urachal cyst


Summary: Cyst occurring in a persistent portion of the urachus, presenting as an extraperitoneal mass in the umbilical region. It is characterized by abdominal pain, and fever if infected. It may rupture, leading to peritonitis, or it may drain through the umbilicus.

Top Publications

  1. McCollum M, MacNeily A, Blair G. Surgical implications of urachal remnants: Presentation and management. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38:798-803 pubmed
    ..The abdominal manifestations of urachal remnants often prompt referral to the pediatric general surgeon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the authors' management of this anomaly...
  2. Siefker Radtke A. Urachal carcinoma: surgical and chemotherapeutic options. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2006;6:1715-21 pubmed
    ..There is no standard chemotherapy regimen for these patients; however, there is new-found hope with a currently accruing clinical trial exploring a 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy combination in this patient population...
  3. Sepulveda W. Beware of the umbilical cord 'cyst'. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2003;21:213-4 pubmed
  4. Allen J, Song J, Velcek F. Acute presentation of infected urachal cysts: case report and review of diagnosis and therapeutic interventions. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004;20:108-11 pubmed
    ..Definitive diagnosis and treatment of an infected urachal cyst were made intraoperatively...
  5. Managoli S, Chaturvedi P, Vilhekar K. Umbilical cord allantoic cysts in a newborn with vacterl association. Indian J Pediatr. 2004;71:419-21 pubmed
    ..In addition, the neonate also had duodenal atresia, patent urachus, obstructive uropathy and bifid scrotum. Association of Allantoic cysts with VACTERL sequence has not been described earlier. ..
  6. Kojima Y, Miyake O, Taniwaki H, Morimoto A, Takahashi S, Fujiwara I. Infected urachal cyst ruptured during medical palliation. Int J Urol. 2003;10:174-6 pubmed
    Since most cases of urachal cyst are asymptomatic, they are frequently detected after complication by infection. Ruptured urachal cysts are frequently detected after complication by severe infections such as sepsis...
  7. Walton B. Acute abdominal pain secondary to a urachal cyst abscess. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1998;98:51-2 pubmed
    ..A urachal cyst abscess, although rare, may have the signs and symptoms of an acute abdomen.
  8. Yu J, Kim K, Lee H, Lee Y, Yoon C, Kim M. Urachal remnant diseases: spectrum of CT and US findings. Radiographics. 2001;21:451-61 pubmed
    ..Understanding the anatomy and the imaging features of urachal remnant diseases is essential for correct diagnosis and proper management...
  9. Maruschke M, Kreutzer H, Seiter H. [Bladder rupture caused by spontaneous perforation of an infected urachal cyst]. Urologe A. 2003;42:834-9 pubmed
    ..of recurrent urinary tract infections and a bladder rupture caused by a spontaneous perforation of an infected urachal cyst. The symptomatology showed abdominal rigidity and pain, a palpable mass in the lower abdomen, and hematuria...

More Information


  1. Ohgaki M, Higuchi A, Chou H, Takashina K, Kawakami S, Fujita Y, et al. Acute peritonitis caused by intraperitoneal rupture of an infected urachal cyst: report of a case. Surg Today. 2003;33:75-7 pubmed
    ..The most common urachal abnormality is the urachal cyst and, while intraperitoneal rupture of an infected urachal cyst is very rare, acute peritonitis resulting from ..
  2. Ilica A, Mentes O, Gur S, Kocaoglu M, Bilici A, Coban H. Abscess formation as a complication of a ruptured urachal cyst. Emerg Radiol. 2007;13:333-5 pubmed
    ..of all or any portion of the fetal urachus results in several anomalies, the most common of which is the urachal cyst (Yu JS, Kim KW, Lee HJ, Lee YJ, Yoon CS, Kim MJ, Radiographics, 21:451-4611, 2001; Ohgaki M, Higuchi A, Chou H, ..
  3. Milotic F, Fuckar Z, Gazdik M, Cicvaric T, Milotic I, Zauhar G. Inflamed urachal cyst containing calculi in an adult. J Clin Ultrasound. 2002;30:253-5 pubmed
    ..We report a case of an inflamed urachal cyst filled with a thick yellow fluid and several calculi in a woman with a 1-month history of dysuria...
  4. Castillo O, Vitagliano G, Olivares R, Sanchez Salas R. Complete excision of urachal cyst by laparoscopic means: a new approach to an uncommon disorder. Arch Esp Urol. 2007;60:607-11 pubmed
    ..Anomalies of the urachal remnant are rare. Urachal cysts are usually asymptomatic, however, when they become infected, they can mimic a wide variety of intra-abdominal pathologies. We present two patients in which an urachal cyst was found.
  5. Ash A, Gujral R, Raio C. Infected urachal cyst initially misdiagnosed as an incarcerated umbilical hernia. J Emerg Med. 2012;42:171-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Urachal abnormalities are a rare cause of lower abdominal pain. They are often initially mistaken for more common causes of lower abdominal pain, and the diagnosis is usually made during evaluation for one of these more common conditions...
  6. Bunch P, Kline Fath B, Imhoff S, Calvo Garcia M, Crombleholme T, Donnelly L. Allantoic cyst: a prenatal clue to patent urachus. Pediatr Radiol. 2006;36:1090-5 pubmed
    ..We report a case of a patent urachus with an allantoic cyst diagnosed via fetal MR imaging at 24 weeks' gestation. Early detection allowed for appropriate counseling and prompt corrective surgery after birth. ..
  7. Matsui F, Matsumoto F, Shimada K. Prenatally diagnosed patent urachus with bladder prolapse. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:e7-10 pubmed
    ..Understanding of the development of urachus is important for prenatal diagnosis, which in turn allows surgery immediately after birth. We showed bladder function after surgery remains good at school age. ..
  8. Schiesser M, Lapaire O, Holzgreve W, Tercanli S. Umbilical cord edema associated with patent urachus. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2003;22:646-7 pubmed
    ..The first abnormal findings were detected by ultrasound in the 14th week of gestation. Differential diagnoses and their influence on surveillance and birth management are discussed. ..
  9. Permpongkosol S, Bella A, Suntisevee S, Leenanupunth C, Stoller M. Laparoscopic excision of urachal cysts in elderly men and woman following pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010;93:132-6 pubmed
    ..Pathological evaluation revealed a benign urachal remnant in each case. Laparoscopic excision of urachal cysts in the aging male or following pregnancy is safe and effective. ..
  10. Araki M, Saika T, Araki D, Kobayashi Y, Uehara S, Watanabe T, et al. Laparoscopic management of complicated urachal remnants in adults. World J Urol. 2012;30:647-50 pubmed
    ..We review our experience with laparoscopic urachal cyst excision and report the efficacy and outcomes of this approach as a less morbid, minimally invasive alternative...
  11. Lischer C, Iselin U, Steiner A. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of urachal cyst in three calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1994;204:1801-4 pubmed
    In 3 calves with irreducible umbilical swelling attributable to urachal cyst, ultrasonography was helpful in establishing a definitive diagnosis. After surgical resection of the persistent urachus, 2 calves recovered without complications...
  12. Severson C. Enhancing nurse practitioner understanding of urachal anomalies. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2011;23:2-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nurse practitioners will encounter patients with stable and acute complications from urachal anomalies. Awareness of these anomalies can expedite diagnosis, treatment, and referral therefore improving patient outcomes. ..
  13. Nimmonrat A, Na Chiangmai W, Muttarak M. Urachal abnormalities: clinical and imaging features. Singapore Med J. 2008;49:930-5 pubmed
    ..Preoperative diagnosis of urachal abnormalities may be suggested by clinical presentation and imaging features. However, it is difficult to differentiate tumour from infection based on imaging features alone. ..
  14. Ortiz Sánchez L, Alonso Prieto M, Campanario Pérez F, Alvarez Silva I, De Cabo Ripoll M, García Díez F. Treatment of urachal disorders: The open and laparoscopic surgery approach. Arch Esp Urol. 2017;70:357-360 pubmed
    ..2 minutes (range 120-240). Mean hospital stay was 4.9 days (DE ±1.1). There were no early or late postoperative complications. Laparoscopic removal of urachal remnants is a safe and reproducible technique. ..
  15. Bonilla F, Raga F, Villalaiz E, Osborne N, Castillo J, Bonilla Musoles F. Umbilical cord cysts: evaluation with different 3-dimensional sonographic modes. J Ultrasound Med. 2010;29:281-5 pubmed
    ..Cysts and pseudocysts can be defined much more accurately by using the different modes described here. ..
  16. Kiran P, Dutta S, Narang A, Mukhopadhnyay K. Unusual manifestations of VACTERL association. Indian Pediatr. 2003;40:162-5 pubmed
    We report a case of VACTERL association along with unusual manifestations of pseudo-exostrophy of bladder, hemifacial microsomia and an urachal cyst communicating with the bladder.
  17. Walker C. A case report of urachal abscess: a rare differential in adult abdominal pain. Hawaii Med J. 2010;69:35-6 pubmed
    ..Upon further evaluation and cystoscopy she was discovered to have a urachal cyst. Urachal cysts are extremely rare and even more uncommon in adults, as it is usually diagnosed in children...
  18. Wu Y, Yu M, Chen L, Chen C, Yang M. Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic tetrasomy 10p associated with megacisterna magna, echogenic focus of left ventricle, umbilical cord cysts and distal arthrogryposis. Am J Med Genet A. 2003;117A:278-81 pubmed
    ..Mosaic tetrasomy 10p was confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of a 10p-specific probe to metaphase chromosomes of this patient. ..
  19. Kubota K, Nomura S, Kawahara M, Kaminishi M. Familial urachal sinus associated with a possible congenital malformation: report of a case. Surg Today. 2003;33:237-9 pubmed
    ..Urachal cysts are associated with a risk of intestinal strangulation and therefore, the finding of urachal disease justifies detailed evaluation. ..
  20. Jeong W, Sung E, Choi J, Park S, Hur H, Baik S, et al. Robot-assisted laparoscopic removal of extraluminal leiomyoma confused with urachal cyst. J Robot Surg. 2010;3:245-7 pubmed publisher
    ..She underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic resection, and the histological findings confirmed a leiomyoma. ..
  21. Ozbulbul N, Dağli M, Akdogan G, Olcer T. CT urography of a vesicourachal diverticulum containing calculi. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2010;16:56-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of vesicourachal diverticulum containing calculus, which was diagnosed by MDCT urography. ..
  22. Tong S, Lee J, Kim S, Lee S. Umbilical cord cyst: a prenatal clue to bladder exstrophy. Prenat Diagn. 2007;27:1177-9 pubmed
  23. Chen H, Niu Z, Yang Y. Bladder leiomyoma in a 6-year-old boy. Urology. 2012;79:434-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgical excision is the ideal option to confirm the diagnosis and to treat the disorder. The prognosis is good after complete resection. ..
  24. Hollander L, Girard E, Ruscher K, Sayej W, Kim C, Finck C. Infected urachal cyst secondary to a Crohn's enterourachal fistula. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47:e43-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of a presumed enterourachal fistula that led to an infected urachal cyst. Preoperative medical treatment obliterated the fistula and avoided the need to resect bowel at the time of ..
  25. Umeda S, Usui N, Kanagawa T, Yamamichi T, Nara K, Ueno T, et al. Prenatal and Postnatal Clinical Course of an Urachus Identified as an Allantoic Cyst in the Umbilical Cord. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2016;26:200-2 pubmed publisher
    ..were diagnosed with a patent urachus requiring surgery in the infantile period and one was diagnosed with an urachal cyst, which is currently being observed without surgery...
  26. Hawary A, Duffy P. Urachal cyst, a rare cyst with multiple complications. ScientificWorldJournal. 2008;8:237-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a real need for physicians, general surgeons, and urologists to be acquainted with the different presentations and management of this rare condition. ..
  27. Tica V, Beghim M, Beghim E, Dehelean I, Zaher M, Tica I. [Urachal cyst in an adult woman]. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2007;102:227-9 pubmed
    ..We report a case of urachal cyst in an adult woman in whom it was difficult to determine preoperatively the origin of the abdominal tumor...
  28. Maletic V, Cerovic S, Lazic M, Stojanovic M, Stevanovic P. Synchronous and multiple transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and urachal cyst. Int J Urol. 2008;15:554-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We are reporting a 49-year-old male patient in whom transitional cell carcinoma of a urachal cyst was found with recurrent, multiple bladder tumors...
  29. Azurmendi Sastre V, Llarena Ibarguren R, Lozano Ortega J, Martín Bazaco J, Pertusa Peña C. [Urachal cyst. Current status]. Arch Esp Urol. 2003;56:999-1004 pubmed
    ..The patient underwent surgery for the excision of a suspected urachal cyst. In order of frequency, the 4 types of urachal congenital abnormalities are: permeable urachus (50%), urachal ..
  30. Navarrete S, Sánchez Ismayel A, Sanchez Salas R, Sánchez R, Navarrete Llopis S. Treatment of urachal anomalies: a minimally invasive surgery technique. JSLS. 2005;9:422-5 pubmed
    ..Minimally invasive surgery is a safe and effective procedure that allows the dissection of the urachus through its entire length, providing optimal postoperative results. ..
  31. Gómez Díaz M, Tornero Ruiz J, Caffaratti Sfulcini J, Garat Barredo J. [Urachal cysts during childhood]. Arch Esp Urol. 2003;56:300-2 pubmed
    ..Treatment of urachal abscesses involved drainage and secondary excision. The urachal cyst does not require surgical intervention...
  32. Galati V, Donovan B, Ramji F, Campbell J, Kropp B, Frimberger D. Management of urachal remnants in early childhood. J Urol. 2008;180:1824-6; discussion 1827 pubmed publisher
    ..However, if symptoms persist or the urachal remnant fails to resolve after 6 months of age, it should be excised to prevent recurrent infections. ..
  33. Ponce Pérez L, Cárdenas Lailson L, Domínguez Muñoz G, López Díaz Y, Vera Rodríguez F. [Giant abscessed urachal cyst in adult. Case report]. Cir Cir. 2013;81:348-52 pubmed
    ..Exploratory laparotomy was found infected urachal cyst, draining 3,000 cc purulent material...
  34. Yamzon J, Kokorowski P, De Filippo R, Chang A, Hardy B, Koh C. Pediatric robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of urachal cyst and bladder cuff. J Endourol. 2008;22:2385-8; discussion 2388 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the techniques used for robot-assisted laparoscopic excision of a urachal cyst and bladder cuff with bladder repair in a female child...
  35. Kidger E, Stahlschmidt J, Garthwaite M, Fulford S, Southgate J, Baker S. A Rare Urachal Cyst in a Case of Ketamine-induced Cystitis Provides Mechanistic Insights. Urology. 2016;90:223.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This was achieved with a rare case where an urachal cyst was found near the bladder dome in a patient undergoing cystectomy for unremitting pain following ketamine ..
  36. Ashley R, Inman B, Routh J, Rohlinger A, Husmann D, Kramer S. Urachal anomalies: a longitudinal study of urachal remnants in children and adults. J Urol. 2007;178:1615-8 pubmed
    ..Adults are at high risk for urachal cancer but children usually incur lower morbidity. Urachal lesions noted early in childhood should be excised to prevent problems in adulthood. ..
  37. Yohannes P, Bruno T, Pathan M, Baltaro R. Laparoscopic radical excision of urachal sinus. J Endourol. 2003;17:475-9; discussion 479 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopic radical excision of a urachal sinus was performed in a 16-year-old female patient who presented with umbilical discharge. ..
  38. Patrzyk M, Glitsch A, Schreiber A, von Bernstorff W, Heidecke C. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery as an option for the laparoscopic resection of an urachal fistula: first description of the surgical technique. Surg Endosc. 2010;24:2339-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with the standard laparoscopic approach, it requires only one incision, decreasing the risks compared with those of several trocars. At the same time, the patient benefits from the better cosmetic result. ..
  39. Jindal T, Kamal M, Jha J. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst. Korean J Intern Med. 2013;28:103-5 pubmed publisher
    Urachal cysts are uncommon. Rarely, these cysts can become infected. Tuberculosis of the urachal cyst is exceedingly rare, with only one case reported previously in the English language literature...
  40. Sina B, Deng A. Umbilical metastasis from prostate carcinoma (Sister Mary Joseph's nodule): a case report and review of literature. J Cutan Pathol. 2007;34:581-3 pubmed
    ..We report this case to extend the list of differential diagnosis for Sister Mary Joseph's nodule in male patients and emphasize the importance of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule as an ominous diagnostic sign. ..
  41. Yoshinaga A, Morozumi M, Yamashita T, Ohno R, Ishii N, Matsuda T, et al. [A pediatric case diagnosed as urachal cyst and vesicoureteral reflux by urinary tract infection: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2007;53:183-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple cysts at the dome of the urinary bladder. The vesicoureteral reflux was repaired and the urachal cyst removed.
  42. von Schnakenburg L, Cadosch D, Gautschi O. [Infected urachal cyst in adulthood: case report and literature review]. Urologe A. 2010;49:1176-8 pubmed publisher
    ..They most likely remain asymptomatic until complications occur. We report the case of a 32-year-old man with abscess formation in the abdominal wall as a complication of an infected ruptured UC...
  43. Xue K, Pridgeon S, Gillibrand R, Sanchez de Crespo J, Godbole H, Fowlis G. Clinical presentations of schistosoma hematobium: three case reports and review. Can J Urol. 2011;18:5757-62 pubmed
    ..Another was found to have schistosoma-related granulomatous inflammation within a urachal cyst. Thirdly a patient was found to have simultaneous occurrence of transitional cell carcinoma and schistosomiasis ..
  44. Kiran H, Kiran G, Kanber Y. Pseudocyst of the umbilical cord with mucoid degeneration of Wharton's jelly. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003;111:91-3 pubmed
    ..Serial ultrasound examinations were not performed because the patient did not visit our outpatient department regularly. The umbilical cord cyst was not detected on ultrasound until delivery...
  45. Ozden E, Gogus C, Filiz E. [Infected urachal cyst]. Tani Girisim Radyol. 2003;9:395-7 pubmed
  46. Cox G, Chan I, Lloyd J, Witherow R, Leonard J. Urachal sinus presenting as periumbilical dermatitis. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:419-20 pubmed
  47. Masuko T, Nakayama H, Aoki N, Kusafuka T, Takayama T. Staged approach to the urachal cyst with infected omphalitis. Int Surg. 2006;91:52-6 pubmed
    ..childhood, but spontaneous drainage at the navel may occur after adolescence, which is called an infected urachal cyst. Especially in cases accompanied by infected omphalitis, no constant opinion has been established to choose ..
  48. Pitone M, Alouf B. Picture of the month. Infected urachal cyst. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160:300-1 pubmed
  49. Boscaino A, Sapere P, Marra B. Carcinoma of the urachus. Report of a case. Tumori. 1989;75:518-9 pubmed
    ..The prognosis is poor because of regional recurrence and metastases. The authors review the literature analyzing the criteria for differential diagnosis between adenocarcinoma of vesical and of urachal origin...
  50. Murray S, Reeder M, Udermann B. Urachal cyst in a collegiate football player. Clin J Sport Med. 2004;14:101-2 pubmed
  51. Hernandez D, Matos P, Hernandez J, Muñoz J, Villasana L. Persistence of an infected urachus presenting as acute abdominal pain. Case report. Arch Esp Urol. 2009;62:589-92 pubmed
    ..We report a case of urachal remnant disease and review the literature...
  52. Trastour C, Desprez B, Delotte J, Bongain A, Rahili A, Bernard J, et al. Ovarian metastases from an urachal adenocarcinoma. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006;125:143-4 pubmed
  53. Gómez Barbadillo J, Plata Rosales J, Espinosa Guzmán E, Castilla Cabezas J, Diaz Lopez C, Soria Alvarez C, et al. Urachal-sigmoid fistula in an adult male without urachal cyst. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2002;94:430-4 pubmed
    ..Five anomalies have been described: congenital patent urachus, urachal cyst, umbilical-urachal sinus, vesico-urachal diverticulum, and alternating sinus...
  54. Antic S, Petrovic J, Barisic G, Dimitrijevic I, Micev M, Krivokapic Z. Allantoic remnants presenting as a giant retroperitoneal cyst. Acta Chir Iugosl. 2007;54:119-22 pubmed
    ..These usually involve patent ductus urachus, urachal cyst, umbilical-urachal sinus or vesicourachal diverticulum...
  55. Choi Y, Kim J, Ahn S, Oh J, Han S, Lee J. Urachal anomalies in children: a single center experience. Yonsei Med J. 2006;47:782-6 pubmed
    ..The subjects included 14 males and 7 females (M:F 2:1). The four types of urachal anomalies confirmed were a urachal cyst in 10 patients (47.6%), a patent urachus in 6 (28.6%), a urachal sinus in 4 (19...
  56. Ghezzi F, Raio L, Di Naro E, Franchi M, Cromi A, Durig P. Single and multiple umbilical cord cysts in early gestation: two different entities. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2003;21:215-9 pubmed
    ..To investigate the prevalence of single and multiple umbilical cord cysts in the first trimester and to assess whether there is a difference in the pregnancy outcome between them...
  57. Janes V, Hogeman P, Achten N, Tytgat S. An infected urachal cyst--a rare diagnosis in a child with acute abdominal pain. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171:587-8 pubmed publisher
    A 2-year-old girl who presented with acute abdominal pain and spiking fever was diagnosed with an infected urachal cyst. Ultrasonography aided the diagnosis and the urachal remnant was removed successfully through a single laparoscopic ..
  58. Kilicdag E, Kilicdag H, Bagis T, Tarim E, Yanik F. Large pseudocyst of the umbilical cord associated with patent urachus. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2004;30:444-7 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrated an uneventful outcome despite the persistent multiple cord cysts...
  59. Ratan S, Rattan K, Kalra R, Maheshwari J, Parihar D, Ratan J. Omphalomesenteric duct cyst as a content of omphalocele. Indian J Pediatr. 2007;74:500-2 pubmed
    ..The tapering intra-abdominal end of the cyst was found to be attached to the ileal mesentry, thereby simulating a herniating mesenteric cyst till the histolopathological report resolved the issue...
  60. Abdulwahab B, Harste K. [Umbilical pilonidal sinus]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2010;172:2848-9 pubmed
    ..5 cm high-density structure. The clinical diagnosis was urachus cyst. The patient was operated and the cyst removed. The pathological examination reached the diagnosis umbilical pilonidal sinus...
  61. Gami B, Biswas S. An infected urachal cyst. BMJ Case Rep. 2013;2013: pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a 25-year-old man who attended with a discharging umbilical swelling and pain. Ultrasonography and CT scan demonstrated an infected urachal cyst which, following cystoscopy, was excised without complication.
  62. Sepulveda W, Gutierrez J, Sanchez J, Be C, Schnapp C. Pseudocyst of the umbilical cord: prenatal sonographic appearance and clinical significance. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;93:377-81 pubmed
    ..To assess the clinical significance of umbilical cord pseudocysts detected prenatally by sonography...
  63. Amano Y, Hayashi T, Takahama K, Kumazaki T. MR imaging of umbilical cord urachal (allantoic) cyst in utero. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003;180:1181-2 pubmed
  64. Chiarenza S, Scarpa M, D Agostino S, Fabbro M, Novek S, Musi L. Laparoscopic excision of urachal cyst in pediatric age: report of three cases and review of the literature. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2009;19 Suppl 1:S183-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of pediatric urachal disorders...
  65. Seo I, Han D, Oh S, Rim J. Laparoscopic excision of a urachal cyst containing large stones in an adult. Yonsei Med J. 2008;49:869-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Stone-containing urachal cysts are extremely rare in adults. Here, we report the case of a 58-year-old man with a urachal cyst who had lower abdominal pain and urinary frequency...
  66. Mazzucchelli R, Scarpelli M, Montironi R. Mucinous adenocarcinoma with superficial stromal invasion and villous adenoma of urachal remnants: a case report. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56:465-7 pubmed
    ..Although no urachal remnants were identified, the location suggested urachal derivation. Only two previous cases of urachal adenocarcinoma with features of early stromal invasion associated with a villous tumour have been described...
  67. Hsu C, Liu Y, Lien W, Lai T, Chen W, Wang H. Urachal abscess: a cause of adult abdominal pain that cannot be ignored. Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23:229-30 pubmed
  68. Thapar R, Jha V, Mehta R, Shah G. Pyourachus: study of two cases. Br J Radiol. 2006;79:e1-4 pubmed
    ..Both our patients were young males, with haematuria being the presenting feature in one case which has not been previously described in literature...
  69. Gimeno Argente V, Domínguez Hinarejos C, Serrano Durba A, Estornell Moragues F, Martinez Verduch M, Garcia Ibarra F. [Infected urachal cyst during childhood]. Actas Urol Esp. 2006;30:1034-7 pubmed
    ..We present a case in a 7-year-old female infant, diagnosed of infected urachal cyst. The embryologic origin of this anomaly, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed.
  70. Kuwata T, Matsubara S, Izumi A, Odagiri K, Tsunoda T, Watanabe T, et al. Umbilical cord pseudocyst in a fetus with trisomy 18. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2003;18:8-11 pubmed
    ..After spontaneous labor onset, the infant was delivered at 31 weeks of gestation, and died soon after delivery. An umbilical cord pseudocyst is a good marker for the prenatal detection of trisomy 18...
  71. Teklali Y, Ettayebi F, Benhammou M. [A rare cause of peritonitis in a child]. J Chir (Paris). 2002;139:286-7 pubmed
  72. Agbreta N, Boutens A, Debodinance P. [Dermoid cyst of the urachus: a case report and review of the literature]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2006;35:75-8 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis is generally ultrasonographic, rarely clinical. We report a case of urachal dermoid cyst revealed by abdominal pain and underline the diagnostic difficulties related to this unusual localization...
  73. Zanghi A, Cavallaro A, Di Vita M, Piccolo G, Barbera G, Di Mattia P, et al. An unique case of dyspareunia leading to the diagnosis of urachal cyst in a nulliparous 28-year-old woman. Clin Ter. 2011;162:439-41 pubmed
    ..We report an unique case of dyspareunia and "abdominal fluid flowing feeling" caused by an urachal cyst in a 28 year-old nulliparous woman. Diagnosis was achieved by US and MRI...
  74. Walsh S, Weiss R. Case report: persistent dysuria and a suprapubic mass in a 3-year-old boy. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2002;14:647-8 pubmed
  75. Ninomiya A, Tanomogi H, Hasegawa S. [Clinical study of six cases of pyourachus at our hospital]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2002;48:403-5 pubmed
    ..No evidence of recurrence has been seen in any of these patients to date...
  76. Ishizu K, Naito K. [A case of infected urachal cyst successfully drained by a catheter perforating the bladder]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2001;47:497-9 pubmed
    ..Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an infected urachal cyst. A drainage catheter, which had multiple holes over a 10 cm length from the catheter tip, was placed in the ..
  77. Yeruham I. Urachal diverticulum in a kid. Vet Rec. 2002;150:353 pubmed
  78. Bertozzi M, Nardi N, Prestipino M, Magrini E, Appignani A. Minimally invasive removal of urachal remnants in childhood. Pediatr Med Chir. 2009;31:265-8 pubmed
    ..In the last decade laparoscopic treatment of these anomalies became more frequent. The Authors report their experience about minimally invasive treatment of remnants...
  79. Cappele O, Sibert L, Descargues J, Delmas V, Grise P. A study of the anatomic features of the duct of the urachus. Surg Radiol Anat. 2001;23:229-35 pubmed
    ..It should be suspected with any lesion in the umbilical region and the appropriate treatment instituted...
  80. Fuchs F, Picone O, Levaillant J, Mabille M, Mas A, Frydman R, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of a patent urachus cyst with the use of 2D, 3D, 4D ultrasound and fetal magnetic resonance imaging. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2008;24:444-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This could help pediatrician surgeons to explain to a couple about neonatal surgical repair and plastic reconstruction in the prenatal period...
  81. Wax J, Pinette M, Cartin A, Blackstone J. Ectopic liver: a unique prenatally diagnosed solid umbilical cord mass. J Ultrasound Med. 2007;26:377-9 pubmed
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    ..We report two cases of an umbilical cord cystic mass detected by sonography in otherwise structurally normal second-trimester fetuses, which were later complicated by a cord hematoma and fetal death...
  83. Peters C. Laparoscopic and robotic approach to genitourinary anomalies in children. Urol Clin North Am. 2004;31:595-605, xi pubmed
    ..The new horizons of robotic assistance for laparoscopic surgery make highly accurate and efficient reconstructive procedures possible...
  84. Nagayama T, Zean Z, Ihara F, Hatori T, Nonaka H, Akima M, et al. [A case of asymptomatic urachal cyst in autopsy--histopathological study of urachal cyst and review of the literature of 99 cases during a 10 year period in Japan]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2001;47:849-52 pubmed
    ..Here we report a very rare case of urachal cyst that protruded in the urinary bladder cavity and among 99 accumulated cases, only 4 cases have been reported ..
  85. Holl Wieden A, Beer M, Marx A, Bonfig R, Tappe D, Girschick H. Infection of an urachal cyst during etanercept therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Rheumatol Int. 2008;28:819-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We report on a 17-year-old boy with enthesitis-related arthritis who developed a major infection of an urachal cyst 18 months after initiation of etanercept therapy, which required surgery...
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    ..In conclusion, MSC promise a broad therapeutical application for a variety of connective tissues requiring ECM synthesis and remodelling...
  88. Gilboa Y, Kivilevitch Z, Katorza E, Leshem Y, Borokovski T, Spira M, et al. Outcomes of fetuses with umbilical cord cysts diagnosed during nuchal translucency examination. J Ultrasound Med. 2011;30:1547-51 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of fetuses with the finding of an umbilical cord cyst during nuchal translucency examination in a low-risk population...
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    ..Follow-up 3-Dimensional sonographic examination in the second trimester showed complete resolution of the cyst. Amniocentesis revealed a normal karyotype, and a normal infant was delivered at term...
  90. Metwalli Z, Guillerman R, Mehollin Ray A, Schlesinger A. Imaging features of intravesical urachal cysts in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2013;43:978-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Urachal cysts, part of the spectrum of congenital urachal anomalies, are typically extrinsic to the urinary bladder...
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    ..We present a novel method for immediate umbilical reconstruction following surgical ablation of the umbilicus that is simple and reproducible with aesthetically satisfactory results...