ranula

Summary

Summary: A form of retention cyst of the floor of the mouth, usually due to obstruction of the ducts of the submaxillary or sublingual glands, presenting a slowly enlarging painless deep burrowing mucocele of one side of the mouth. It is also called sublingual cyst and sublingual ptyalocele.

Top Publications

  1. Zhao Y, Jia J, Jia Y. Complications associated with surgical management of ranulas. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63:51-4 pubmed
    ..We present the intraoperative and postoperative complications associated with 606 procedures for ranulas in a series of 571 patients...
  2. Zhao Y, Jia Y, Chen X, Zhang W. Clinical review of 580 ranulas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004;98:281-7 pubmed
    The purpose of this paper was to compare clinical features among 3 patterns of ranula and the recurrence rates of each when treated by different surgical methods.
  3. Haberal I, Gocmen H, Samim E. Surgical management of pediatric ranula. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2004;68:161-3 pubmed
    ..Few studies have compared the results of the most popular techniques such as excision and marsupialization in pediatric population...
  4. Mahadevan M, Vasan N. Management of pediatric plunging ranula. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;70:1049-54 pubmed
    There appears to be a high incidence of ranula in New Zealand. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnosis and surgical treatment of plunging ranula in children at Auckland Starship Children's Hospital, New Zealand.
  5. Chidzonga M, Mahomva L. Ranula: experience with 83 cases in Zimbabwe. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:79-82 pubmed
    ..To document the clinical features, management, and outcome of ranulas in Zimbabwe...
  6. Takagi S, Mizukawa N, Kimura T, Asaumi J. Treatment of a plunging ranula with fenestration and continuous pressure. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;41:410-3 pubmed
    ..the patients remained symptom-free and assessment by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed regression of the ranula in all cases...
  7. Macdonald A, Salzman K, Harnsberger H. Giant ranula of the neck: differentiation from cystic hygroma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;24:757-61 pubmed
    Occasionally, diving ranulas may attain large dimensions (giant ranula); gross involvement of the submandibular and parapharyngeal spaces makes differentiation from other cystic neck masses, particularly cystic hygroma, difficult...
  8. Patel M, Deal A, Shockley W. Oral and plunging ranulas: What is the most effective treatment?. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:1501-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Preferred treatment of oral/plunging ranulas remains controversial. We present our experience with ranulas at the University of North Carolina (UNC) and review the literature...
  9. Pires P, Pereira M, Machado L, Bonilla Musoles F. Prenatal diagnosis of a ranula with 2- and 3-dimensional sonography and sonographically guided aspiration. J Ultrasound Med. 2006;25:1499-502 pubmed

More Information

Publications92

  1. Kalra V, Mirza K, Malhotra A. Plunging ranula. J Radiol Case Rep. 2011;5:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of plunging ranula in a 44 year old female who presented with a painless, slowly enlarged neck mass...
  2. Morita Y, Sato K, Kawana M, Takahasi S, Ikarashi F. Treatment of ranula--excision of the sublingual gland versus marsupialization. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2003;30:311-4 pubmed
    The purpose of this work is to estimate optimum surgical treatment of ranula according to the type of the lesion. Nine patients with ranula surgically treated between 1989 and 2000 were investigated retrospectively...
  3. Woo J, Hwang S, Lee H. Recurrent plunging ranula treated with OK-432. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;260:226-8 pubmed
    ..He had undergone operations for right plunging ranula with a lesion on the floor of the mouth twice 7 years ago...
  4. Roh J. Primary treatment of ranula with intracystic injection of OK-432. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:169-72 pubmed
    Although surgery is the first choice of therapy for ranula, it was made a hypothesis that ranula can be primarily treated with sclerotherapy from prior evidence...
  5. Harrison J. Modern management and pathophysiology of ranula: literature review. Head Neck. 2010;32:1310-20 pubmed publisher
    There is a lack of consensus about the appropriate treatment of ranula. The objective of the present investigation was to produce a scientific basis for treatment.
  6. Lai J, Poon C. Treatment of ranula using carbon dioxide laser--case series report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;38:1107-11 pubmed publisher
    ..are various methods for treating ranulas, including marsupialization with or without open packing, excision of ranula with or without removal of sublingual gland, and laser excision and vaporization of ranula...
  7. McGurk M, Eyeson J, Thomas B, Harrison J. Conservative treatment of oral ranula by excision with minimal excision of the sublingual gland: histological support for a traumatic etiology. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:2050-7 pubmed publisher
    This study investigates, clinically and histologically, a new conservative technique for the treatment of oral ranula based on the premise that a discrete unit of the sublingual gland feeds the ranula, which can therefore be treated by ..
  8. Chidzonga M, Rusakaniko S. Ranula: another HIV/AIDS associated oral lesion in Zimbabwe?. Oral Dis. 2004;10:229-32 pubmed
    To show that sublingual ranula is associated with HIV/AIDS and as such should be considered an HIV/AIDS associated oral lesion in Zimbabwe.
  9. Loney W, Termini S, Sisto J. Plunging ranula formation as a complication of dental implant surgery: a case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:1204-8 pubmed
  10. Hidaka H, Oshima T, Kakehata S, Watanabe K, Toshima M, Suzuki H, et al. Two cases of plunging ranula managed by the intraoral approach. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2003;200:59-65 pubmed
    Two cases of plunging ranula are reported. Treatment consisted of the total removal of the sublingual gland and evacuation of the cystic contents by the intraoral approach...
  11. Urso Baiarda F, Saravanappa N, Courteney Harris R. Radiology quiz case 1. Intraoral ranula. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003;129:490; 492 pubmed
  12. Garofalo S, Briganti V, Cavallaro S, Pepe E, Prete M, Suteu L, et al. Nickel Gluconate-Mercurius Heel-Potentised Swine Organ Preparations: a new therapeutical approach for the primary treatment of pediatric ranula and intraoral mucocele. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:247-55 pubmed
    Many authors consider surgical therapy of pediatric ranula and intraoral mucocele as the election treatment. Recently, an intracystic sclerosing injection with OK-432 has been proposed as a ranula primary treatment...
  13. Rho M, Kim D, Kwon J, Lee S, Sung Y, Song Y, et al. OK-432 sclerotherapy of plunging ranula in 21 patients: it can be a substitute for surgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:1090-5 pubmed
    Although first-choice therapy for the ranula is surgery, this choice presents technical difficulties and frequent recurrences because of insufficient surgery...
  14. Roh J, Kim H. Primary treatment of pediatric plunging ranula with nonsurgical sclerotherapy using OK-432 (Picibanil). Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72:1405-10 pubmed publisher
    Although surgery is the first choice of therapy for plunging ranula, it is associated with technical difficulties, morbidity and recurrence...
  15. Guerrissi J, Taborda G. Endoscopic excision of the submandibular gland by an intraoral approach. J Craniofac Surg. 2001;12:299-303 pubmed
    ..With advanced endoscopic instruments, new surgical technique, and surgeon experience, endoscopic intraoral excision of the submandibular gland can be the method of choice in benign neoplasia, sialolith, sialoadenitis and plunging ranula.
  16. Fukase S, Ohta N, Inamura K, Aoyagi M. Treatment of ranula wth intracystic injection of the streptococcal preparation OK-432. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2003;112:214-20 pubmed
    ..We tried this therapy in 32 patients with ranula (oral floor type in 21 cases and plunging type in 11 cases)...
  17. Iida S, Kogo M, Tominaga G, Matsuya T. Plunging ranula as a complication of intraoral removal of a submandibular sialolith. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;39:214-6 pubmed
    Mucous cysts in the submandibular region--so-called 'plunging' ranula--are relatively uncommon. We report a case of a plunging ranula that complicated excision of an intraductal sialolith of the submandibular gland.
  18. Hershkin A, Miller E. Plunging ranula in young HIV patient. N Y State Dent J. 2007;73:46-7 pubmed
    ..African-American male with congenital HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) therapy with a plunging ranula who was treated with surgical removal of the offending sublingual gland and suffered no complications...
  19. Hills A, Holden A, McGurk M. Evolution of the management of ranulas: change in a single surgeon's practice 2001-14. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;54:992-996 pubmed publisher
    ..Their personal details, operations, types of ranula, and outcomes were recorded. Follow up was for a minimum of six months without recurrent disease before discharge...
  20. Zhao Q, Li M, Lai R, Wang S. Treatment of intraoral ranulas with a two-incision fistula technique: the management of recurrence. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018;56:129-133 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 13/53 ranulas had recurred, so we repeated the operation, and one patient had the ranula and the sublingual gland resected...
  21. Biglioli F, Battista V, Marelli S, Valassina D, Colombo V, Bardazzi A, et al. Lingual nerve lesion during ranula surgical treatment: case report. Minerva Stomatol. 2010;59:561-9 pubmed
    ..In the case report a LN lesion due to oral ranula excision is discussed; the patient experienced anaesthesia and hyperpatia in the corrisponded tongue side...
  22. Olasoji H, Tahir A, Arotiba G. Plunging ranula: a report of two cases. East Afr Med J. 2002;79:51-3 pubmed
    Plunging ranula, a rare differential diagnosis of cervicofacial masses is presented in two Nigerian patients. The authors highlight the pathophysiology and treatment methods of this condition...
  23. Clyburn V, Smith J, Rumboldt T, Matheus M, Day T. Ascending and plunging ranula in a pediatric patient. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;140:948-9 pubmed publisher
    A plunging ranula is a rare phenomenon that represents mucous extravasation extending through or behind the mylohyoid...
  24. Date A, Padhye M, Desai R, Hire A. Simultaneous bilateral ranula in an edentulous patient. Rare presentation with a brief review of the literature. Stomatologija. 2016;18:133-136 pubmed
    A ranula is a large mucocele located in the floor of the mouth. Ranulas is usually a mucous extravasation phenomenon due to injury to sublingual salivary gland...
  25. Choi T, Oh C. Hydrodissection for complete removal of a ranula. Ear Nose Throat J. 2003;82:946-7, 951 pubmed
    ..Removing a ranula without rupturing it can be a tedious and time-consuming process...
  26. Ryu K, Lee J, Lee J, Chung S, Chung M, Kim H, et al. Ethanol Ablation of Ranulas: Short-Term Follow-Up Results and Clinicoradiologic Factors for Successful Outcome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017;38:1794-1798 pubmed publisher
    Surgical excision of an affected sublingual gland for treatment of a ranula can carry a potential of a nerve damage or postoperative complications...
  27. Chikhani L, Maladiere E, Fleuridas G, Bertrand J, Guilbert F. [A large mucocele of unusual location]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac. 1998;99:25-9 pubmed
    ..We examine the topographic and histological characteristics of mucoceles together with their treatment. The main differential diagnoses of liquid tumoral formations of the maxillary are also discussed...
  28. Rosa P, Hirsch D, Dierks E. Congenital neck masses. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2008;20:339-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The appropriate diagnosis of these lesions is necessary to provide appropriate treatment and long-term follow up, because some of these lesions may undergo malignant transformation or be harbingers of malignant disease...
  29. Sandrini F, Sant Ana Filho M, Rados P. Ranula management: suggested modifications in the micro-marsupialization technique. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:1436-8 pubmed
  30. Gul A, Gungorduk K, Yildirim G, Gedikbasi A, Ceylan Y. Prenatal diagnosis and management of a ranula. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2008;34:262-5 pubmed publisher
    A ranula is a mucous extravasation cyst which appears as a swelling in the submental and submandibular regions. We describe a case of congenital ranula or retention salivary cyst diagnosed at 22 weeks' gestation...
  31. Okoye B, Onotai L. Clinical photographic quiz. Ranula. Niger J Med. 2006;15:93, 101 pubmed
  32. Agarwal A, Kanekar S. Submandibular and sublingual spaces: diagnostic imaging and evaluation. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2012;45:1311-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This article outlines the radiologic anatomy of the region, describes the various pathologic processes that may affect it, and discusses the use of imaging in their evaluation. ..
  33. Seo J, Park J, Kim H, Jeon S, Kim J, Ahn S, et al. Surgical management of intraoral ranulas in children: an analysis of 17 pediatric cases. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74:202-5 pubmed publisher
    ..involved 17 children under 15 years of age who visited our hospital from 2001 to 2008 and were diagnosed with a ranula exceeding 2 cm in diameter...
  34. Popescu E, Gogalniceanu D, Dănilă V, Popa C, Cârdei O, Daniil C, et al. [Plunging ranula]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2004;108:903-8 pubmed
    The plunging ranula is a relatively uncommon phenomenon which represents a mucus escape reaction occurring from disruption of the sublingual salivary gland...
  35. Nguyen B, Malone B, Sidman J, Barnett Roby B. Excision of sublingual gland as treatment for ranulas in pediatric patients. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;97:154-156 pubmed publisher
    ..ranulas, many surgeons still utilize other methods such as marsupialization, drainage of the cyst, or excision of ranula alone as the primary method of treatment due to concerns about complications...
  36. Packiri S, Gurunathan D, Selvarasu K. Management of Paediatric Oral Ranula: A Systematic Review. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11:ZE06-ZE09 pubmed publisher
    b>Ranula is mucous extravasation cyst that occurs in the floor of the mouth. There are various methods of management of paediatric oral ranula each of which has their own advantage and disadvantage.
  37. McGurk M. Management of the ranula. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:115-6 pubmed
  38. Licéaga R, González C, Licéaga C, Vargas G. Congenital ranula. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2010;34:263-6 pubmed
    This article presents 3 cases of infants with congenital ranula, a rare salivary gland pathology. Pathophysiology is discussed, differential diagnosis, and different treatment choices are explained.
  39. Chow T, Chan S, Lam S. Ranula successfully treated by botulinum toxin type A: report of 3 cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;105:41-2 pubmed
    The conventional treatment of ranula is surgical procedure. We report an innovative method for ranula by using botulinum toxin type A on 3 patients. All 3 cases of ranula resolved after this minimally invasive therapy...
  40. Kovacic M. [Plunging ranula]. Acta Med Croatica. 2003;57:305-8 pubmed
    ..Saliva extravasation from the sublingual gland causes ductal lesion or obstruction and results in the formation of a ranula. It spreads through or behind the mylohyoid muscle situated on the neck...
  41. Pandit R, Park A. Management of pediatric ranula. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;127:115-8 pubmed
    ..Four patients required dissection of the submandibular duct and lingual nerve to completely excise an oral cavity ranula and an ipsilateral sublingual gland. There were no recurrent lesions...
  42. Chan D, Lee C, Fung T, Chan D, Abdullah V, Ng P. Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) for congenital giant ranula. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95:1303-5 pubmed
    Congenital giant ranula causing life-threatening upper airway obstruction is a rare condition...
  43. Takeda Y, Yamamoto H. Salivary duct cyst: its frequency in a certain Japanese population group (Tohoku districts), with special reference to adenomatous proliferation of the epithelial lining. J Oral Sci. 2001;43:9-13 pubmed
    ..A review of the literature yielded only two cases of tumors arising in pre-existing salivary duct cysts. ..
  44. Saheeb B. Recurrent congenital bilateral ranula: a case report. SADJ. 2001;56:366-8 pubmed
    A case of congenital bilateral ranula in a one-week-old male baby is reported. At presentation the cyst measured 3.5 x 2.5 cm but did not interfere with feeding. Initial marsupialisation resulted in recurrence of the cyst...
  45. Ohta N, Fukase S, Suzuki Y, Ishida A, Aoyagi M. Treatments of various otolaryngological cystic diseases by OK-4321: its indications and limitations. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:2193-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications for, and outcomes and limitations of, OK-432 therapy in various otolaryngological cystic diseases...
  46. Summers A. Intraoral ranulas. Emerg Nurse. 2006;14:21 pubmed
  47. Drost B, Tytgat G. [Diagnostic image (229). A neonate with a sublingual swelling]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005;149:462 pubmed
    A male neonate presented with a right-sided swelling in the floor of the mouth, a congenital ranula, which disappeared spontaneously.
  48. Mandel L. Plunging ranula following placement of mandibular implants: case report. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;66:1743-7 pubmed publisher
  49. Liu D, Jiang L, Xie X, Zhang Z, Zhang L, Yu G. Sialoendoscopy-assisted sialolithectomy for submandibular hilar calculi. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;71:295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the clinical effects of endoscopy-assisted sialolithectomy for submandibular hilar calculi...
  50. Kurabayashi T, Ida M, Yasumoto M, Ohbayashi N, Yoshino N, Tetsumura A, et al. MRI of ranulas. Neuroradiology. 2000;42:917-22 pubmed
    We reviewed the MRI of 20 patients with a ranula (8 simple and 12 plunging) and ten with other cystic masses in the floor of the mouth and/or suprahyoid portion of the neck (three haemangiomas, two neuromas, one monomorphic adenoma, one ..
  51. McKinstry S, Lewis C. Bilateral plunging ranula: two case reports and a review of the literature. N Z Med J. 2013;126:81-6 pubmed
    Presentation of two bilateral plunging ranula cases and then review of the plunging ranula literature to understand current concepts on aetiology, imaging for diagnosis and management.
  52. Kolker M, Batti J, Schoem S. The ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure for congenital ranula in a Jehovah's Witness. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130:508-10 pubmed
  53. Sigismund P, Bozzato A, Schumann M, Koch M, Iro H, Zenk J. Management of ranula: 9 years' clinical experience in pediatric and adult patients. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;71:538-44 pubmed publisher
    ..A specific diagnostic and therapeutic approach is suggested based on these data and data from the literature...
  54. Afanas ev V, Shipskiĭ A. [A new method of sublingual salivary gland cyst treatment by silicone membrane]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2005;84:38-9 pubmed
    It is suggested to use silicone membrane in operations of plastic cystotomy in cases of ranula. 1-2-year follow-up results are good, no recurrence was observed.
  55. Jiang L, Zhang Y, Liu D, Zhang L, Zhang Z, Yu G. [Sialoendoscopically-assisted sialolithectomy for the hilar stones of the Wharton's duct]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012;47:157-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the clinical effects of sialoendoscopically-assisted sialolithectomy for the sialolithiasis in the hilum of the submandibular glands...
  56. Matsuzaka K, Shibahara T, Murakami S, Lee D, Shimono M, Inoue T. Acinic cell carcinoma found by recurrence of a mucous cyst in the sublingual gland. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll. 2004;45:95-8 pubmed
    This case report describes an acinic cell carcinoma found by a recurrence of a ranula in the sublingual gland...
  57. Bernhard M, Hückel D, Hamala D. [Congenital ranula in a newborn]. HNO. 2007;55:388-91 pubmed
    ..We report the case of a premature newborn with a congenital ranula in the floor of mouth...
  58. Zola M. Laser for treatment of ranula. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:1271 pubmed
  59. Schwanke T, Oomen K, April M, Ward R, Modi V. Floor of mouth masses in children: proposal of a new algorithm. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77:1489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This case series summarizes a single institution's experience with pediatric floor of mouth masses...
  60. Watanabe K, Tomiyama S, Jinnouchi K, Nakajima H, Yagi T. Local injection of OK-432 in the treatment of ranula: a case report. Ear Nose Throat J. 2002;81:97-8 pubmed
    We treated a 57-year-old woman for ranula. After aspirating the cyst's contents, we administered 0.1 KE/ml of OK-432 via local injection. One month later, the cyst had still persisted, so we repeated the procedure...
  61. Afanas ev V, Starodubtsev V. [An uncommon clinical manifestation of the sublingual salivary gland cyst]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2002;81:70-1 pubmed
    A female patient with ranula (cyst of the sublingual salivary gland) without characteristic clinical signs of ranula in the oral cavity is described. The diagnosis was made only during intervention.
  62. Baurmash H. Implant surgery and a plunging ranula. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:1901-2 pubmed
  63. Rosow D, Ward R, April M. Sialodochostomy as treatment for imperforate submandibular duct: a systematic literature review and report of two cases. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73:1613-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To better understand the diagnosis, treatments, and outcomes of congenitally imperforate salivary ducts...
  64. Aronovich S, Edwards S. A case of imperforate Wharton duct. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72:744-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The congenital ranula is a distinct entity from the more familiar variant presenting later in life...
  65. Louis P, Hudson C, Reddi S. Lesion of floor of the mouth. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;60:804-7 pubmed
  66. Pouzoulet P, Collet C, Foletti J, Guyot L, Chossegros C. [Plunging ranula. Review]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac Chir Orale. 2016;117:84-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ranula is a pseudocyst of the sublingual gland, often of unknown etiology. In few cases, it can extend to the neck when passing through the mylohyoid muscle...
  67. Harrison J, Kim A, Al Ali S, Morton R. Postmortem investigation of mylohyoid hiatus and hernia: aetiological factors of plunging ranula. Clin Anat. 2013;26:693-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and hernia were discovered in the nineteenth century and were considered to explain the origin of the plunging ranula from the sublingual gland...
  68. Danford M, Eveson J, Flood T. Papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the sublingual gland presenting as a ranula. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1992;30:270-2 pubmed
    A case is reported of a papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the sublingual gland which presented as a ranula. This is both rare in site and mode of presentation.
  69. Eyibilen A, Aladag I, Guven M. [Pediatric plunging ranula and its surgery with transoral approach: a case report]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2009;19:32-5 pubmed
    The plunging ranula is an uncommon condition which presents itself as a fluctuating swelling in the neck. It is less frequent during childhood...
  70. Skoulakis C, Khaldi L, Serletis D, Semertzidis T. A hemangioma on the floor of the mouth presenting as a ranula. Ear Nose Throat J. 2008;87:628-30 pubmed
    A painless, bluish, submucosal swelling on one side of the floor of the mouth usually indicates the presence of a ranula. Rarely, such a swelling may be caused by an inflammatory disease process in a salivary gland, a neoplasm in the ..
  71. Nahlieli O, Droma E, Eliav E, Zaguri A, Shacham R, Bar T. Salivary gland injury subsequent to implant surgery. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2008;23:556-60 pubmed
    ..The characteristics of salivary gland injury are examined, and 4 cases in which the salivary apparatus was injured or obstructed during 1 of the phases of implant therapy are presented...
  72. Bekhar H, Verhulst J. [Supra and infra hyoid midline cervical cysts or hyoglossal abnormalies: a propos of 45 cases]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2007;128:149-53 pubmed
    ..To specify the embryologic origin of the sus and sub hyoidal midline cervical cysts after studying a series of 45 patients...
  73. Cochran C, Zhou C, DeFatta R, Adelson R. An innovative method of facilitating ranula excision with methylene blue injection. Ear Nose Throat J. 2006;85:159, 163 pubmed
  74. Yuca K, Bayram I, Cankaya H, Caksen H, Kiroglu A, Kiris M. Pediatric intraoral ranulas: an analysis of nine cases. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2005;205:151-5 pubmed
    An intraoral ranula is a retention cyst arises from the sublingual gland on the floor of the mouth as a result of ductal obstruction and fluid retention. Many techniques for management of ranulas have been described in the literature...
  75. Shine N, Lacy P. Large plunging ranula with no intraoral component: a rare clinical entity. Ir Med J. 2005;98:117 pubmed
  76. Jia Y, Zhao Y, Chen X. Clinical and histopathological review of 229 cases of ranula. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2011;31:717 pubmed publisher
    ..dilation, lesion size, clinical types, nature (primary or recurrent) and duration of illness in the development of ranula. A total of 229 cases of sublingual gland cysts were treated with surgical resection from Jan. 1990 to Feb. 2010...
  77. Liu S, Jiang P, Heng W, Guo L. [Preliminary investigation of low-temperature radiofrequency ablation on treatment of tongue base cyst]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;26:694-6 pubmed
    ..To explore the feasibility of low-temperature radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of tongue base cyst...
  78. Krause E. ["Frog" in the mouth]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2007;149:5 pubmed
  79. Baurmash H. Ranula and HIV: an explanation of their relationship. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;65:1670-1; author reply 1671-2 pubmed
  80. Akyol M, Orhan D. Lingual tumors in infants: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2004;68:111-5 pubmed
    ..A case of a huge lingual cystic tumor mimicking ranula, and obstructing the upper aero-digestive tract, which was diagnosed antenatal and treated during and after the ..
  81. Zola M, Rosenberg D, Anakwa K. Treatment of a ranula using an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:823-7 pubmed
    A ranula is an extravasational cyst arising from the sublingual gland. The "cyst" cavity does not have an epithelial lining, and because of this is notoriously difficult to eliminate...
  82. Shelley M, Yeung K, Bowley N, Sneddon K. A rare case of an extensive plunging ranula: discussion of imaging, diagnosis, and management. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;93:743-6 pubmed
    A plunging ranula is a mucous extravasation cyst appearing as a swelling in the submental and submandibular regions. We describe a rare case of massive plunging ranula involving multiple tissue spaces...
  83. Clark S, Greenwood M, Fullarton M, Russell J. An unusual case of floor of mouth swelling: case report, differential diagnosis and a review of the literature. Dent Update. 2005;32:617-9 pubmed
    ..This is a rare oral lesion. A case of an intra-oral spindle cell lipoma in a 55-year-old female is reported, a differential diagnosis is presented and the histopathology is discussed...