrophils. Biofactors. 2005;24:305-12 pubmed
    ..Our results confirm that in the case of rapidly growing tumors such as murine W256 carcinoma neutrophils have antitumorous effects in the early phase of tumor development...
  58. Wu H, Feng G, Tian Y. Hepatic artery infusion of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide and lipiodol mixture transfect liver cancer in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:2408-12 pubmed
  59. Muta M, Yanagawa T, Sai Y, Saji S, Suzuki E, Aruga T, et al. Effect of low-dose Paclitaxel and docetaxel on endothelial progenitor cells. Oncology. 2009;77:182-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to clarify the cytotoxic and inhibitory effects of these drugs on EPC...
  60. Suzuki M, Masunaga S, Kinashi Y, Nagata K, Sakurai Y, Nakamatsu K, et al. Intra-arterial administration of sodium borocaptate (BSH)/lipiodol emulsion delivers B-10 to liver tumors highly selectively for boron neutron capture therapy: experimental studies in the rat liver model. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;59:260-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to reveal the efficacy for administration of emulsion of a boron compound (sodium borocaptate; BSH) and lipiodol via a hepatic artery using a rat liver tumor model...
  61. Nogusa H, Yano T, Kajiki M, Gonsho A, Hamana H, Okuno S. Antitumor effects and toxicities of carboxymethylpullulan-peptide-doxorubicin conjugates. Biol Pharm Bull. 1997;20:1061-5 pubmed
    ..However, CMPul-DXR conjugates tested were all less effective than DXR against Walker 256 cells in vitro. Also, 125I-labeled CMPul-DXR conjugate accumulated much less in the cells than 14C-DXR...
  62. Clichici S, Filip A, Daicoviciu D, Ion R, Mocan T, Tatomir C, et al. The dynamics of reactive oxygen species in photodynamic therapy with tetra sulfophenyl-porphyrin. Acta Physiol Hung. 2010;97:41-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The MMP-2 activity increases exponentially in the 24 hours-14 days post PDT interval. PDT with TSPP offers, in vivo , consistent results regarding ROS generation, MMP2 activation and cytotoxic capacity...
  63. Tandon V, Chhor R, Singh R, Rai S, Yadav D. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives as antifungal and anticancer agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004;14:1079-83 pubmed
    ..Moreover 7c and 11a showed inhibitory effect against reverse transcriptase enzyme from Rauscher Murine Leukemia Virus...
  64. Knox R, Burke P, Chen S, Kerr D. CB 1954: from the Walker tumor to NQO2 and VDEPT. Curr Pharm Des. 2003;9:2091-104 pubmed
    ..NQO2 activity is substantially raised in tumor samples from colorectal and hepatoma patients (up to 14-fold). A phase I clinical trial of an NQO2 co-substrate with CB 1954 is scheduled...
  65. Acco A, Alves da Silva M, Batista M, Yamamoto N, Bracht A. Action of celecoxib on hepatic metabolic changes induced by the Walker-256 tumour in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;101:294-300 pubmed
    ..The lack of action of celecoxib on arginine hydrolysis might indicate that reduction in polyamine synthesis is not a factor contributing to the diminished tumour growth...
  66. Dornelas C, Almeida P, Nascimento G, Lima E, Moraes M. [Experimental model of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma in rats bladder]. Acta Cir Bras. 2006;21:38-42 pubmed
    ..An animal model to study bladder tumor with Walker 256...
  67. Corbello Pereira S, Darronqui E, Constantin J, da Silva M, Yamamoto N, Bracht A. The urea cycle and related pathways in the liver of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1688:187-96 pubmed
    ..Arginine could be one of these compounds in addition to aspartate which seems to be essential for an efficient ureogenesis in tumor-bearing rats...
  68. Wang S, Xu X, Zhang W, Li A, Dong W. [Effects of Erbie San on Walker-256 liver cancer and adjustment to unbalance of VEGF/endostatin in rats]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:89-91 pubmed
    ..To investigate the anticancer effects of Erbie San on the rats bearing Walker-256 liver cancer and the potential mechanism of its angiogenesis effects...
  69. Steele T, Bryant H, Malven P, Yim G. Nocturnal depletion of hypothalamic dynorphin in anorexic Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1988;29:541-5 pubmed
    ..In summary, the marginal deficits of hypothalamic dynorphin in W-256 tumor-bearing rats that coincide with the phase of tumor-induced anorexia may contribute to the reduction in food intake...
  70. Zimmermann A, Keller H. Effects of staurosporine, K 252a and other structurally related protein kinase inhibitors on shape and locomotion of Walker carcinosarcoma cells. Br J Cancer. 1992;66:1077-82 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that protein kinase inhibitors acting preferentially on PKC may be of interest in pharmacological regulation of tumour cell locomotion...
  71. Colquhoun A, Schumacher R. gamma-Linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid induce modifications in mitochondrial metabolism, reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis in Walker 256 rat carcinosarcoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1533:207-19 pubmed
  72. Bacurau R, Belmonte M, Seelaender M, Costa Rosa L. Effect of a moderate intensity exercise training protocol on the metabolism of macrophages and lymphocytes of tumour-bearing rats. Cell Biochem Funct. 2000;18:249-58 pubmed
    ..These changes in immune cell metabolism induced by the training protocol were able to increase TB rat survival...
  73. Qin X, He W, Hai C, Liang X, Liu R. Protection of multiple antioxidants Chinese herbal medicine on the oxidative stress induced by adriamycin chemotherapy. J Appl Toxicol. 2008;28:271-82 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrated that adriamycin chemotherapy could cause oxidative stress to the whole body, on which multiple antioxidants based on the theory of 'multiple antioxidant chain' had effective protection...
  74. Kurth A, Muller R. The effect of an osteolytic tumor on the three-dimensional trabecular bone morphology in an animal model. Skeletal Radiol. 2001;30:94-8 pubmed
  75. Novaes M, Lima L, Novaes L, Souza M. Metabolic and hematological effects of dietary supplementation with arginine on rats bearing ascitic Walker 256 tumor. Ann Nutr Metab. 2004;48:404-8 pubmed
    ..Anemia was less severe in tumor-bearing animals that received arginine supplementation. The findings suggest that arginine supplementation at 6% may have a beneficial effect on to the host, besides its pharmacological action...
  76. Keller H, Zadeh A, Eggli P. Localised depletion of polymerised actin at the front of Walker carcinosarcoma cells increases the speed of locomotion. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2002;53:189-202 pubmed
    ..They are best compatible with a cortical contraction/frontal expansion model, but they are not compatible with models implying that actin polymerisation or actomyosin contraction at the front drive locomotion of the cells studied...
  77. Miao X, Gao X, Wu J, Lu Z, Huang Z, Li X, et al. Bilateral downregulation of Nav1.8 in dorsal root ganglia of rats with bone cancer pain induced by inoculation with Walker 256 breast tumor cells. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:216 pubmed publisher
    ..The voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.8 plays a critical role in many aspects of nociceptor function. Therefore, we characterized a rat model of cancer pain and investigated the potential role of Nav1.8...
  78. Freire Garabal M, Rey Méndez M, García Vallejo L, Balboa J, Suárez J, Rodrigo E, et al. Effects of nefazodone on the development of experimentally induced tumors in stressed rodents. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004;176:233-8 pubmed
    ..Although previous findings do not support an overall association between the use of antidepressants and higher prevalence of cancer, results for serotonin uptake inhibitors are not entirely reassuring...
  79. Sugahara S, Okuno S, Yano T, Hamana H, Inoue K. Characteristics of tissue distribution of various polysaccharides as drug carriers: influences of molecular weight and anionic charge on tumor targeting. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001;24:535-43 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the antitumor effect of the carrier-DXR conjugates was related to the extent with which the carriers accumulated in the tumors...
  80. Moreira N, Curi R, Padovese R, Mancini Filho J. Incorporation of dietary trans monounsaturated fatty acids into tissues of Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001;34:501-8 pubmed
    ..428 to 0.505) and liver (from 9.425 to 127.792) due to tumor growth...
  81. Wicki A, Niggli V. The Rho/Rho-kinase and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways are essential for spontaneous locomotion of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2001;91:763-71 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that constitutive activation of the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway and of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase plays an essential part in spontaneous development of polarity and cell locomotion of these cells...
  82. De Almeida Salles Perroud A, Ashimine R, De Castro G, Guimarães F, Vieira K, Aparecida Vilella C, et al. Cytokine gene expression in Walker 256: a comparison of variants A (aggressive) and AR (regressive). Cytokine. 2006;36:123-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the aggressively of variant A is relate to cytokine modulation, facilitating the growth and escape of tumor cells. Furthermore, IL-12 seems to be constitutively expressed in both tumor lineage A and AR...
  83. Buffon A, Wink M, Ribeiro B, Casali E, Libermann T, Zerbini L, et al. NTPDase and 5' ecto-nucleotidase expression profiles and the pattern of extracellular ATP metabolism in the Walker 256 tumor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1770:1259-65 pubmed
    ..Results demonstrate that the presence of NTPDases and 5'-nucleotidase enzymes in Walker 256 tumor cells may be important for regulation of the extracellular adenine nucleotides/adenine nucleoside ratio, therefore leading to tumor growth...
  84. Takeuchi H, Kojima H, Yamamoto H, Kawashima Y. Passive targeting of doxorubicin with polymer coated liposomes in tumor bearing rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001;24:795-9 pubmed
    ..We ascertained that polymers having a hydrophobic moiety in the molecule such as PVA-R and HPMC-R are suitable materials for modifying the surfaces of the doxorubicin-loaded liposome to improve its targeting properties...
  85. Piffar P, Fernandez R, Tchaikovski O, Hirabara S, Folador A, Pinto G, et al. Naproxen, clenbuterol and insulin administration ameliorates cancer cachexia and reduce tumor growth in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats. Cancer Lett. 2003;201:139-48 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that naproxen is able to reduce tumor growth and its association with insulin and clenbuterol induce mass weight gain and recovery energy fuel...
  86. Alves A, Pessoa C, Costa Lotufo L, Moraes Filho M. Radiographic and histological evaluation of bisphosphonate alendronate and metotrexate effects on rat mandibles inoculated with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma. Acta Cir Bras. 2007;22:457-64 pubmed
    ..The animals were divided and treated with saline, MTX, ALD, and MTX plus ALD. Later, the animals were sacrificed, the tumors were measured and the mandibles were removed for radiographic and histological analysis...
  87. Cui Y, Han Y, Luo R, Yang H, Jiang D. [Establishment of an rat model of tumor-associated depression]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2006;26:1513-4, 1517 pubmed
    ..To establish an animal model of tumor-associated depression and observe their biological behaviors and biochemical indices...
  88. Vicentino C, Constantin J, Bracht A, Yamamoto N. Long-chain fatty acid uptake and oxidation in the perfused liver of Walker-256 tumour-bearing rats. Liver. 2002;22:341-9 pubmed
    ..The effect of the Walker-256 tumour on uptake and oxidation of long-chain fatty acids was investigated in perfused livers of rats...
  89. Degasperi G, Castilho R, Vercesi A. High susceptibility of activated lymphocytes to oxidative stress-induced cell death. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2008;80:137-48 pubmed
  90. Gomes Neto A, Simão A, Miranda S, Mourão L, Bezerra N, Almeida P, et al. Experimental rat lung tumor model with intrabronchial tumor cell implantation. Acta Cir Bras. 2008;23:84-92 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to develop a rat lung tumor model for anticancer drug testing...
  91. Ovsjanko E, Lushnikova E, Larionov P, Arkhipov S, Nepomnyashchikh L, Efremov A, et al. Immunohistochemical study for the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins in Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells under the influence of cytostatic drugs. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;148:650-5 pubmed
    ..Daily treatment with melatonin was accompanied by significant changes in the structure of Walker 256 carcinosarcoma. It was manifested in the formation of connective tissue septa and pseudofollicles...