thyroglossal cyst


Summary: A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Doshi S, Cruz R, Hilsinger R. Thyroglossal duct carcinoma: a large case series. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001;110:734-8 pubmed
    ..Long-term follow-up incorporating clinical examination is mandatory...
  2. Singh S, Rosenthal D, Ginsberg L. Enlargement and transformation of thyroglossal duct cysts in response to radiotherapy: imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30:800-2 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that inflammation associated with RT results in secretory stimulation and/or obstruction of a persistent thyroglossal duct, resulting in changes within a pre-existing TGDC...
  3. Motamed M, McGlashan J. Thyroglossal duct carcinoma. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;12:106-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this paper is to review the presentation and management of thyroglossal duct carcinoma...
  4. Salanci B, Kiratli P, Gunay E. Role of scintigraphy in congenital thyroid anomalies. Turk J Pediatr. 2005;47:364-8 pubmed
    ..This article is written to review the scintigraphic findings in various congenital thyroid anomalies and to underline its use in the differential diagnosis...
  5. Hartl D, Al Ghuzlan A, Chami L, Leboulleux S, Schlumberger M, Travagli J. High rate of multifocality and occult lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in thyroglossal duct cysts. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:2595-601 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence of cancer in thyroglossal duct cysts (TDC) is low and management is controversial. The objective was to report the rate of multifocality, lymph node metastases, and long-term results for TDC carcinomas in adults...
  6. Pribitkin E, Friedman O. Papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct remnant. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;128:461-2; discussion 463-4 pubmed
    ..For papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct remnant, complete wide excision of the remnant is adequate treatment...
  7. Miccoli P, Minuto M, Galleri D, Puccini M, Berti P. Extent of surgery in thyroglossal duct carcinoma: reflections on a series of eighteen cases. Thyroid. 2004;14:121-3 pubmed
    ..Total thyroidectomy should always be considered with SP to permit the correct treatment and follow-up in those patients. Long-term survival of patients with cTDRCa is excellent...
  8. Cherian M, Nair B, Thomas S, Somanathan T, Sebastian P. Synchronous papillary carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst and thyroid gland: case report and review of literature. Head Neck. 2009;31:1387-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a rare case of synchronous occurrence of thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma and thyroid carcinoma and discuss its management in detail...
  9. Bakkar S, Biricotti M, Stefanini G, Ambrosini C, Materazzi G, Miccoli P. The extent of surgery in thyroglossal cyst carcinoma. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2017;402:799-804 pubmed publisher
    The optimal management of thyroglossal cyst carcinoma, particularly the extent of surgery required is controversial...

More Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kim S, Han M, Park S, Chang K. Radiologic-pathologic correlation of unusual lingual masses: Part I: congenital lesions. Korean J Radiol. 2001;2:37-41 pubmed
    ..Delineation of the extent of the tumor, and recognition and understanding of the spectrum of imaging and the pathologic features of these lesions, often help narrow the differential diagnosis. ..
  2. Kanawaku Y, Funayama M, Sakai J, Nata M, Kanetake J. Sudden infant death: lingual thyroglossal duct cyst versus environmental factors. Forensic Sci Int. 2006;156:158-60 pubmed
    ..It seemed reasonable to assume that death was caused by a combination of the lingual thyroglossal duct cysts and asphyxia caused by being covered in bedding, though the main factor appeared to be the large cyst. ..
  3. Huoh K, Durr M, Meyer A, Rosbe K. Comparison of imaging modalities in pediatric thyroglossal duct cysts. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:1405-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the added risks of general anesthesia with MRI and ionizing radiation with CT are not justified in this setting given their equivalent or inferior performance when compared to US in this cohort. ..
  4. Tachibana T, Orita Y, Fujisawa M, Ogawara Y. Papillary thyroid carcinoma arising from a median ectopic thyroid with no thyroglossal duct remnant. Acta Med Okayama. 2013;67:61-4 pubmed
    ..The tumor was resected by Sistrunk's procedure, and the patient's postoperative course was good. ..
  5. O Callaghan J, Glore R, Hornigold R, D Souza A. Thyroid chondroma as a differential for thyroglossal cyst. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;139:594-5 pubmed publisher
  6. Hong S, Moon S. Low-lying thyroglossal duct cyst with lateral cervical discharge masquerading as a second branchial cleft fistula: a case report. J Pediatr Surg. 2013;48:429-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients who show lateral cervical discharge without definite mass, therefore mimicking a second branchial cleft fistula, a low-lying thyroglossal duct cyst should be considered. ..
  7. Balikci H, Gurdal M, Ozkul M, Karakas M, Uvacin O, Kara N, et al. Neck masses: diagnostic analysis of 630 cases in Turkish population. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;270:2953-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In children and adolescents, a neck mass requiring surgery is most likely to be congenital. Tuberculosis should be considered as a cause of a neck mass due to a long-term inflammatory process in a developing country. ..
  8. Diaz M, Stormorken A, Christopher N. A thyroglossal duct cyst causing apnea and cyanosis in a neonate. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2005;21:35-7 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of pediatric airway anatomy and physiology is important in all cases where obstructive apnea is suspected. ..
  9. Burkart C, Richter G, Rutter M, Myer C. Update on endoscopic management of lingual thyroglossal duct cysts. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:2055-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we described the typical presentation, workup, and ideal surgical approach of these lesions. Complete surgical extirpation can be performed successfully with endoscopic techniques and minimal risk of complication or recurrence. ..
  10. Maddalozzo J, Alderfer J, Modi V. Posterior hyoid space as related to excision of the thyroglossal duct cyst. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:1773-8 pubmed publisher
  11. Friedman E, John S. Imaging of pediatric neck masses. Radiol Clin North Am. 2011;49:617-32, v pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of imaging should be to help arrive at a diagnosis or limited differential in an efficient manner while minimizing radiation exposure. ..
  12. Mahboubi S, Gheyi V. MR imaging of airway obstruction in infants and children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2001;57:219-27 pubmed
  13. Dimov R, Stefanov C. [Papillary carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia). 2003;59:28-30 pubmed
  14. Schader I, Robertson S, Maoate K, Beasley S. Hereditary thyroglossal duct cysts. Pediatr Surg Int. 2005;21:593-4 pubmed
    ..The most common inheritance pattern is dominant, with a minority possibly representing a recessive aetiology. We describe a further instance of dominantly inherited thyroglossal duct cysts in two generations. ..
  15. Barbaro M, Di Mario A, De Seta D, Rispoli G, Covelli E, Bertoli G, et al. [An unusual localization of thryoglossal duct cyst]. G Chir. 2009;30:274-5 pubmed
    ..Every mass in the middle line of the neck can be considered as a thyroglossal cyst. Best treatment is surgery (Sistrunk procedure)...
  16. Kayhan F, Kaya K, Koc A, Altintas A, Erdur O. Transoral surgery for an infant thyroglossal duct cyst. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77:1620-3 pubmed publisher
    ..All symptoms were completely resolved with surgery and the patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. The patient is still undergoing follow-up and no recurrence has been observed up to the eighth post-operative month. ..
  17. Falconieri G, Della Libera D, Zanella M. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct cyst: comparative cytohistologic and immunochemical study of 2 new cases and review of the literature. Int J Surg Pathol. 2001;9:65-71 pubmed
    ..Needle aspiration cytology reliably assists in planning patient management. ..
  18. Santiago J, Hutchinson L, Wilson D. Visual vignette. Endocr Pract. 2007;13:92 pubmed
  19. Tamiolakis D, Chimona T, Proimos E, Georgiou G, Perogamvrakis G, Papadakis C. Thyroglossal duct cyst: case series. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2008;103:699-703 pubmed
    ..Although the clinical and histological presentations of these five cases are not rare, they do illustrate how varied thyroglossal duct cysts can be with respect to patient age, anatomic site, or associated signs and symptoms. ..
  20. Uba A, Chirdan L, Jya D, Kidmas A, Manasseh A, Mandong B. Thyroglossal duct lesions in childhood--a review of experience in Nigerian children. S Afr J Surg. 2004;42:125-7 pubmed
    ..The main complications were surgical site infections and recurrence. A plea is made for clinicians to pay attention to clinical and operative details so as to diagnose these lesions accurately and manage them properly. ..
  21. Enepekides D. Management of congenital anomalies of the neck. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2001;9:131-45 pubmed
    ..The fact that congenital lesions of the neck have varied manifestations and may present at any age should always be considered. ..
  22. Palomino Martínez B, Beristain Hernández J, Piscil Salazar M, Villalpando Mendoza C, Velázquez García J. [Thyroglossal cyst and papillary carcinoma. Management proposals]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2014;52:550-7 pubmed
    ..The lack of involution of any part of this duct results in thyroglossal cyst formation...
  23. Martins A, Melo G, Tincani A, Lage H, Matos P. Papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct: case report. Sao Paulo Med J. 1999;117:248-50 pubmed
    ..Histopathological examination of the specimen showed a 3.5 x 3.0 x 3.0 cm thyroglossal cyst, partially filled by a solid 1.0 x 0.5 cm brownish tissue...
  24. Phillips P, Ramsay A, Leighton S. A mixed thyroglossal cyst. J Laryngol Otol. 2004;118:996-8 pubmed
    The case is described of a boy who presented at age six months with symptoms and signs of a thyroglossal cyst, which seemed to be confirmed by ultrasound findings...
  25. Cannizzaro M, Costanzo M, Fiorenza G, Cavallaro A, Galasso M, Arcerito M, et al. [Papillary carcinoma in an isthmic thyroglossal duct cyst: clinical considerations]. Chir Ital. 2006;58:105-11 pubmed
    ..Carcinoma in the thyroglossal duct has a low mortality (5-year mortality: < 2%), but a long-term follow-up is mandatory, due to the low, short-and medium-term recurrence rate. ..
  26. Ozturk O, Demirci L, Egeli E, Cukur S, Belenli O. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct cyst in childhood. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;260:541-3 pubmed
    ..Histopathologic study demonstrated a papillary carcinoma. After 4 months of follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic without any evidence of recurrence. The clinical and histopathological features and therapeutic options are discussed. ..
  27. Sattar A, McRae R, Mangray S, Hansen K, Luks F. Core excision of the foramen cecum for recurrent thyroglossal duct cyst after Sistrunk operation. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:e3-5 pubmed
    ..If thyroglossal duct cysts recur despite an adequate Sistrunk operation, an intralingual remnant should be suspected. Transoral excision of tongue tissue around the foramen cecum may offer a cure. ..
  28. Iakovou I, Konstantinidis I, Doumas A, Nikolaidis V, Karatzas N, Efstratiou I. Squamous cell carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct cyst and 99mTc-MIBI findings. Hell J Nucl Med. 2011;14:62-4 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-MIBI showed the characteristic doughnut sign. The rarity of this diagnosis along with differential diagnosis dilemmas are the key points of this presentation. ..
  29. Kaczmarski J, Pryt Ł, Kozak J. [Thyroglossal duct cyst imitating mediastinal tumor]. Przegl Lek. 2001;58:881-3 pubmed
    ..Due to localisation, simple cystectomy was performed. The early and two year postoperative results are good, any recurrence of the cyst has not been observed. ..
  30. Nicollas R, Mimouni O, Roman S, Triglia J. Intralaryngeal manifestation of thyroglossal duct cyst. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;137:360-1 pubmed
  31. Jing S, Alberry M, Smith R, Clibbon J. A rare report of foetal lingual cyst excised with harmonic scalpel. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2013;66:1770-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis and the benefit of ultrasonic dissection in the treatment of glossal lesions are reviewed. ..
  32. Kermani W, Belcadhi M, Abdelkefi M, Bouzouita K. Papillary carcinoma arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst: case report and discussion of management modalities. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;265:233-6 pubmed
    ..The standard treatment of thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma is the sistrunk procedure. The concept of prognostic risk groups should be used to identify patients who would additionally undergo total thyroidectomy. ..
  33. Goddard R, Madigan J, Mehanna P. Unusual case of spontaneous discharge of pus (infected cyst) through the dorsum of the tongue. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;49:67-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Neck swellings are often a result of infections that spread from the teeth. This case highlights an unusual presentation of spontaneous pustular discharge from the anterior dorsum of the tongue. ..
  34. Babademez M, Tuncay K, Zaim M, Acar B, Karasen R. Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid gland anomalies. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:1807-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, an anomaly in the parathyroid gland location and morphologic anomaly as a cystic parathyroid gland were seen in our case. ..
  35. Choi Y, Kim T, Song D, Hong S, Jang E, Jeon M, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma arising from a thyroglossal duct cyst: a single institution experience. Endocr J. 2013;60:665-70 pubmed
    ..If these tests reveal a suspected lesion in the thyroid or lymph node, SO/TT and lymph node dissection should be performed. ..
  36. Schön R, Düker J, Schmelzeisen R. Ultrasonographic imaging of head and neck pathology. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2002;10:213-41 pubmed
  37. Baizri H, Bouaity B, Abahou S, Oukabli M, Boufares F, Elyaagoubi N, et al. [Papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct cyst, a case report: Which management]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2009;70:256-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The postoperative protocol, established empirically due to the absence of consensus, included radioactive iodine and hormone suppression even though the thyroid was intact. After one year of follow-up, outcome has remained favorable. ..
  38. Pennings R, van den Hoogen F, Marres H. Giant laryngoceles: a cause of upper airway obstruction. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2001;258:137-40 pubmed
    ..In the former patient, acute tracheotomy had to be performed. The laryngocele and saccular cyst were removed surgically, which relieved patients' symptoms of upper airway obstruction. ..
  39. Johnston R, Wei J, Maddalozzo J. Intra-thyroid thyroglossal duct cyst as a differential diagnosis of thyroid nodule. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;67:1027-30 pubmed
    ..This is the fourth case of ITTDC reported in the pediatric population, and ITTDC should remain in the differential diagnosis of pediatric neck mass...
  40. Lindstrom D, Conley S, Arvedson J, Beecher R, Carr M. Anterior lingual thyroglossal cyst: antenatal diagnosis, management, and long-term outcome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;67:1031-4 pubmed
    ..A strong central nervous system basis for suckle development is suggested by the rapid development of a safe and effective suckle and swallow soon after cyst resection and in spite of in utero tongue fixation. ..
  41. Dedivitis R, Lima F, Guirado C. Follicular adenoma in a thyroglossal duct. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;73:430 pubmed
  42. Okoye B, Onotai L. Clinical photographic quiz. Thyroglossal cyst. Niger J Med. 2006;15:94, 101 pubmed
  43. Nelson J, Hall D, Wolf G, Prince M. An unusual thyroglossal duct cyst infection with coccidioidomycosis. J Otolaryngol. 2007;36:69-71 pubmed
  44. Okoye B, Onotai L. Clinical photographic quiz. Incisional biopsy and histology. Niger J Med. 2006;15:94, 101 pubmed
  45. Carreño Villarreal M, Alemán López O, Durán García R, García Ortega F, Bonnín Otal J, Malluguiza Calvo R. [Thyroid papillary carcinoma arising in a thyroglossal cyst. Therapeutic treatment]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am. 2001;28:371-80 pubmed
    ..Treatment was completed, in a second time, with a complete thyroidectomy and a the papillary carcinoma was discovered. Some interesting aspects regarding diagnosis and treatment of this scarce entity are reviewed...
  46. Nimeskern N, Gleizal A, Beziat J. [A voluminous cervical tumefaction in an adult]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 2004;105:345-6 pubmed
  47. Latham K, Perry W, Richards M. Lateral neck mass in a young woman. Curr Surg. 2006;63:24-6 pubmed
  48. Perkins J, Inglis A, Sie K, Manning S. Recurrent thyroglossal duct cysts: a 23-year experience and a new method for management. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2006;115:850-6 pubmed
    ..We present an experience in the management of primary and recurrent thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs) and describe a novel method for recurrent TGDC removal...
  49. Berni Canani F, Dall Olio D, Chiarini V, Casadei G, Papini E. Papillary carcinoma of a thyroglossal duct cyst in a patient with thyroid hemiagenesis: effectiveness of conservative surgical treatment. Endocr Pract. 2008;14:465-9 pubmed
    ..To describe a case of thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma that arose in a patient with right thyroid lobe hemiagenesis...
  50. Zhang L, Zhang T, Sha Y, Lin Y, Chen Q. Lingual thyroglossal duct cyst with recurrence after cystectomy or marsupialization under endoscopy: diagnosis and modified Sistrunk surgery. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:1888-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, to probe the feasibility of modified Sistrunk surgery for patients who experience recurrence after cystectomy or marsupialization under endoscopy...
  51. Kim J, Park J, Lee E, Woo S. Intraoral removal of a thyroglossal duct cyst using a frenotomy incision. Thyroid. 2011;21:1381-4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this procedure inevitably results in a neck scar...
  52. Lariviere C, Waldhausen J. Congenital cervical cysts, sinuses, and fistulae in pediatric surgery. Surg Clin North Am. 2012;92:583-97, viii pubmed publisher
    ..Correct diagnosis, resolution of infectious issues before definitive therapy, and complete surgical excision are imperative in the prevention of recurrence...
  53. Bellet J. Developmental anomalies of the skin. Semin Perinatol. 2013;37:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Occult spinal dysraphism can be suspected when certain cutaneous signs are present...
  54. Coelho A, Sousa C, Marinho A, Barbosa Sequeira J, Ribeiro Castro J, Carvalho F, et al. Five-years' experience with outpatient thyroglossal duct cyst surgery. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;96:65-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Sistrunk procedure without drain placement is safe and can be performed in an outpatient setting. ..
  55. Alberty J, Dockhorn Dworniczak B. Monophasic synovial sarcoma of the neck in an 8-year-old girl resembling a thyroglossal duct cyst. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2002;63:61-5 pubmed
    ..Histologic, immunohistochemic and cytogenetic findings are presented with a brief review of the literature. This case reaffirms the importance of considering malignant neoplasms in the differential diagnosis of pediatric neck masses...
  56. Gok U, Keles E, Cobanoglu B, Yildiz M, Donder E. Ectopic thyroid and Hashimoto's thyroiditis arising from a thyroglossal duct cyst: a case report. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2003;10:29-32 pubmed
    ..Histopathologic diagnosis was Hashimoto's thyroiditis that developed from the ectopic thyroid tissue on the wall of thyroglossal duct cyst...
  57. Dearlove O, Bowen J. Air emphysema in the neck after excision of a thyroglossal cyst. Anaesthesia. 2004;59:193-4 pubmed
  58. Ohta N, Fukase S, Watanabe T, Ito T, Aoyagi M. Effects and mechanism of OK-432 therapy in various neck cystic lesions. Acta Otolaryngol. 2010;130:1287-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In OK-432 therapy, inflammatory cytokines may play important roles in shrinkage of the cystic spaces...
  59. Kuhn M, Zeitler D, Wang B, DeLacure M. Incidental trichinellosis of strap muscle identified after thyroglossal duct cyst excision. Laryngoscope. 2010;120 Suppl 4:S158 pubmed publisher
  60. Goins M, Beasley M. Pediatric neck masses. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2012;24:457-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This article addresses many aspects of the workup, diagnosis and eventual proper surgical or medical management of pediatric neck masses...
  61. Pellegriti G, Lumera G, Malandrino P, Latina A, Masucci R, Scollo C, et al. Thyroid cancer in thyroglossal duct cysts requires a specific approach due to its unpredictable extension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:458-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in thyroglossal duct cysts is uncommon. The requirement of total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection is still controversial...
  62. Ahuja A, King A, Metreweli C. Sonographic evaluation of thyroglossal duct cysts in children. Clin Radiol. 2000;55:770-4 pubmed
    ..In this study we report on 23 patients with thyroglossal duct cysts and document the ultrasonic patterns...
  63. Guerrissi J. Cervical tumor by ectopic salivary gland. J Craniofac Surg. 2000;11:394-7 pubmed
    ..A 26-year-old woman was operated on for a cystic tumor in the midline of the neck diagnosed as thyroglossal cyst in the hyoid region. After Sistrunk operation, the recurrence was immediate...
  64. Persaud R, Short M, Kothari P, Robinson A. Thyroglossal duct cyst masquerading as a haematoma. J Laryngol Otol. 2004;118:240-1 pubmed
    ..Classically the cyst moves upwards on protruding the tongue. Here we report a novel case of a thyroglossal cyst in an adult in whom the history, examination and fine needle aspiration cytology were typical of a traumatic ..
  65. Guzmán G P, Baeza O A, Cabello V A, Montecinos L A, Leal M C, Roa S J. [Papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct cyst: report of two cases]. Rev Med Chil. 2008;136:1169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In both, a solid cystic lesion was found and excised using the Sistrunk procedure. The biopsy disclosed a papillary carcinoma in both. The postoperative evolution of both patients was uneventful...
  66. Madana J, Kalaiarasi R, Yolmo D, Gopalakrishnan S. Simultaneous occurrence of a thyroglossal duct cyst and a lingual thyroid in the absence of an orthotopic thyroid gland. J Laryngol Otol. 2012;126:217-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We report an extremely rare case of the simultaneous occurrence of a thyroglossal duct cyst and a lingual thyroid in the absence of an orthotopic thyroid gland, in a seven-year-old girl from South India...
  67. Tarnaris A, Giridharan W, Aird D. Lymphoma mimicking a thyroglossal duct cyst in an adolescent. J Laryngol Otol. 2005;119:216-8 pubmed
    ..the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a solitary midline cervical lesion, which simulated a thyroglossal cyst on clinical examination. However, histopathological examination revealed it to be a Hodgkin's lymphoma...
  68. Farvolden D, Sweeney S, Wiss K. Lumps and bumps in neonates and infants. Dermatol Ther. 2005;18:104-16 pubmed
    ..Additionally, there are other "lumps and bumps" that are seen in the neonatal and infantile age groups that include malignancies and cutaneous neoplasms with associated systemic sequelae...
  69. Kazemi M, Assadi M, Kazemi A, Ghazvini L. Primary papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct cyst. Hell J Nucl Med. 2006;9:39-40 pubmed
    ..Since our patient had no marginal invasion of the carcinoma in the surrounding tissues or lymph node metastases, we recommended the Sistrunk's surgical procedure, suppressive treatment by thyroid hormones and long term follow-up...
  70. Jain R, Morton R, Ahmad Z. Diagnostic difficulties of plunging ranula: case series. J Laryngol Otol. 2012;126:506-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate common pitfalls in diagnosing complicated plunging ranula, either due to misidentification of plunging ranula or alternative pathology (i.e. false negatives or false positives, respectively)...
  71. Ranga U, Aiyappan S, Veeraiyan S. Computed tomography fistulography demonstrating thyroglossal fistula: a case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114:e48-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of thyroglossal fistula in a young male that was clearly demonstrated using computed tomography fistulography...
  72. Yamamoto M, Tsuji M, Yamada K, Taniguchi H, Kim Y, Fukuda K, et al. Cyst fluid levels of carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, squamous cell carcinoma antigen, and amylase in thyroglossal duct and branchial cleft cysts. Surg Today. 2001;31:477-81 pubmed
    ..CEA and amylase were not found in the epithelial cells of either type of cyst. These findings seem to reflect the difference in etiology between TDCs and BCCs...
  73. Zelmanovitz F, Moraes I, Spiro B, Masiero P. Activation of thyroid tissue in thyroglossal duct. Thyroid. 2004;14:475-6 pubmed
  74. Lee S, Lee J, Lee H, Seo J, Kang S, Bae J, et al. Enhanced scintigraphic visualization of thyroglossal duct remnant during hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy: prevalence and clinical implication in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2007;17:341-6 pubmed
    ..This study was prepared to assess the prevalence of TGDR in asymptomatic subjects during hypothyroidism after a total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to clarify the clinical implication...
  75. Wootten C, Goudy S, Rutter M, Willging J, Cotton R. Airway injury complicating excision of thyroglossal duct cysts. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73:797-801 pubmed publisher
    ..The patterns of injury, their treatment and outcomes as well as preventative measures are detailed...
  76. So Y, Jeong J, Youm H, Jeong H. Endoscope-assisted intra-oral resection of the external thyroglossal duct cyst. Am J Otolaryngol. 2011;32:71-4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this procedure inevitably results in neck scarring. We implemented a modified approach to TGDC removal in a 28-year-old woman through the floor of the mouth using an endoscope system...
  77. Albayrak Y, Albayrak F, Kaya Z, Kabalar E, Aylu B. A case of papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal cyst without a carcinoma in the thyroid gland. Diagn Cytopathol. 2011;39:38-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a patient with a papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed after surgical resection of a thyroglossal cyst. The 39-year-old patient reported to our hospital due to a swelling of this throat...
  78. Nour Y, Hassan M, Gaafar A, Eldaly A. Deep neck infections of congenital causes. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;144:365-71 pubmed publisher
  79. Dedivitis R, Camargo D, Peixoto G, Weissman L, Guimarães A. Thyroglossal duct: a review of 55 cases. J Am Coll Surg. 2002;194:274-7 pubmed
    ..Sistrunk's procedure, with dissection of the tract and removal of the hyoid bone, is accepted as the main operation of choice...
  80. Hod N, Mindlin L, Cohenpour M, Horne T. Double ectopic thyroid. Pediatr Radiol. 2002;32:859-61 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the scintigraphic findings and to emphasize the importance of performing a thyroid scan in every case of thyroid ectopia to accurately identify all sites of functioning thyroid tissue...
  81. Suh M, Sung M. Apnea spells in an infant with vallecular cyst. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2004;113:765 pubmed
  82. Rosa P, Hirsch D, Dierks E. Congenital neck masses. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2008;20:339-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The appropriate diagnosis of these lesions is necessary to provide appropriate treatment and long-term follow up, because some of these lesions may undergo malignant transformation or be harbingers of malignant disease...
  83. Hanmayyagari B, Guntaka M, Ravilala V. Ectopic thyroid in presumed thyroglossal duct cyst. Indian Pediatr. 2013;50:420-1 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates the essential role of a thyroid scan and ultrasonography in the preoperative evaluation of a midline neck mass...
  84. O Neil L, Gunaratne D, Cheng A, Riffat F. Wide anterior neck dissection for management of recurrent thyroglossal duct cysts in adults. J Laryngol Otol. 2016;130 Suppl 4:S41-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper describes our approach to the management of recurrent thyroglossal duct cysts and sinuses in adults using a wide anterior neck dissection...
  85. Ducic Y. Thyroglossal duct cysts in the elderly population. Am J Otolaryngol. 2002;23:17-9 pubmed
    ..There appears to be a remarkable rate of malignant transformation noted in this subset of the population. We would therefore suggest early and definitive removal of all suspected thyroglossal duct cysts presenting in elderly individuals...
  86. Sriram U, Patacsil L. Thyroid nodules. Dis Mon. 2004;50:486-526 pubmed
  87. Soliman A, Lee J. Imaging case study of the month. Thyroglossal duct cyst with intralaryngeal extension. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2006;115:559-62 pubmed
    ..Thyroglossal duct cysts with intralaryngeal extension are rare. We present only the 10th reported case in the literature...
  88. Shrestha S, Sharma V. Thyroglossal duct remnant: seven years analysis. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc. 2006;45:178-81 pubmed
    ..Other clinical conditions of neck can masquerade as thyroglossal duct remnant so histopathological confirmation is mandatory. Sistrunk operation is the standard treatment to minimize recurrence...
  89. Shifrin A, Vernick J. A thyroglossal duct cyst presenting as a thyroid nodule in the lateral neck. Thyroid. 2008;18:263-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The standard Sistrunk procedure was performed. Here we describe an unusual late presentation of a TDC located lateral to a multinodular goiter and producing compressive symptoms...
  90. Gupta R, Levent F, Healy C, Edwards M. Unusual soft tissue manifestations of Neisseria meningitidis infections. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2008;47:400-3 pubmed publisher
  91. Yazdi A, Sazgar A, Noviri B, Mahboubi H, Mojtahed M. The role of pre-operative infection in the recurrence of thyroglossal duct cyst. B-ENT. 2011;7:169-71 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the role of pre-operative infection in thyroglossal duct cyst recurrence and post-operative complications of Sistrunk procedure...
  92. Kreft A, Hansen T, Kirkpatrick C. Thyroid transcription factor 1 expression in cystic lesions of the neck: an immunohistochemical investigation of thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft cysts and metastatic papillary thyroid cancer. Virchows Arch. 2005;447:9-11 pubmed
    ..g. an immunostaining for TG, should be added in difficult cases...