Summary: A non-neoplastic cyst of the MEIBOMIAN GLANDS of the eyelid.

Top Publications

  1. Shiramizu K, Kreiger A, McCannel C. Severe visual loss caused by ocular perforation during chalazion removal. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:204-5 pubmed
    To report two cases of ocular perforation during chalazion removal procedures leading to severe vision loss.
  2. Stupp T, Mewe I, Eltze E, Pavlidis M, Thanos S. [Chronic inflammatory tumor of the upper lid in a young male patient]. Ophthalmologe. 2004;101:194-6 pubmed
  3. Dhaliwal U, Bhatia A. A rationale for therapeutic decision-making in chalazia. Orbit. 2005;24:227-30 pubmed
    Cytologically, a chalazion may be either a mixed-cell or a suppurating granuloma. Treatment includes incision & curettage or intralesional steroid injection. The choice of treatment is based on clinical experience.
  4. Gerber D, Meyer P, Messerli J, Piffaretti J, Haefliger I. [Masquerade of sebaceous gland carcinoma as a rapidly recurring "chalazion", a case report]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2001;218:391-3 pubmed
    ..Demonstration of the importance of surgical excision and histological examination in presence of an apparently harmless tumoral alteration of the eyelids...
  5. Cosar C, Rapuano C, Cohen E, Laibson P. Chalazion as a cause of decreased vision after LASIK. Cornea. 2001;20:890-2 pubmed
    To describe a post-LASIK patient with decreased vision and a chalazion of the upper eyelid.
  6. Biuk D, Matić S, Barać J, Vuković M, Biuk E, Matić M. Chalazion management--surgical treatment versus triamcinolon application. Coll Antropol. 2013;37 Suppl 1:247-50 pubmed was to compare the length of treatment and efficiency of applied therapy in two groups of patients with chalazion who underwent surgical procedure or got triamcinolone application in chalazion...
  7. Pavicić Astalos J, Ivekovic R, Knezevic T, Krolo I, Novak Laus K, Tedeschi Reiner E, et al. Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection for chalazion. Acta Clin Croat. 2010;49:43-8 pubmed was to evaluate the efficacy of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection in primary and recurrent chalazion. The study included 30 patients with primary and recurrent chalazion (37 cases) and 24 patients as a control ..
  8. Ho S, Lai J. Subcutaneous steroid injection as treatment for chalazion: prospective case series. Hong Kong Med J. 2002;8:18-20 pubmed
    To study the efficacy of subcutaneous steroid injection in the treatment of chalazion.
  9. Li R, Lai J, Ng J, Law R, Lau E, Lam D. Efficacy of lignocaine 2% gel in chalazion surgery. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87:157-9 pubmed
    To determine whether topical 2% lignocaine (lidocaine) gel is an effective anaesthetic agent for chalazion surgery.

More Information


  1. Hosal B, Zilelioglu G. Ocular complication of intralesional corticosteroid injection of a chalazion. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2003;13:798-9 pubmed
    To report a major complication of intralesional corticosteroid injection for the treatment of a chalazion.
  2. Jackson T, Beun L. A prospective study of cost, patient satisfaction, and outcome of treatment of chalazion by medical and nursing staff. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84:782-5 pubmed
    ..To study prospectively the outcome of conservative and surgical treatment of chalazia provided by medical and nursing staff...
  3. Agliano M, Lorenzoni P, Volpi N, Massai L, Carbotti P, Fruschelli M, et al. Lymphatic vessels in human eyelids: an immunohistological study in dermatochalasis and chalazion. Lymphology. 2008;41:29-39 pubmed
    ..and expression of endothelin (ET-1) axis molecules in human eyelids affected by an inflammatory state (chalazion) and an age-related degenerative condition (dermatochalasis)...
  4. Rawlings N, Brownstein S, Jordan D. Merkel cell carcinoma masquerading as a chalazion. Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42:469-70 pubmed
    A 62-year-old woman presented with a large rapidly growing violaceous mass initially diagnosed as a chalazion. Histopathologic examination disclosed Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Radiotherapy was not tolerated...
  5. Chung C, Lai J, Li P. Subcutaneous extralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection versus conservative management in the treatment of chalazion. Hong Kong Med J. 2006;12:278-81 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy of subcutaneous extralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection versus conservative treatment for chalazion.
  6. Ben Simon G, Huang L, Nakra T, Schwarcz R, McCann J, Goldberg R. Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection for primary and recurrent chalazia: is it really effective?. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:913-7 pubmed
    ..Chalazia that fail to respond to 2 or 3 injections are more likely to benefit from surgical excision. It may be considered as a first treatment in cases where diagnosis is straightforward. ..
  7. Gogate P, Biswas P, Natarajan S, Ramamurthy D, Bhattacharya D, Golnik K, et al. Residency evaluation and adherence design study: Young ophthalmologists' perception of their residency programs - Clinical and surgical skills. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:452-460 pubmed publisher
    ..5 (43.5), 15; dacryocystectomy 20.3 (38.1), 4; dacryocystorhinostomy 11.7 (26.2), 2; chalazion 46.4 (48.3), 30; trabeculectomies 4 (14.9), 0; strabismus correction 1.4 (4...
  8. Coroi M, Roşca E, Mutiu G, Coroi T, Bonta M. Eyelid tumors: histopathological and clinical study performed in County Hospital of Oradea between 2000-2007. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2010;51:111-5 pubmed
    ..Early diagnosis of these lesions can determine a favorable prognosis, especially in cases of malignant tumors. ..
  9. Crama N, Toolens A, van der Meer J, Cruysberg J. Giant chalazia in the hyperimmunoglobulinemia E (hyper-IgE) syndrome. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2004;14:258-60 pubmed
    ..Despite surgical incision new giant chalazia arose. Recurrent multiple giant chalazia may occur as an ophthalmic feature of the hyper-IgE syndrome. ..
  10. Agarwal P, Ahmed T, Diaper C. Retained soft contact lens masquerading as a chalazion: a case report. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2013;61:80-1 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, misplaced soft contact lens masquerading as a chalazion has not been reported in the literature...
  11. Aoki M, Kawana S. Bilateral chalazia of the lower eyelids associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2002;82:386-7 pubmed
  12. Nishio A, Kitami Y, Nakada T, Sueki H, Iijima M. Chalazion masquerading as sporotrichosis. J Dermatol. 2006;33:306-7 pubmed
  13. Yuen K, Cheng A, Chan W. Injections for chalazia?. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:354-5; author reply 355 pubmed
  14. Cunniffe M, Medel Jiménez R, Gonzalez Candial M. Topical antiglaucoma treatment with prostaglandin analogues may precipitate meibomian gland disease. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27:e128-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A retrospective study of 43 patients presenting for incision and curettage of chalazion to the operating theatre over a 2-year period was performed...
  15. Arbabi E, Kelly R, Carrim Z. Chalazion. BMJ. 2010;341:c4044 pubmed publisher
  16. Mustafa T, Oriafage I. Three methods of treatment of chalazia in children. Saudi Med J. 2001;22:968-72 pubmed
    This is a pilot prospective study undertaken to compare 3 methods of chalazion treatment, namely intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection, incision and curettage and the combination of incision, curettage and intralesional ..
  17. Gray M, Palileo C, Sheridan R. Cellular neurothekeoma of the eyelid in a 6-year-old boy. J AAPOS. 2016;20:374-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical presentation of such lesions is similar to a chalazion or epidermal inclusion cyst...
  18. Raskin E, Speaker M, Laibson P. Blepharitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1992;6:777-87 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the clinical presentation, classification, diagnosis, etiology and pathogenesis, and treatment of blepharitis...
  19. Henningsen E, Bygum A. Budesonide-induced periorificial dermatitis presenting as chalazion and blepharitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2011;28:596-7 pubmed publisher lesions presented in the eye surroundings, leading to diagnostic difficulties and treatment of presumed chalazion and staphylococcal folliculitis...
  20. Sendrowski D, Maher J. Thermal cautery after chalazion surgery and its effect on recurrence rates. Optom Vis Sci. 2000;77:605-7 pubmed
    b>Chalazion surgery is a common minor surgical procedure used to treat internal chalazia after conservative measures have failed. Complications are infrequent and generally easily managed with minimal problems...
  21. Cheng K, Law A, Guo M, Wieland L, Shen X, Lao L. Acupuncture for acute hordeolum. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;2:CD011075 pubmed publisher
    ..Recurrences are very common. As long as an internal hordeolum remains unresolved, it can develop into a chalazion or generalized eyelid cellulitis...
  22. Donaldson M, Gole G. Amblyopia due to inflamed chalazion in a 13-month old infant. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005;33:332-3 pubmed
    Meibomian gland cysts (chalazia) are very common lesions in childhood and are not thought of as visually threatening lesions. A case is reported of dense amblyopia and secondary exotropia resulting from an upper eyelid chalazion.
  23. Camezind P, Robert P. [Eyelid pathology]. Rev Prat. 2004;54:1371-3 pubmed
  24. Sandramouli S, Gonglore B. Triamcinolone for chalazia. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:889; author reply 889 pubmed
  25. D Hermies F, Fayet B, Meyer A, Morel X, Halhal M, Elmaleh C, et al. [Chalazion mimicking an eyelid tumor]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004;27:202-5 pubmed found an inflammatory lesion with epithelioid and giant cells, evidence of a granuloma, suggesting the diagnosis of chalazion. This case shows the various clinical presentations of this common and benign disease of the eyelid.
  26. Nemet A, Vinker S, Kaiserman I. Associated morbidity of chalazia. Cornea. 2011;30:1376-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Chalazion may be associated with some local and systemic conditions. We studied the prevalence of various conditions among patients with chalazion...
  27. Ozer P, Gurkan A, Kurtul B, Kabatas E, Beken S. Comparative Clinical Outcomes of Pediatric Patients Presenting With Eyelid Nodules of Idiopathic Facial Aseptic Granuloma, Hordeola, and Chalazia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:206-11 pubmed publisher
    ..idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG), and to compare them with children having acute hordeolum and chalazion. Duration of the lesion, localization, presence of coexisting facial nodules, management strategies, and ..
  28. Mansour A. Injections for chalazia?. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:353-4; author reply 354 pubmed
  29. Osayande O, Mahmoud A, Bolaji B. Comparison of topical lidocaine [2% gel] and injectable lidocaine [2% solution] for incision and curettage of chalazion in Ilorin, Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2010;17:270-6 pubmed
    ..2% lidocaine gel with injectable 2% lidocaine solution as local anaesthetics for incision and curettage of chalazion. Overa 12 month period, 61 patients with unilateral chalazia who were scheduled for incision and curettage ..
  30. Brosa Morros H, Subirà O, Gomà Gàllego M, Paúles Villar M, Mascaró Zamora F, Abia Serrano M. Ulcerative granuloma of the eyelid as the initial manifestation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis): A case report. Orbit. 2017;36:243-246 pubmed publisher
    A 56-year-old-man presented a 2-month history of chalazion in the eyelids without response to treatment and with an inconclusive biopsy...
  31. Read R, Lucas J. Lipogranulomatous conjunctivitis: clinical findings from 21 eyes in 13 cats. Vet Ophthalmol. 2001;4:93-8 pubmed
    ..A possible role of actinic radiation in the etiopathogenesis of lesions is discussed. ..
  32. Sammartino M, Ferro G. Cuffed oropharyngeal airway: an option during paediatric ophthalmic surgery. Paediatr Anaesth. 2002;12:559-60 pubmed
  33. Jin X, Fan F, Zhang F, Zhao Y, Hu R. A treatment method for chronic suppurative lacrimal canaliculitis using chalazion forceps. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2016;64:589-92 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of chronic suppurative lacrimal canaliculitis treatment using chalazion forceps...
  34. Jin K, Shin Y, Hyon J. Effects of chalazia on corneal astigmatism : Large-sized chalazia in middle upper eyelids compress the cornea and induce the corneal astigmatism. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:36 pubmed publisher
    A chalazion is a common eyelid disease that causes eye morbidity due to inflammation and cosmetic disfigurement...
  35. Gilchrist H, Lee G. Management of chalazia in general practice. Aust Fam Physician. 2009;38:311-4 pubmed
    ..Chalazia are a common cause of morbidity in people of all ages. Treatment, which is based on clinical diagnosis, can involve conservative management, intralesional steroid injection, or incision and curettage. ..
  36. Tsina E, Papaioannou D, Matsouka F, Kosmidis P. Metastatic pleural mesothelioma initially masquerading as chalazion. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:921-2 pubmed
  37. Chen L, Zhu L, Wu J, Lin T, Sun B, He Y. Giant Merkel cell carcinoma of the eyelid: a case report and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol. 2011;9:58 pubmed publisher
    ..female patient that presented with large lesions in the eyelid underwent surgery after the diagnosis of acute chalazion. Following respiratory distress secondary to pulmonary metastasis, the patient's condition deteriorated and was ..
  38. Pereira P, Odashiro A, Rodrigues Reyes A, Correa Z, de Souza Filho J, Burnier M. Histopathological review of sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid. J Cutan Pathol. 2005;32:496-501 pubmed
    Sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid can clinically mimic benign conditions, such as recurrent chalazion and inflammation and histopathologically squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma (BCC)...
  39. Yam J, Tang B, Chan T, Cheng A. Ocular demodicidosis as a risk factor of adult recurrent chalazion. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2014;24:159-63 pubmed publisher
    To report Demodex infestation in adult recurrent chalazion and its clinical response to weekly lid scrub with 50% tea tree oil (TTO) and daily lid scrub with tea tree shampoo.
  40. Koksal M, Kargi S, Tayşi B, Ugurbas S. A rare agent of chalazion: demodectic mites. Can J Ophthalmol. 2003;38:605-6 pubmed
  41. Iglesias I, Troyano J, Diaz Valle D, Genol I. [Sebaceous carcinoma. Study of two cases]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2008;83:445-8 pubmed
    A 94-year-old woman, who had had a chalazion for a period of 8 months, presented because of thickening of the eyelid with necrosis, madarosis and adenopathy...
  42. Ben Simon G, Rosen N, Rosner M, Spierer A. Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection versus incision and curettage for primary chalazia: a prospective, randomized study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;151:714-718.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare treatment outcomes of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TA) injection with incision and curettage (I&C) for primary chalazia...
  43. Yagci A, Palamar M, Egrilmez S, Sahbazov C, Ozbek S. Anterior segment ischemia and retinochoroidal vascular occlusion after intralesional steroid injection. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;24:55-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This catastrophic complication after intralesional steroid injection should prompt immediate ophthalmoscopic fundus examination to allow early recognition of ischemic signs and immediate intervention...
  44. Samaras K, Lindfield D, Saleh G, Poole T. Chalazion-induced hypermetropia: a topographic illustration. Eye (Lond). 2008;22:318-9 pubmed
  45. Paarlberg J, Den Hollander J, Hafezi F, Paridaens D. [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the upper eyelid]. Ophthalmologe. 2007;104:1066-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we present a patient with a large ACC of the central upper eyelid, which had been misdiagnosed and treated as a chalazion without histological examination. Its origin most likely is an accessory lacrimal gland.
  46. Destafeno J, Kodsi S, Primack J. Recurrent Staphylococcus aureus chalazia in hyperimmunoglobulinemia E (Job's) syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:1057-8 pubmed
    ..To report a case of recurrent Staphylococcus aureus chalazia in a patient with hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome (Job's Syndrome)...
  47. Husain A, Blumenschein G, Esmaeli B. Treatment and outcomes for metastatic sebaceous cell carcinoma of the eyelid. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:276-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the management and outcomes in patients with metastatic eyelid sebaceous cell carcinoma...
  48. Chang J, Lee D, Chang M. A solitary fibrofolliculoma in the eyelid. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2007;21:169-71 pubmed
    ..To report the first case of a solitary eyelid fibrofolliculoma and to review the literature...
  49. Mansour A, Chan C, Crawford M, Tabbarah Z, Shen D, Haddad W, et al. Virus-induced chalazion. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:242-6 pubmed
    ..To investigate a viral etiology in certain chalazia...
  50. Katowitz W, O Brien M, Kiskis E, Elliott E. An asystolic event after eyelid skin bupivicaine injection during chalazion surgery. J AAPOS. 2016;20:75-7 pubmed publisher
    ..girl under general anesthesia that occurred after bupivicaine was injected into the eyelid during routine chalazion incision and drainage surgery...
  51. Papalkar D, Francis I. Injections for chalazia?. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:355-6; author reply 356-7 pubmed
  52. Honda M, Honda K. Spontaneous resolution of chalazion after 3 to 5 years. Eye Contact Lens. 2010;36:230-2 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the first three cases of spontaneous resolution of chalazia after 3 to 5 years...
  53. Hong E, Fischer G. Childhood ocular rosacea: considerations for diagnosis and treatment. Australas J Dermatol. 2009;50:272-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our cases demonstrate the close association of periorificial dermatitis with childhood rosacea, and highlight the importance of eye signs in its diagnostic criteria...
  54. Burkhart C, Burkhart C. Similar to acne vulgaris, bacteria may produce the biological glue that causes plugging of the meibomian gland leading to chalazions. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;36:295; author reply 295-6 pubmed publisher
  55. Arora A, Barlow R, Williamson J, Olver J. Eyelid sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC) treated with 'slow' Mohs' micrographic surgery. Eye (Lond). 2004;18:854-5 pubmed
  56. Koo L, Hatton M, Rubin P. "Pseudo-pseudochalazion": giant chalazion mimicking eyelid neoplasm. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;21:391-2 pubmed
    ..Multiple biopsies revealed lipogranuloma consistent with chalazion. The induration resolved after multiple triamcinolone injections...
  57. Kaimbo Wa Kaimbo D, Nkidiaka M. [Intralesional corticosteroid injection in the treatment of chalazion]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2004;27:149-53 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of intralesional corticosteroid injection in the treatment of chalazia in black African patients...
  58. Maheshwari R, Maheshwari S. Extramedullary pasmacytoma masquerading as chalazion. Orbit. 2009;28:191-3 pubmed
    ..As no predictors of progression have been identified patients need indefinite follow-up. The authors report a case of EMP involving the eyelid in an otherwise healthy adult female...
  59. Ismail A, Theaker J, Manners R. Wegener's granulomatosis masquerading as upper lid chalazion. Eye (Lond). 2007;21:883-4 pubmed
  60. Tomlins P, Benskin S, Tahhan M, Tyagi A. Dilated examination of patients referred with minor lid complaints--is it necessary?. Eye (Lond). 2007;21:941-2 pubmed
    ..To evaluate whether dilated fundus examination is necessary on patients presenting to clinic with lid complaints and normal vision...
  61. Sorbara L, Maram J, Bizheva K, Hutchings N, Simpson T. Case report: Chalazion and its features visualized by ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2011;34:87-91 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this case report is to highlight the clinical characteristics of a recurrent chalazion through the use of digital photography and ultra-high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHROCT).
  62. Bagheri A, Hasani H, Karimian F, Abrishami M, Yazdani S. Effect of chalazion excision on refractive error and corneal topography. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:521-6 pubmed
    ..To evaluate refractive and corneal topographic changes following excision of chalazia...
  63. Liang L, Ding X, Tseng S. High prevalence of demodex brevis infestation in chalazia. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;157:342-348.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the correlation between demodicosis and chalazia in patients with the latter...
  64. Brown T, Pandya V, Masselos K, Wang L, Lee K, Figueira E, et al. A prospective randomized treatment study comparing three treatment options for chalazia: triamcinolone acetonide injections, incision and curettage and treatment with hot compresses: comment. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;36:394-5; author reply 395 pubmed publisher
  65. Hasanee K, Sharma S. Ophthaproblem. Orbital cellulitis. Can Fam Physician. 2004;50:359, 365, 367 pubmed
  66. Prey S, Ezzedine K, Mazereeuw Hautier J, Eschard C, Barbarot S, Boralevi F, et al. IFAG and childhood rosacea: a possible link?. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30:429-32 pubmed publisher
    ..4%) with a single lesion and 5 of 6 (83.3%) with multiple lesions. Children with IFAG are at risk for childhood rosacea, and follow-up is advised, including periodic ophthalmologic assessment...
  67. Gologorsky D, Jakobiec F, Freitag S. Transconjunctival elimination of keratin from an intratarsal meibomian cyst. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;29:e88-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first documented instance of spontaneous rupture and extrusion of a meibomian tarsal cyst's keratin contents. ..
  68. Braun R, French L, Feldmann R, Chavaz P, Saurat J. Cutaneous pseudolymphoma, lymphomatoid contact dermatitis type, as an unusual cause of symmetrical upper eyelid nodules. Br J Dermatol. 2000;143:411-4 pubmed
    ..woman who rapidly developed bilateral voluminous nodules on the upper eyelids, following 4 months' treatment for chalazion. Histological and immunohistochemical findings were suggestive of cutaneous pseudolymphoma (CPL), and extensive ..
  69. Mittal R, Tripathy D, Sharma S, Balne P. Tuberculosis of eyelid presenting as a chalazion. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:1103.e1-4 pubmed publisher
  70. Pérez Moreda F. [Triamcinolone in anterior chamber]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2008;83:469 pubmed
  71. Tailor R, Inkster C, Hanson I, Shackley D, Smyth K. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma presenting as a chalazion. Eye (Lond). 2007;21:564-5 pubmed
  72. Ahmad S, Baig M, Khan M, Khan I, Janjua T. Intralesional corticosteroid injection vs surgical treatment of chalazia in pigmented patients. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2006;16:42-4 pubmed
    ..To compare the outcome of intralesional corticosteroid injection and surgical treatment of chalazia...
  73. Tey A, Kearns P, Barr A. Plexiform neurofibroma masquerading as a persistent chalazion-a case report. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:946-8 pubmed
  74. Feudner E, Wilhelm H. [Ambiguous unilateral visual impairment with hyperopia]. Ophthalmologe. 2006;103:52-4 pubmed
  75. Ozdal P, Codere F, Callejo S, Caissie A, Burnier M. Accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of chalazion. Eye (Lond). 2004;18:135-8 pubmed
    A chalazion, localized lipogranulomatous inflammation of the eyelid, may simulate various eyelid lesions...
  76. Srinivasan S, Menzies K, Sorbara L, Jones L. Imaging meibomian glands on a patient with chalazia in the upper and lower lids: a case report. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2013;36:199-203 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the meibomian gland (MG) appearance in a case of eyelid chalazia, using a novel meibography method...
  77. Milia M, Lefatzis N, Papakosta V, Theodossiadis P, Papathanassiou M. Unusual case of orbital apex syndrome after chalazion excision. Clin Exp Optom. 2013;96:346-8 pubmed publisher
    ..His medical and ophthalmic history involved diagnosis of lung cancer and chalazion excision two weeks prior to presentation...
  78. Dunlop N. Advancing the role of minor surgery for nurses. Br J Nurs. 2010;19:685-6, 688-91 pubmed
    ..The nurse specialist was trained to carry out incision and curettage of chalazion - a firm, usually non-tender, localized nodule under the pretarsal skin...
  79. Haider D, Wynn R, Sadiq S. Iatrogenic eyelid granulomata. Am J Ther. 2010;17:e131-2 pubmed publisher
    ..A 12-year-old boy presented with a 2-week history of bilateral eyelid granulomata. They were noted to reduce in size and symptoms when posaconazole was discontinued. Symptoms increased when the drug was restarted...
  80. Duarte A, Moreira E, Nogueira A, Santos P, Azevedo F. Chalazion surgery: advantages of a subconjunctival approach. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2009;11:154-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The obstruction of this gland is common, and results in a meibomian cyst or chalazion. Initially, a chalazion may spontaneously resolve, or respond to conservative measures such as warm compresses ..
  81. Carrim Z, Shields L. A simplified technique for incision and curettage of chalazia. Orbit. 2008;27:401-2 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a simplified approach, which in addition to reducing costs, may also minimize scarring of the palpebral conjunctiva...
  82. Patteri P, Serru A, Chessa M, Loi M, Pinna A. Recurrent giant chalazia in hyperimmunoglobulin E (Job's) syndrome. Int Ophthalmol. 2009;29:415-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Measurement of serum IgE and eosinophils, along with internal evaluation, is essential to establish a proper diagnosis...
  83. D Hermies F, Meyer A, Morel X, Halhal M, Elmaleh C, Renard G. [Conjunctival pyogenic granuloma in a patient with chalazions]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2003;26:1085-8 pubmed
    A 28-year-old male patient had a chalazion on his left eyelid. Increased discomfort led to the discovery of a conjunctival mass under the inner part of his upper eyelid...
  84. Jakobiec F, Mehta M, Iwamoto M, Hatton M, Thakker M, Fay A. Intratarsal keratinous cysts of the Meibomian gland: distinctive clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features in 6 cases. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010;149:82-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe 6 patients representing a new entity of Meibomian gland keratinous cysts...