ganglion cysts


Summary: Nodular tumor-like lesions or mucoid flesh, arising from tendon sheaths, LIGAMENTS, or JOINT CAPSULE, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. They are not true cysts as they lack epithelial wall. They are distinguished from SYNOVIAL CYSTS by the lack of communication with a joint cavity or the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.

Top Publications

  1. Krudwig W, Schulte K, Heinemann C. Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee joint: a report of 85 cases and review of the literature. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2004;12:123-9 pubmed
    ..Nine ganglion cysts were obviously solely responsible for the intermittent or chronic non-specific knee discomfort, and classified ..
  2. Nahra M, Bucchieri J. Ganglion cysts and other tumor related conditions of the hand and wrist. Hand Clin. 2004;20:249-60, v pubmed
    ..b>Ganglion cysts are the most common lesion of the hand and wrist, accounting for 50% to 70% of all masses identified...
  3. Rai V, Shenoi S, Joseph B. Ganglion cyst of the proximal tibiofibular joint causing foot drop-diagnostic problem of differentiating from neuritic leprosy. Indian J Lepr. 2005;77:152-5 pubmed
    ..Clinical examination revealed a localized cystic swelling of 1 x 1 cm in size in the region of left common peroneal nerve, with sensory loss on the lateral aspect of the left leg which was mistaken for a nerve abscess...
  4. Dinakar B, Khan T, Kumar A, Kumar A. Ganglion cyst of the anterior cruciate ligament: a case report. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2005;13:181-5 pubmed
    ..Ganglia are typically treated by arthroscopic excision and debridement. We report a case of ganglion cyst of the anterior cruciate ligament in a 16-year-old man...
  5. Spinner R, Scheithauer B, Desy N, Rock M, Holdt F, Amrami K. Coexisting secondary intraneural and vascular adventitial ganglion cysts of joint origin: a causal rather than a coincidental relationship supporting an articular theory. Skeletal Radiol. 2006;35:734-44 pubmed
    ..To introduce the clinical entity of an intraneural ganglion cyst coexisting with a vascular adventitial cyst arising from the same joint...
  6. Jawish R, Nemer C, Assoum H, Haddad A. Ganglion cyst of the anterior cruciate ligament in children. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2009;18:234-7 pubmed publisher
    The incidence of ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has increased significantly since the advent of MRI, but it remains exceptional in children...
  7. Battaglia T, Freilich A, Diduch D. An intra-articular knee cyst in a 2-year-old associated with an aberrant anterior cruciate ligament. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007;15:36-8 pubmed
    ..The cyst was successfully treated with arthroscopic debridement. Proposed pathology and treatment recommendations for intra-articular cysts are reviewed...
  8. Rodríguez Valentín R, López González I, Jorquera R, Labarca P, Zurita M, Reynaud E. Oviduct contraction in Drosophila is modulated by a neural network that is both, octopaminergic and glutamatergic. J Cell Physiol. 2006;209:183-98 pubmed
    ..Our work provides the first evidence that adult abdominal type II visceral innervations co-express Glu and OA and allows us to re-evaluate the previous model of neuronal network controlling insect oviduct contraction...
  9. Marshman L, Benjamin J, David K, King A, Chawda S. "Disc cysts" and "posterior longitudinal ligament ganglion cysts": synonymous entities? Report of three cases and literature review. Neurosurgery. 2005;57:E818 pubmed
    ..nonspecific, most have been designated posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) or annulus fibrosus (AF) "ganglion cysts." Recently, "disc cysts" have been distinguished as a separate entity, mostly on the grounds of ..

More Information


  1. Abboud J, Silverberg D, Glaser D, Ramsey M, Williams G. Arthroscopy effectively treats ganglion cysts of the shoulder. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2006;444:129-33 pubmed
    ..However, there were no differences in outcome when comparing the group that had decompression with the group that had decompression and labral repair for an associated superior labral anterior posterior tear...
  2. Shetty G, Nha K, Patil S, Chae D, Kang K, Yoon J, et al. Ganglion cysts of the posterior cruciate ligament. Knee. 2008;15:325-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Ganglion cysts of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are uncommon lesions found incidentally on MRI and arthroscopy...
  3. Crawford A, O DONNELL M, Crowe O, Eliashar E, Smith R. Digital sheath synovial ganglion cysts in horses. Vet Surg. 2011;40:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the clinical features of horses with fluid-filled masses associated with the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) and outcome after surgery...
  4. Lunhao B, Yu S, Jiashi W. Diagnosis and treatment of ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2011;131:1053-7 pubmed publisher
    To explore the diagnosis and treatment of ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) of the knees.
  5. Pedrinelli A, Castellana F, Bragança de Vasconcellos Fontes R, Coelho R, Alvaro de Menezes L. Anterior cruciate ligament ganglion: case report. Sao Paulo Med J. 2002;120:195-7 pubmed
    ..Not all ganglia diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging need to undergo surgical treatment: only those that cause clinical signs and symptoms do. Surgical results are considered good or excellent in the vast majority of cases...
  6. Van den Dungen S, Marchesi S, Ezzedine R, Bindou D, Lorea P. Relationship between dorsal ganglion cysts of the wrist and intraosseous ganglion cysts of the carpal bones. Acta Orthop Belg. 2005;71:535-9 pubmed
    Soft tissue ganglion cysts are the most common benign tumours of the wrist; their pathogenesis remains controversial...
  7. Kakutani K, Yoshiya S, Matsui N, Yamamoto T, Kurosaka M. An intraligamentous ganglion cyst of the anterior cruciate ligament after a traumatic event. Arthroscopy. 2003;19:1019-22 pubmed
    ..An arthroscopic aspiration of the cyst material resulted in resolution of symptoms to preserve satisfactory knee function. The patient remains asymptomatic 25 months after surgery...
  8. Westerheide K, Karzel R. Ganglion cysts of the shoulder: technique of arthroscopic decompression and fixation of associated type II superior labral anterior to posterior lesions. Orthop Clin North Am. 2003;34:521-8 pubmed
    b>Ganglion cysts of the shoulder and concomitant suprascapular nerve compression should be considered in the differential diagnosis of shoulder pain. They are associated commonly with labral tears, most commonly SLAP lesions...
  9. Wang G, Jacobson J, Feng F, Girish G, Caoili E, Brandon C. Sonography of wrist ganglion cysts: variable and noncystic appearances. J Ultrasound Med. 2007;26:1323-8; quiz 1330-1 pubmed
    In our clinical practice, we have noted wrist ganglion cysts that do not fulfill the criteria for simple cysts. This study retrospectively evaluated the sonographic features of wrist ganglia.
  10. Drosos G, Pozo J. Large extrasynovial intracapsular ganglia of the knee: a report of 3 cases. Arthroscopy. 2005;21:1362-5 pubmed
    ..This seems to be a rare condition; a review of the English-language literature revealed no reports of similar cases...
  11. Vemaraju S, Kantarci H, Padanad M, Riley B. A spatial and temporal gradient of Fgf differentially regulates distinct stages of neural development in the zebrafish inner ear. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1003068 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus Fgf signaling renders SAG development self-regulating, ensuring steady production of an appropriate number of neurons as the larva grows...
  12. Edwards S, Johansen J. Prospective outcomes and associations of wrist ganglion cysts resected arthroscopically. J Hand Surg Am. 2009;34:395-400 pubmed publisher
    To prospectively evaluate objective and subjective outcomes of arthroscopic dorsal wrist ganglion cyst resection, and to identify and examine intra-articular pathologies associated with ganglion cysts.
  13. Parish E, Dixon P, Cross M. Ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligament: a series of 15 cases. Arthroscopy. 2005;21:445-7 pubmed
    To increase awareness of the presence of ganglion cysts of the anterior cruciate ligament and to consider this diagnosis in any knee that has lost range of motion (ROM) in the absence of osteoarthritis.
  14. Sarimo J, Rantanen J, Helttula I, Orava S. Intra-articular cysts and ganglia of the knee: a report of nine patients. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2005;13:44-7 pubmed
    ..We believe that intra-articular cysts and ganglia of the knee can be symptomatic, and excellent or good results after cyst removal can be expected especially when there is little additional pathology...
  15. Bergin D, Morrison W, Carrino J, Nallamshetty S, Bartolozzi A. Anterior cruciate ligament ganglia and mucoid degeneration: coexistence and clinical correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;182:1283-7 pubmed
    ..The purpose of our study was to describe the MR appearance and coexistence of anterior cruciate ligament ganglia with mucoid degeneration and to address the clinical significance of these entities...
  16. Wang H, Spinner R, Amrami K. Adventitial cyst of the radial artery with a wrist joint connection. J Hand Surg Am. 2007;32:126-30 pubmed
  17. Spinner R, Wang H. The first described joint-associated intraneural ganglion cyst. Neurosurgery. 2011;69:1291-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Considered with a modern perspective, this historical case solidifies the articular (synovial) origin for these unusual intraneural cysts, a finding that has important treatment implications. ..
  18. Ly J, Barrett T, Beall D, Bertagnolli R. MRI diagnosis of occult ganglion compression of the posterior interosseous nerve and associated supinator muscle pathology. Clin Imaging. 2005;29:362-3 pubmed
    ..We will describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis of an interesting case of supinator atrophy secondary to compression of the posterior interosseous branch of the radial nerve. A brief review of this entity follows. ..
  19. Spinner R, Wang H, Hébert Blouin M, Skinner J, Amrami K. Sciatic cross-over in patients with peroneal and tibial intraneural ganglia confirmed by knee MR arthrography. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is important in clarifying the potential paths of propagation of intraneural cysts at points of major bifurcation. ..
  20. Waldecker U. Unusual location of a posttraumatic ganglion and rupture of the peroneus brevis tendon: a case report. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2005;44:163-5 pubmed
    ..The ganglion developed from a longitudinal tear in the tendon substance after an inversion ankle sprain. This case is reported because of the unusual location. The clinical course and surgical treatment is also discussed. ..
  21. Levine B, Egiseder W. Heterotopic ossification after palmar ganglion cyst excision: a case report. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2006;35:575-7 pubmed
  22. Tekeoglu I, Dogan A. Electroacupuncture in the treatment of a ganglion of the wrist--a case report. Acupunct Med. 2006;24:29-32 pubmed
    ..Although the mechanism is obscure, it is our impression that electroacupuncture may have a local action on such cysts in addition to needle drainage. ..
  23. Chung J, Katayama H, Dircksen H. New functions of arthropod bursicon: inducing deposition and thickening of new cuticle and hemocyte granulation in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46299 pubmed publisher
  24. Di Stadio A, Pegoraro V, Giaretta L, Dipietro L, Marozzo R, Angelini C. Hearing impairment in MELAS: new prospective in clinical use of microRNA, a systematic review. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2018;13:35 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that due to their accuracy and sensitivity, miRs might help monitor the progression of SNHL in patients with MELAS. ..
  25. Tian R, Yang W, Xue Q, Gao L, Huo J, Ren D, et al. Rutin ameliorates diabetic neuropathy by lowering plasma glucose and decreasing oxidative stress via Nrf2 signaling pathway in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;771:84-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, rutin produces significant protection in diabetic neuropathy, which makes it an attractive candidate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. ..
  26. Wu K, Hu M, Huang S, Kuo K, Yang S. Giant ganglionic cyst of the hip as a rare cause of sciatica. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;14:484-7 pubmed publisher
    ..After resection of the cyst, the patient's symptoms resolved completely. This case highlights the importance of a detailed clinical examination for patients with multiple degenerative joint diseases. ..
  27. Mileti J, Largacha M, O Driscoll S. Radial tunnel syndrome caused by ganglion cyst: treatment by arthroscopic cyst decompression. Arthroscopy. 2004;20:e39-44 pubmed
    ..We present a case of radial tunnel syndrome caused by a ganglion cyst of the proximal radioulnar joint that was treated using arthroscopic excision of the cyst and decompression of the radial nerve. ..
  28. Nakano M, Watanabe Y, Masutani M. A case of extensor digitorum brevis manus. Dermatol Online J. 2003;9:21 pubmed
    ..MRI scans can help to distinguish EDBM from tumors. EDBM should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue masses on the dorsal aspect of the hand. ..
  29. Stickler D, Morley K, Massey E. Sural neuropathy: etiologies and predisposing factors. Muscle Nerve. 2006;34:482-4 pubmed
    ..In patients without a history of trauma, structural causes, such as schwannoma or ganglionic cysts and vasculitis, should be considered and managed as appropriate. ..
  30. Spinner R, Dellon A, Rosson G, Anderson S, Amrami K. Tibial intraneural ganglia in the tarsal tunnel: Is there a joint connection?. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2007;46:27-31 pubmed
  31. Levarek R, Nolan P. Temporomandibular Joint Ganglion Cyst: A Unique Case of Complete Resolution Following Subtotal Excision. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016;74:1783-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Ganglion cysts of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are a rare entity. Most often, ganglions present in anatomic regions, such as the hand, wrist, knee, foot, or ankle...
  32. Rezaval C, Pavlou H, Dornan A, Chan Y, Kravitz E, Goodwin S. Neural circuitry underlying Drosophila female postmating behavioral responses. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1155-65 pubmed publisher
  33. Muncibì F, Carulli C, Paez D, Fidecicchi F, Roselli G. A case of bilateral extensor digitorum brevis manus. Chir Organi Mov. 2008;92:133-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Being reported in literature as occasionally bilateral, we decided to perform, 3 months later, an MRI in the contralateral asymptomatic wrist: it was possible to reveal the presence of a similar but asymptomatic mass. ..
  34. Anderson S, Steinbach L, Stauffer E, Voegelin E. MRI for differentiating ganglion and synovitis in the chronic painful wrist. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186:812-8 pubmed
    ..Four main criteria were useful: margin, shape, internal structure, and enhancement after administration of contrast material, with shape and internal structure being most helpful. ..
  35. Chick G, Hollevoet N, Victor J, Bianchi S. The role of imaging in isolated benign peripheral nerve tumors: A practical review for surgeons. Hand Surg Rehabil. 2016;35:320-329 pubmed publisher
    ..Solitary nerve tumors are primarily schwannomas, but other rare tumors may be present such as intraneural ganglion cysts of controversial origin...
  36. Shimokobe H, Gotoh M, Mitsui Y, Yoshikawa E, Kume S, Okawa T, et al. Ganglion cyst in the supraspinous fossa: arthroscopically undetectable cases. Kurume Med J. 2013;60:21-4 pubmed
    ..In this report, we present 2 cases in which ganglion cysts in the supraspinous fossa were undetectable during arthroscopy...
  37. Spinner R, Amrami K. Intraneural ganglion of the suprascapular nerve: Case report. J Hand Surg Am. 2006;31:1698-9 pubmed
  38. Yassin M, Garti A, Weissbrot M, Heller E, Robinson D. Treatment of anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome through an endoscopic or open technique. Foot (Edinb). 2015;25:148-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical diagnosis supported by imaging studies demonstrated osteophytes, ganglions or localized synovitis. Endoscopic treatment can be performed safely provided a clear-cut single compressing element is identified. ..
  39. Chim H, Yam A, Teoh L. Elbow ganglion arising from medial epicondyle pseudarthrosis. Hand Surg. 2007;12:155-8 pubmed
  40. Tai P, Li T. Lumbar Intradural Ganglion Cyst. World Neurosurg. 2016;88:691.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    Lumbar intraspinal ganglion cysts are a rare cause of lumbar radiculopathy. These cysts are often extradural and next to facet joints. Sometimes they are related to ligamentum flavum or posterior longitudinal ligament...
  41. Vasilevska V, Kainberger F. Periosteal ganglion of the tibia. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2005;117:628 pubmed
  42. Okada K, Saito H, Nishida J, Miyakoshi N, Takahashi S, Nagasawa H, et al. Discal cyst associated with myxoid change and apoptosis of herniated disc materials: a case report. Ups J Med Sci. 2007;112:39-47 pubmed
    ..The current case was considered a histological variant of discal cyst. Myxoid degeneration of herniated disc material with diffuse apoptotic change of chondrocytes was probably associated with the formation of discal cyst. ..
  43. Egekwu N, Sonenshine D, Garman H, Barshis D, Cox N, Bissinger B, et al. Comparison of synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors and their gene expression in response to feeding in Ixodes scapularis (Ixodidae) vs. Ornithodoros turicata (Argasidae). Insect Mol Biol. 2016;25:72-92 pubmed publisher
    ..scapularis. These differences are consistent with the slow vs. rapid action of the pharyngeal pump in the two species. ..
  44. Cok O, Deniz S, Eker H, Oguzkurt L, Aribogan A. Management of isolated infraorbital neuralgia by ultrasound-guided infraorbital nerve block with combination of steroid and local anesthetic. J Clin Anesth. 2017;37:146-148 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that ultrasound-guided infraorbital nerve block with dexamethasone and lidocaine combination may present as an initial interventional treatment option in patients with isolated infraorbital neuralgia. ..
  45. Schwabegger A, Shafighi M, Gurunluoglu R. An unusual case of thigh adductor weakness: obturator nerve ganglion. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:775 pubmed
  46. Sinha S, Pinder R, Majumder S. The largest reported epineural ganglion of the ulnar nerve causing cubital tunnel syndrome: case report and review of the literature. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2013;66:e23-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Surgery demonstrated a 11 × 3 cm ganglion which was successfully removed. Post-operatively the patient demonstrated partial recovery with no recurrence of the ganglion. ..
  47. Li X, Huang Y, Zhang Y, He N. Evaluation of microRNA Expression in Patients with Herpes Zoster. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed
    ..Additionally, these findings also suggest that six of the altered miRNA could be potentially used as biomarkers to test for latent HZ infection. ..
  48. Kayalar M, Vatansever A, Bal E, Toros T, Ozaksar K, Ada S. [The importance of finger extension test in the diagnosis of occult wrist ganglion]. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2007;41:42-7 pubmed
    ..Finger extension test is an important diagnostic tool for occult ganglion with 92% accuracy. Both diagnosis and treatment of occult ganglion cysts have become easier by evolving diagnostic tools.
  49. Lundberg P, Welander P, Openshaw H, Nalbandian C, Edwards C, Moldawer L, et al. A locus on mouse chromosome 6 that determines resistance to herpes simplex virus also influences reactivation, while an unlinked locus augments resistance of female mice. J Virol. 2003;77:11661-73 pubmed
    ..Hrl has been mapped to a roughly 5-centimorgan interval on c6, and current efforts are focused on obtaining a high-resolution map for Hrl. ..
  50. Kili S, Perkins R. Common peroneal nerve ganglion following trauma. Injury. 2004;35:938-9 pubmed
  51. Spinner R, Wang H, Howe B, Colbert S, Amrami K. Deep ulnar intraneural ganglia in the palm. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2012;154:1755-63 pubmed publisher
    While extraneural ganglion cysts are common and well known, intraneural ganglia are rare and misunderstood.
  52. Johnston J, Lyne D. Intraneural ganglion cyst of the peroneal nerve in a four-year-old girl: a case report. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007;27:944-6 pubmed publisher
    Intraneural ganglion cysts of the peroneal nerve are rare, usually occurring in adult men with a typical presentation of knee or proximal leg pain preceding motor weakness and/or sensory disturbances in the peroneal nervous distribution...
  53. Naam N. Synovial fistula as a complication of recurrent dorsal wrist ganglion excision: case report. J Hand Surg Am. 2012;37:1225-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A wrist synovial fistula is rare. The author reports a patient who developed a synovial fistula following excision of a recurrent dorsal wrist ganglion...
  54. Vernino S. Neuronal acetylcholine receptor autoimmunity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1132:124-8 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, antibodies against alpha7-type AChRs have been identified in a few patients with encephalitis. It is still unclear if antibodies against receptors in the central nervous system can directly cause disease...
  55. Knossalla F, Nicolas V, Tegenthoff M. Suprascapular nerve entrapment in a canoeist. Arch Neurol. 2006;63:781 pubmed
  56. Tomlinson P, Field J. Morbidity of hand and wrist Ganglia. Hand Surg. 2006;11:5-8 pubmed
    ..However, the majority of ganglia cause little pain or disability. Consequently, referral by General Practitioners should be confined to those with pain, disability or failure of conservative management...
  57. Bergman S, Brownlee N, Geisinger K, Ward W, Pettenati M, Koty P, et al. Diagnostic pitfalls associated with fine-needle aspiration biopsy in a patient with the myxoid variant of monophasic fibrous synovial sarcoma. Diagn Cytopathol. 2006;34:761-7 pubmed
    ..We report the cytologic features of a myxoid monophasic fibrous SS, and discuss its distinction from other benign and malignant myxoid soft tissue neoplasms...
  58. Miskovsky S, Kaeding C, Weis L. Proximal tibiofibular joint ganglion cysts: excision, recurrence, and joint arthrodesis. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:1022-8 pubmed
    ..Cyst recurrence has been a problem. This study reviews one of the largest series of patients with proximal tibiofibular joint cysts and evaluates the role of a new surgical option, proximal tibiofibular joint fusion...
  59. Talawadekar G, Damodaran P, Jain S. Hourglass ganglion cyst of the foot: a case report. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2010;49:489.e11-2 pubmed publisher
    ..This variation needs to be considered when planning surgical excision, which could be aided by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging...
  60. Lakdawala A, Ireland J. Giant ganglion formation in the quadriceps femoris tendon following total knee replacement. Int J Clin Pract. 2004;58:990-1 pubmed
    ..The ganglion cyst was successfully excised. The formation of a ganglion cyst following total knee replacement has not been reported...
  61. Minowa H, Hirayama K, Bando Y, Yasuhara H, Ohgitani A. Effective method for screening for respiratory inhibition after crying in infants. Pediatr Int. 2011;53:187-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to establish an effective screening method for respiratory inhibition after crying (RIAC), we prospectively studied the correlations between infant RIAC and perinatal factors...
  62. Burke F, Bradley M. A proposal justifying an alternative referral practice from primary care for three common hand surgery diagnoses. Postgrad Med J. 2007;83:616-7 pubmed
  63. Spinner R, Amrami K. The balloon sign: Adn M, Hamlat A, Morandi X, Guegan Y (2006) Intraneural ganglian cyst of the tibial nerve. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 148: 885-890. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2006;148:1224-6 pubmed
  64. Omoumi P, de Gheldere A, Leemrijse T, Galant C, Van den Bergh P, Malghem J, et al. Value of computed tomography arthrography with delayed acquisitions in the work-up of ganglion cysts of the tarsal tunnel: report of three cases. Skeletal Radiol. 2010;39:381-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Ganglion cysts are a common cause of tarsal tunnel syndrome. As in other locations, these cysts are believed to communicate with neighboring joints...
  65. Colyar M. Ganglion cyst aspiration. Adv Nurse Pract. 2005;13:19 pubmed
  66. Endo J, Yamaguchi S, Sasho T. Tendoscopic Excision of an Intratendinous Ganglion in the Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon: A Case Report. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2016;55:345-7 pubmed publisher
    Intratendinous ganglion cysts are rare lesions of unknown etiology that originate within a tendon. We report the case of a 34-year-old female with an intratendinous ganglion in the plantar portion of the flexor hallucis longus tendon...
  67. Furmanczyk P, Hughes S, Walsh J, Bass J, McFarlane J, Argenyi Z. Cutaneous ganglioneuroma associated with overlying hyperkeratotic epidermal changes: a report of 2 cases. Am J Dermatopathol. 2008;30:600-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Familiarity with these findings is important in establishing a diagnosis. The significance of the associated hyperkeratosis remains speculative...
  68. Wilkins B, Hesse C, Sviggum H, Nicholson W, Moyer T, Joyner M, et al. Alternative to ganglionic blockade with anticholinergic and alpha-2 receptor agents. Clin Auton Res. 2007;17:77-84 pubmed
    ..05). Heart rate only decreased 1 +/- 2 bpm during GLY: -DEX: and 1 +/- 1 bpm with TMP. Taken together, our results suggest that GLY: -DEX: is a reasonable alternative to TMP for baroreflex inhibition...
  69. Sawyer G, DaSilva M, Akelman E. Volar wrist ganglion excision through the flexor carpi radialis sheath. Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg. 2012;16:145-7 pubmed publisher
  70. Ali Z, Busaidy K, Wilson J. Unusual presentation of a ganglion cyst of the temporomandibular joint: case report and distinction from synovial cyst. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;64:1300-2 pubmed
  71. Kessler M, Stoffel K, Oswald A, Stutz G, Gaechter A. The SLAP lesion as a reason for glenolabral cysts: a report of five cases and review of the literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2007;127:287-92 pubmed
    ..There is agglomerated appearance of these cysts in combination with SLAP lesions. Hypothesis is SLAP lesions can lead to cysts in this region and should be repaired...
  72. Kim J, Ihn Y, Kim J, Chun K, Sung M, Cho K. Non-traumatic peroneal nerve palsy: MRI findings. Clin Radiol. 2007;62:58-64 pubmed
    ..To present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of non-traumatic peroneal nerve palsy and to evaluate the usefulness of MRI in patients with non-traumatic peroneal nerve palsy...
  73. Kuwano Y, Ishizaki K, Watanabe R, Nanko H. Efficacy of diagnostic ultrasonography of lipomas, epidermal cysts, and ganglions. Arch Dermatol. 2009;145:761-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the efficacy of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of subcutaneous benign lesions...
  74. Cebesoy O. Intraosseous ganglion of the talus treated with the talonavicular joint approach without exposing the ankle joint. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2007;97:424-7 pubmed
    ..One month after the operation, the patient had an excellent clinical outcome. This approach and technique can be used to treat other lesions of the talus that do not involve the joint space...
  75. Rathod C, Nemade A, Badole C. Treatment of dorsal wrist ganglia by transfixation technique. Niger J Clin Pract. 2011;14:445-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of dorsal wrist ganglia varies from simple reassurance to excision and advanced endoscopic excision. Irrespective of the treatment modality, recurrence is a common problem...
  76. Merriman T. Ganglion of the groin in a child. Pediatr Surg Int. 2006;22:404 pubmed
  77. Skiebe P, Dreger M, Borner J, Meseke M, Weckwerth W. Immunocytochemical and molecular data guide peptide identification by mass spectrometry: orcokinin and orcomyotropin-related peptides in the stomatogastric nervous system of several crustacean species. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2003;49:851-71 pubmed
    ..In the crab Cancer pagurus, five orcokinins and an orcomyotropin-related peptide were unambigously identified, including the previously unknown peptide variant [Ser9-Val13]-orcokinin ([M+H]+ = 1532.8 Da)...
  78. Macdonald D, Holt G, Vass K, Marsh A, Kumar C. The differential diagnosis of foot lumps: 101 cases treated surgically in North Glasgow over 4 years. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2007;89:272-5 pubmed
    ..There are a wide variety of different lesions which present as lumps of the foot. There have been very few studies which look at the presenting characteristics or the differential diagnosis of such lesions...
  79. Scherger B, Hinkenjann B, Klein M, Ostermann P. [Extensive hip joint ganglion as a rare cause of chronic pain in the groin]. Orthopade. 2007;36:868-70 pubmed
    ..These ganglia can grow very large without compressing vessels or nerves. They should be included in the diagnosis when patients present with chronic pain in the groin...
  80. Amrami K, Desy N, Stanley D, Skinner J, Felmlee J, Barger A, et al. Evaluation of ganglion cysts using vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction (VIPR). J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007;26:768-72 pubmed
    ..The proper preoperative diagnosis and identification of this joint connection for ganglion cysts is important for patient treatment and outcome...
  81. Kishimoto K, Akisue T, Fujimoto T, Kawamoto T, Hara H, Hitora T, et al. Intra-tendinous ganglion in the long head of the biceps humeri. Skeletal Radiol. 2008;37:263-5 pubmed
    ..MRI scans have important implications for surgical planning and treatment. After excision of the ganglion, the tendon remaining could be repaired. Five months after surgery, there was no sign of recurrence...
  82. Liu K, Duan W, Ma C, Xie Y. [Dendritic projections from meridian-related motoneurons to sympathic preganglion neurons in the spinal cord of rats]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2013;38:447-52, 458 pubmed
    ..The present study was designed to investigate the dendrite projections of meridian-related motoneurons among the motoneurons and sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord...
  83. Rabah R. Total colonic aganglionosis: case report, practical diagnostic approach and pitfalls. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010;134:1467-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of several uniformly distributed clusters of mature ganglion cells and lack of nerve hypertrophy are required to avoid connections at the transition zone...
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    b>Ganglion cysts have been previously described throughout the body, most commonly about the wrist, hand, knee, ankle, and feet. When symptomatic, they may interfere with joint mechanics, resulting in snapping, catching, and locking...
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    ..The use of this technique has resulted in a 77.9% mean resolution in size with 50% of the patients showing complete resolution. There were no recurrences noted in the 2 year follow-up...
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    b>Ganglion cysts, soft-tissue masses that commonly occur about the wrist, are often excised without imaging or biopsy...
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