adenosquamous carcinoma


Summary: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.

Top Publications

  1. Kobayashi N, Higurashi T, Iida H, Mawatari H, Endo H, Nozaki Y, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas associated with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2008;15:531-5 pubmed publisher
    We report a rare case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas associated with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) in which parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP) was identified as the causative factor of hypercalcemia...
  2. Hsu J, Chen H, Wu R, Yeh C, Yeh T, Hwang T, et al. Clinicopathologic features and outcomes following surgery for pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol. 2008;6:95 pubmed publisher
    Pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) is a rare pancreatic malignancy subtype. We investigated the clinicopathological features and outcome of pancreatic ASC patients after surgery.
  3. Zhang B, Gao S. Education of imaging. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic: adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:820 pubmed publisher
  4. Ogura K, Ishi K, Matsumoto T, Kina K, Nojima M, Suda K. Human papillomavirus localization in cervical adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma using in situ polymerase chain reaction: review of the literature of human papillomavirus detection in these carcinomas. Pathol Int. 2006;56:301-8 pubmed
    ..However, the prevalence of HPV infection in cervical adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma varies among the studies...
  5. Song H, Yoo K, Ju N, Park J, Jung J, Shin W, et al. [A case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the papilla of Vater]. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2006;48:132-6 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma of the papilla of Vater is a rare tumor and only a few cases have been reported so far...
  6. Chou H, Chang H, Lai C, Ng K, Hsueh S, Wu T, et al. (18)F-FDG PET in stage IB/IIB cervical adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2010;37:728-35 pubmed publisher
    The diagnostic and prognostic value of (18)F-FDG PET in cervical adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (AC/ASC) is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the value of PET in the management of cervical AC/ASC.
  7. Ho B, Tan H, Lee V, Tan P. Preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast: potential diagnostic pitfalls. Histopathology. 2006;49:603-11 pubmed
    Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma (LGAC), a rare variant of metaplastic breast cancer, may mimic benign or other low-grade malignant lesions histologically...
  8. Okabayashi T, Kobayashi M, Nishimori I, Namikawa T, Okamoto K, Onishi S, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tract: clinicopathological analysis of Japanese cases of this uncommon disease. J Gastroenterol. 2005;40:192-9 pubmed
    We analyzed the clinicopathologic variables and postoperative outcomes in patients with extrahepatic adenosquamous carcinoma to identify important factors for predicting postresection prognosis.
  9. Stehman F, Ali S, Keys H, Muderspach L, Chafe W, Gallup D, et al. Radiation therapy with or without weekly cisplatin for bulky stage 1B cervical carcinoma: follow-up of a Gynecologic Oncology Group trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197:503.e1-6 pubmed

More Information


  1. Shibagaki K, Fujita K, Nakayama S, Takenaka M, Fukuba N, Matsui S, et al. Complete response of a pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma to chemoradiotherapy. Int J Clin Oncol. 2008;13:74-7 pubmed publisher
    A 51-year-old woman with an unresectable pancreatic tumor that was histologically diagnosed as an adenosquamous carcinoma underwent chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluourouracil (FU) and low-dose cisplatin (low-dose FP)...
  2. Nakagawa K, Yasumitu T, Fukuhara K, Shiono H, Kikui M. Poor prognosis after lung resection for patients with adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003;75:1740-4 pubmed
    We evaluated the prognosis of adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung after lung resection in comparison with other types of carcinoma.
  3. Rahemtullah A, Misdraji J, Pitman M. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas: cytologic features in 14 cases. Cancer. 2003;99:372-8 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASCa) is a rare subtype of ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with what to the authors' knowledge are limited cytologic descriptions...
  4. Krivokapic Z, Dimitrijevic I, Barisic G, Markovic V, Krstic M. Adenosquamous carcinoma arising within a retrorectal tailgut cyst: report of a case. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:6225-7 pubmed
    ..We report a patient with adenosquamous carcinoma arising within RCH, who underwent complete resection of the cyst through anterior laparotomy, and reached ..
  5. Toyooka S, Yatabe Y, Tokumo M, Ichimura K, Asano H, Tomii K, et al. Mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor and K-ras genes in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:1588-90 pubmed
  6. Neumann G, Rasmussen K, Petersen L. Cervical adenosquamous carcinoma: tumor implantation in an episiotomy scar. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:467-9 pubmed
    We report a rare case of a cervical adenosquamous carcinoma, initially diagnosed during delivery, with subsequent implantation in the episiotomy scar 5 weeks postpartum.
  7. Alos L, Castillo M, Nadal A, Caballero M, Mallofre C, Palacin A, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the head and neck: criteria for diagnosis in a study of 12 cases. Histopathology. 2004;44:570-9 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the head and neck is an unusual neoplasm in which a general consensus with regard to diagnostic criteria has not yet been reached...
  8. Murakami Y, Yokoyama T, Yokoyama Y, Kanehiro T, Uemura K, Sasaki M, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas: preoperative diagnosis and molecular alterations. J Gastroenterol. 2003;38:1171-5 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor which has a less favorable prognosis than common ductal cell carcinoma of the pancreas, and a definite preoperative diagnosis of this tumor is quite difficult...
  9. Voong K, Davison J, Pawlik T, Uy M, Hsu C, Winter J, et al. Resected pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma: clinicopathologic review and evaluation of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation in 38 patients. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:113-22 pubmed publisher
    Pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare morphological variant of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with an especially poor prognosis...
  10. Kang S, Kang H, Shin J, Kim H, Shin D, Kim S, et al. Identical epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in adenocarcinomatous and squamous cell carcinomatous components of adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Cancer. 2007;109:581-7 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung is composed of adenocarcinomatous and squamous cell carcinomatous components...
  11. Yoshida T, Sano T, Oyama T, Kanuma T, Fukuda T. Prevalence, viral load, and physical status of HPV 16 and 18 in cervical adenosquamous carcinoma. Virchows Arch. 2009;455:253-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare mixture of malignant squamous and glandular epithelial elements and accounts for approximately 10% of cervical carcinomas...
  12. Hsu J, Yeh C, Chen Y, Chen H, Hwang T, Jan Y, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas. Digestion. 2005;72:104-8 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the pancreas is rare and correct preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Case reports of ASC of the pancreas are sporadic and have typically employed small series...
  13. Alwaheeb S, Chetty R. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas with an acantholytic pattern together with osteoclast-like and pleomorphic giant cells. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:987-90 pubmed
    ..Histological evaluation of the pancreatic tumour showed an adenosquamous carcinoma (predominantly composed of squamous carcinoma), which was extensively infiltrative with perineural ..
  14. Joshita S, Nakazawa K, Sugiyama Y, Kamijo A, Matsubayashi K, Miyabayashi H, et al. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-producing pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma showing aggressive clinical course. Intern Med. 2009;48:687-91 pubmed
    ..Specimens taken at necropsy revealed an adenosquamous carcinoma positive for G-CSF by immunohistochemistry; it was only the second reported case to date...
  15. Teramoto T, Kawamata H, Fujimori T. How does adenosquamous carcinoma arise in the small intestine?. J Gastroenterol. 2003;38:810-1 pubmed
  16. Smoot R, Zhang L, Sebo T, Que F. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas: a single-institution experience comparing resection and palliative care. J Am Coll Surg. 2008;207:368-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare malignancy of the exocrine pancreas. Previous literature has reported dismal survival for these patients...
  17. Brody J, Costantino C, Potoczek M, Cozzitorto J, McCue P, Yeo C, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas harbors KRAS2, DPC4 and TP53 molecular alterations similar to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2009;22:651-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas is one of the most aggressive forms of pancreatic cancer. Molecular characterizations of this rare tumor subtype are sparse...
  18. Duenas Gonzalez A, Cetina Perez L, Lopez Graniel C, Gonzalez Enciso A, Gómez Gonzalez E, Rivera Rubi L, et al. Pathologic response and toxicity assessment of chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin versus cisplatin plus gemcitabine in cervical cancer: a randomized Phase II study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005;61:817-23 pubmed
    ..The main endpoints were the pathologic response rate and toxicity...
  19. Dong Y, Wang J, Ma H, Zhou H, Lu G, Zhou X. Primary adenosquamous carcinoma of the colon: report of five cases. Surg Today. 2009;39:619-23 pubmed publisher
    ..P16 overexpression was not related to HPV carcinogenesis and there might be another mechanism of P16 upregulation in Ad-SCC of the colon...
  20. dos Reis R, Frumovitz M, Milam M, Capp E, Sun C, Coleman R, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma in early-stage cervical cancer patients undergoing radical hysterectomy: an outcomes analysis. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;107:458-63 pubmed
    To evaluate whether histology (adenocarcinoma versus adenosquamous carcinoma) is an independent prognostic indicator in patients with stage IB1 cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy.
  21. Farley J, Hickey K, Carlson J, Rose G, Kost E, Harrison T. Adenosquamous histology predicts a poor outcome for patients with advanced-stage, but not early-stage, cervical carcinoma. Cancer. 2003;97:2196-202 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to compare survival between patients with adenocarcinoma and patients with adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix.
  22. Teramoto N, Nishimura R, Saeki T, Nogawa T, Hiura M. Adenoid basal carcinoma of the uterine cervix: report of two cases with reference to adenosquamous carcinoma. Pathol Int. 2005;55:445-52 pubmed
    ..This cytokeratin pattern might provide a good tool for distinguishing between ABC and an ABC-like lesion of ASC when the histological findings are equivocal...
  23. Jamali M, Serra S, Chetty R. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas with clear cell and rhabdoid components. A case report. JOP. 2007;8:330-4 pubmed
    In as much as no such variant of this pancreatic tumour has been previously reported in the literature, we report an unusual case of an adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas characterized by clear cells and rhabdoid cells.
  24. Baydar D, Kosemehmetoglu K, Akdogan B, Ozen H. Prostatic adenosquamous carcinoma metastasizing to testis. ScientificWorldJournal. 2006;6:2491-4 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma of the prostate is an unusual tumor with poor prognosis. Most arise after hormonal or radiotherapy of conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma. Sarcomatous transformation in them has been reported in only a few cases...
  25. Frumovitz M, Sun C, Schover L, Munsell M, Jhingran A, Wharton J, et al. Quality of life and sexual functioning in cervical cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:7428-36 pubmed
    ..To compare quality of life and sexual functioning in cervical cancer survivors treated with either radical hysterectomy and lymph node dissection or radiotherapy...
  26. Gu M, Choi J, Park W, Chang J, Kim H. [Primary adenosquamous carcinoma of the liver: a case report]. Korean J Hepatol. 2005;11:86-9 pubmed
    ..We describe here a case of primary adenosquamous carcinoma of the liver...
  27. Sasaki H, Endo K, Yukiue H, Kobayashi Y, Yano M, Fujii Y. Mutation of epidermal growth factor receptor gene in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Lung Cancer. 2007;55:129-30 pubmed
    ..However, smoking and gender status could affect the occurrence of EGFR mutation. There was no difference in EGFR mutation status if analysis was performed in never smoker female subgroup...
  28. Noel J, Buxant F, Engohan Aloghe C. Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast--A case report with a BRCA1 germline mutation. Pathol Res Pract. 2010;206:511-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of metaplastic carcinoma...
  29. Pera M, Brito M, Poulsom R, Riera E, Grande L, Hanby A, et al. Duodenal-content reflux esophagitis induces the development of glandular metaplasia and adenosquamous carcinoma in rats. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21:1587-91 pubmed
    ..The histopathological spectrum of these carcinomas includes squamous-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma. Pure adenocarcinomas are thought to arise in areas of columnar metaplasia adjacent to the anastomosis, ..
  30. Lane G, Tay J. Port-site metastasis following laparoscopic lymphadenectomy for adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol. 1999;74:130-3 pubmed
    ..which occurred at a port site following laparoscopic removal of lymph nodes affected by cervical adenosquamous carcinoma. This report adds to the literature suggesting that cutaneous tumor deposition may be enhanced by this ..
  31. Todoroki T, Takahashi H, Koike N, Kawamoto T, Kondo T, Yoshida S, et al. Outcomes of aggressive treatment of stage IV gallbladder cancer and predictors of survival. Hepatogastroenterology. 1999;46:2114-21 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of survival following aggressive resection surgery for stage IV gallbladder carcinoma...
  32. Nozoe T, Anai H. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the sigmoid colon: report of a case. Surg Today. 2001;31:830-2 pubmed
    A case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the sigmoid colon is presented herein. An 85-year-old woman without any symptoms was admitted to our hospital to undergo detailed examinations of the colon and rectum...
  33. Yazawa T, Ishii H, Ito T, Yoshiike Y, Ogawa N, Okudela K, et al. Colliding primary lung cancers of adenosquamous carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Pathol Int. 2003;53:58-65 pubmed
    ..rare case of primary lung cancer showing various histological elements diagnosed as the collision of an adenosquamous carcinoma and a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of the human androgen ..
  34. Scully C, Porter S, Speight P, Eveson J, Gale D. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the mouth: a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1999;28:125-8 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare tumour in the oral cavity and is characterised histologically by carcinomatous change in surface epithelium, in association with adenocarcinoma affecting the ducts of minor salivary glands...
  35. Kardon D, Thompson L, Przygodzki R, Heffess C. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas: a clinicopathologic series of 25 cases. Mod Pathol. 2001;14:443-51 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare aggressive subtype of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We describe the clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics of 25 of these lesions, the largest series to date.
  36. Yamaue H, Tanimura H, Onishi H, Tani M, Kinoshita H, Kawai M, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas: successful treatment with extended radical surgery, intraoperative radiation therapy, and locoregional chemotherapy. Int J Pancreatol. 2001;29:53-8 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor with an extremely poor survival rate. No obvious evidence that multidisciplinary treatments improves the prognosis and survival has been reported.
  37. Lozano M, Panizo A, Sola I, Pardo Mindan F. FNAC guided by computed tomography in the diagnosis of primary pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma. A report of three cases. Acta Cytol. 1998;42:1451-4 pubmed
    Pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma (ASqC) is an unusual histologic subtype of nonendocrine neoplasia of the pancreas...
  38. Aranha G, Yong S, Olson M. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas. Int J Pancreatol. 1999;26:85-91 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas most probably represents squamous metaplasia of an adenocarcinoma. Metastases are typically an admixture of both elements, but more frequently, adenocarcinoma.
  39. Niho S, Yokose T, Kodama T, Nishiwaki Y, Mukai K. Clonal analysis of adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1999;90:1244-7 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung is a subset of pulmonary carcinomas, and comprises less than 4% of lung carcinomas. Its histogenesis remains unclear...
  40. Yavuz E, Kapran Y, Ozden I, Bulut T, Dizdaroglu F. Pancreatobiliary adenosquamous carcinoma (report of two cases). Pathologica. 2000;92:323-6 pubmed
    ..We present two cases of pancreatic and periampullary adenosquamous carcinoma with clinicopathologic, histo- and immunohistochemical findings...
  41. Sasieni P, Adams J. Changing rates of adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix in England. Lancet. 2001;357:1490-3 pubmed
    ..We have used additional data on cancers diagnosed in 1993-94 in England and up to 1997 in five English cancer registries to investigate more recent trends...
  42. Kondo M, Dono K, Sakon M, Shimizu J, Nagano H, Nakamori S, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder. Hepatogastroenterology. 2002;49:1230-4 pubmed
    b>Adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder is relatively rare. Its biological behavior and optimal surgical procedure are still controversial.
  43. Kim Y, Park Y, Park J, Lee J, Lee S, Kim J, et al. Adenosquamous carcinoma of the prostate. Yonsei Med J. 1999;40:396-9 pubmed
    An unusual adenosquamous carcinoma originating in the prostate of a 73-year-old man is described. The histological finding showed a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma admixed in an adenocarcinomatous area...
  44. Loncaster J, Carrington B, Sykes J, Jones A, Todd S, Cooper R, et al. Prediction of radiotherapy outcome using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of carcinoma of the cervix. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;54:759-67 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the prognostic value of gadolinium enhancement data for radiotherapy outcome, and to study the efficacy of combined enhancement and MRI volume data...
  45. Puthucode Easwaran S, Naik R, Athavale R, Handley G, Lopes A, Godfrey K, et al. Comparison of pre-treatment CYFRA 21 - 1 and SCC-Antigen assay in primary cervical carcinoma - a preliminary report. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;25:486-8 pubmed
    ..If larger studies confirm these preliminary results, the option of laparoscopic surgical staging in patients with raised CYFRA21-1 levels could be considered. ..
  46. Serkies K, Jassem J, Dziadziuszko R. Chemotherapy with mitomycin c, ifosfamide, and cisplatin for recurrent or persistent cervical cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:1152-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, MIC regimen provides satisfactory efficacy with acceptable toxicity in advanced cervical cancer patients. Better response is seen in lesions outside of the previously irradiated area...
  47. Iwasaki A, Shirakusa T, Miyoshi T, Hamada T, Enatsu S, Maekawa S, et al. Prognostic significance of subcarinal station in non-small cell lung cancer with T1-3 N2 disease. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;54:42-6 pubmed
    ..0681). But multiple-station N2 was not an independent factor ( p = 0.1549). Surgery for patients with T1-3 N2 NSCLC might be acceptable if subcarinal lymph node metastasis is predicted to be absent. ..
  48. Rotman M, Sedlis A, Piedmonte M, Bundy B, Lentz S, Muderspach L, et al. A phase III randomized trial of postoperative pelvic irradiation in Stage IB cervical carcinoma with poor prognostic features: follow-up of a gynecologic oncology group study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006;65:169-76 pubmed
    ..RT appears to be particularly beneficial for patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies. Circumstances that may have influenced the overall survival differences are considered. ..
  49. Misciasci T, Cozza G, Perrone L, Cirillo M, Ciraci A, Manfredi R. Diagnostic imaging in the follow-up of recurrent cervical carcinoma. Rays. 2004;29:201-8 pubmed
    ..The role of CT and MRI was analyzed. MRI is considered the procedure of choice in follow-up. In the future, total body PET will probably play a major role in the detection of recurrence in patients with cervical cancer. ..
  50. Suzuki C, Daigo Y, Ishikawa N, Kato T, Hayama S, Ito T, et al. ANLN plays a critical role in human lung carcinogenesis through the activation of RHOA and by involvement in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway. Cancer Res. 2005;65:11314-25 pubmed
  51. Akatsu T, Kameyama K, Kawachi S, Tanabe M, Aiura K, Wakabayashi G, et al. Gallbladder carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. J Gastroenterol. 2006;41:83-7 pubmed
    ..Histological examination showed an adenosquamous carcinoma with an infiltrate of benign OGCs...
  52. Tan D, Chang J, Liu L, Bai R, Wang Y, Yeh K, et al. Significance of somatic mutations and content alteration of mitochondrial DNA in esophageal cancer. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:93 pubmed
    ..In this study we aim to establish the mutation spectrum and to understand the role of somatic mtDNA mutations in esophageal cancer...
  53. Talvensaari Mattila A, Soini Y, Santala M. VEGF and its receptors (flt-1 and KDR/flk-1) as prognostic indicators in endometrial carcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2005;26:81-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that VEGF, flt-1 and KDR/flk-1 expressions are not useful prognostic markers for overall survival in patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma...
  54. Sato T, Ito J, Shibuya H, Asano K, Watari T. Pulmonary adenosquamous carcinoma in a dog. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2005;52:510-3 pubmed
    ..These findings led to the diagnosis of primary adenosquamous carcinoma, which demonstrates phenotypic profiles characteristic of both epidermal keratinocytes and glandular ..
  55. Qin Y, Peng Z, Lou J, Liu H, Deng F, Zheng Y. Discrepancies between clinical staging and pathological findings of operable cervical carcinoma with stage IB-IIB: a retrospective analysis of 818 patients. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;49:542-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical stage of cervical cancer relies largely on the pelvic examination. The aim of this study is to analyse the discrepancy between clinical stage and pathological results, and to explore the accuracy of pelvic examination...
  56. Fujii T, Nakamura M, Kameyama K, Saito M, Nishio H, Ohno A, et al. Digital colposcopy for the diagnosis of cervical adenocarcinoma using a narrow band imaging system. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2010;20:605-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This system yields cervical glandular disease-related colposcopic findings that may be useful for both clinical and educational purposes. ..
  57. Singh A, Grigsby P, Dehdashti F, Herzog T, Siegel B. FDG-PET lymph node staging and survival of patients with FIGO stage IIIb cervical carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;56:489-93 pubmed
  58. Marchevsky A, Qiao J, Krajisnik S, Mirocha J, McKenna R. The prognostic significance of intranodal isolated tumor cells and micrometastases in patients with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126:551-7 pubmed
  59. Jung K, Kim M, Lee T, Kwon S, Oh H, Lee S, et al. Clinicopathological aspects of 542 cases of pancreatic cancer: a special emphasis on small pancreatic cancer. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22 Suppl:S79-85 pubmed
    ..Among these 11 patients, 3 had tumors <1cm; their median survival time was 30.0 months and their 5-yr survival rate was 50.0%. These findings may indicate that 'small' pancreatic cancer is not equivalent to 'early' pancreatic cancer...
  60. Kornprat P, Rehak P, Lemmerer M, Gogg Kamerer M, Langner C. Analysis of trefoil factor family protein 1 (TFF1, pS2) expression in chronic cholecystitis and gallbladder carcinoma. Virchows Arch. 2005;446:505-10 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to evaluate whether TFF1 immunostaining can be used as a diagnostic tool to identify patients with a more favourable outcome...