Summary: A tumor derived from branchial epithelium or branchial rests. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Stenquist M, Juhlin C, Aström G, Friberg U. [A case report: anomaly of the fourth branchial pouch with recurring cervical abscesses. Cauterization with trichloroacetic acid closed the fistula opening and cured the patient]. Lakartidningen. 2003;100:1536-9 pubmed
    ..After three treatments the fistula was closed. To date (month no. 15) there has been no abscess recurrence. TCA chemocauterization seems to be a safe first-line treatment for patients with pyriform sinus fistulas. ..
  2. Haba R, Miki H, Kobayashi S, Kushida Y, Saoo K, Hirakawa E, et al. Intrathyroidal branchial cleft-like cyst in chronic thyroiditis. Pathol Int. 2000;50:897-900 pubmed
    ..The patient is currently well with no evidence or recurrence for 43 months...
  3. Johnston R, Wei J, Maddalozzo J. Intra-thyroid thyroglossal duct cyst as a differential diagnosis of thyroid nodule. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;67:1027-30 pubmed
    ..This is the fourth case of ITTDC reported in the pediatric population, and ITTDC should remain in the differential diagnosis of pediatric neck mass...
  4. Sharma P, Chaturvedi K. Congenital cervical teratoma--an unusual presentation. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2003;46:473-4 pubmed
    ..We report a case of congenital benign cervical teratoma in a female child. The unusual asymptomatic nature of the tumour and its relationship with the thyroid is highlighted. ..
  5. Panchbhai A, Choudhary M. Branchial cleft cyst at an unusual location: a rare case with a brief review. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2012;41:696-702 pubmed publisher
    ..If the cysts are excised properly, recurrence is rare. A rare case report of BCC arising in the neck from an unusual location with components in the posterior triangle is presented here. ..
  6. Regauer S, Mannweiler S, Anderhuber W, Gotschuli A, Berghold A, Schachenreiter J, et al. Cystic lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma of Waldeyer's ring origin. Br J Cancer. 1999;79:1437-42 pubmed
    ..005) in SCC of the base of the tongue origin. No such association was observed for tonsillar SCC (P = 0.65). The primary mechanism of cyst formation was cystic degeneration. ..
  7. Jereczek Fossa B, Casadio C, Jassem J, Luzzatto F, Viale G, Bruschini R, et al. Branchiogenic carcinoma--conceptual or true clinico-pathological entity?. Cancer Treat Rev. 2005;31:106-14 pubmed
    ..The existence of true branchiogenic carcinoma remains to be verified with new clinical and molecular criteria. ..
  8. Roh J, Sung M, Hyun Kim K, Il Park C. Treatment of branchial cleft cyst with intracystic injection of OK-432. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006;126:510-4 pubmed
    ..None of the patients had evidence of recurrences or malignancies developing during the follow-up period (mean 21 months, range 17-26 months). There were no major side effects except fever after sclerotherapy. ..
  9. Gülicher D, Hoffman J, Hahn U, Kröber S, Leitner C. Cystic tumor of the jugulodigastric triangle. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;103:446-51 pubmed

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Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Vemula R, Greco G. An unusual presentation of presentation of a branchial cleft cyst. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:e270-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Our clinical report demonstrates a lesion on the posterior thorax that proved to be a branchial cleft cyst and should always be part of the differential diagnosis for soft tissue masses of the thorax. ..
  2. Burns B, Axon P, Pahade A. 'Hairy polyp' of the pharynx in association with an ipsilateral branchial sinus: evidence that the 'hairy polyp' is a second branchial arch malformation. J Laryngol Otol. 2001;115:145-8 pubmed
    ..We describe the first case of a hairy polyp in association with an ipsilateral branchial sinus as further supportive evidence of a developmental malformation of the second branchial arch. ..
  3. Daoud F. Branchial cyst: an often forgotten diagnosis. Asian J Surg. 2005;28:174-8 pubmed
    ..Fine needle aspiration cytology will accurately demonstrate the cystic nature. The presence of cholesterol crystals and/or epithelial cells in the aspirate will suggest the diagnosis of branchial cyst. ..
  4. Chimona T, Tamiolakis D, Proimos E, Perogamvrakis G, Korres S, Papadakis C. Management of second branchial cleft abnormalities in adults. B-ENT. 2007;3:39-43 pubmed
    ..FNA cytology as well as DNA ploidy determination contributes to the establishment of the diagnosis of branchial cleft abnormalities and their differential diagnosis. ..
  5. Gritzmann N, Hollerweger A, Macheiner P, Rettenbacher T. Sonography of soft tissue masses of the neck. J Clin Ultrasound. 2002;30:356-73 pubmed
    ..Sonography can be used to guide needle biopsy of soft tissue neoplasms and lymph nodes. In addition, the relationship between a cervical mass and the great vessels can be evaluated. ..
  6. Kim M, Kim S, Lee J, Eun Y, Yeo S. The therapeutic effect of OK-432 (picibanil) sclerotherapy for benign neck cysts. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:2177-81 pubmed publisher
    ..OK-432 sclerotherapy is a safe and effective primary alternative to surgery in patients with benign neck cysts. ..
  7. Zatonski T, Inglot J, Krecicki T. [Brachial cleft cyst]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2012;32:341-4 pubmed
    ..The only effective treatment is total surgical excision. The lack of treatment puts a patient at risk of infections, while incomplete removal might result in recurrence. ..
  8. Teng Y, Lin Z, Li Y, Cao X, Lin F, Xiang J. Synovial sarcoma of the neck masquerading as a malignant second branchial cleft cyst. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6:2257-62 pubmed
    ..The patient underwent complete surgical excision followed by postoperative radiotherapy and recovered well. ..
  9. Cerezal L, Morales C, Abascal F, Usamentiaga E, Canga A, Olcinas O, et al. Pharyngeal branchial cyst: magnetic resonance findings. Eur J Radiol. 1998;29:1-3 pubmed
    ..An unusual case of pharyngeal cyst in a 25-year-old man studied by Magnetic Resonance (MR) is described. Anatomic location and pathological findings indicated the second branchial pouch origin. ..
  10. Barret J. Recurrent branchial sinus tract with aberrant extension. Acta Chir Plast. 2004;46:74-5 pubmed
    ..All head and neck surgeons should bear in mind that aberrant presentations may exist when reoperating on chronic branchial cysts fistulas. ..
  11. Michal M, Mukensnabl P, Kazakov D. Branchial-like cysts of the thyroid associated with solid cell nests. Pathol Int. 2006;56:150-3 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemically, all lesional elements were negative for calcitonin and thyroglobulin. The results of the paper suggest that branchial cleft-like cyst have an origin in the ultimobranchial body. ..
  12. Fridman M, Demidchuk I. [Branchiogenic cancer of the neck and thyroid: causative factors and potential of polypotent cell differentiation]. Vopr Onkol. 2008;54:225-31 pubmed
  13. Tegeltija D, Lovrenski A, Panjkovic M, Marjanov J, Samardzija G, Pejaković N. Carcinoma developing in a branchial cyst. Med Pregl. 2013;66:177-80 pubmed
    ..A five-year monitoring of the patient is necessary to rule out cervical metastasis of this tumor. It is necessary for a five-year follow-up to rule out cervical metastasis of the tumor. ..
  14. Wilson A, MacPherson D, Santhanam V, Edwards R. An unexpected complication resulting from the use of a laryngeal mask during an operation to remove a branchial cyst. Anaesthesia. 2002;57:190 pubmed
  15. Gadiparthi S, Lai S, Branstetter B, Ferris R. Radiology quiz case 2. Parapharyngeal second branchial cleft cyst. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130:1121, 1124-5 pubmed
  16. Ali S, Sarwari A. A patient with a painless neck swelling. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:87, 131-2 pubmed
  17. Hinson D, Poteet P, Bower C. Duplicated facial nerve trunk with a first branchial cleft cyst. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:662-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a first branchial cleft anomaly in conjunction with a duplicated facial nerve trunk. ..
  18. Boppel T, Bendszus M, Bartsch A. Excavating Meckel's cave: Cavum-trigeminale-cephaloceles (CTCs). J Neuroradiol. 2015;42:156-61 pubmed publisher
    ..When extending below the skull base, CTCs are a rare differential diagnosis to cystic cervical lesions such as type II branchial cleft cysts. ..
  19. Luo X, Chen G. [Giant branchial cyst with infection in newborn infant: case report]. Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2004;13:121, 125 pubmed
    ..Surgical enucleate of the cyst was performed at 17 days of the infant with good result. The patient has been followed up for 2 years without recurrence. ..
  20. Chen Y, Su J, Hao S. Nasopharyngeal branchial cleft cyst. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;136:144-6 pubmed
  21. Di Cello P, Soldo P, Sardella B, Altissimi G, Macri G, Marinelli C, et al. [A case of lymphoepithelial cyst (branchial cyst) in an elderly patient: diagnosis differential, treatment and literature review]. G Chir. 2008;29:235-7 pubmed
    ..Our case is a 74 years old male patient with a 6 month history of a cervical swelling. We consider this case rare for the age of patient and the absence of malignancy. ..
  22. Ida J, Stark M, Xiang Z, Fazekas May M. Laryngeal cancer involving a branchial cleft cyst. Head Neck. 2011;33:1796-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Lesions such as this are nearly impossible to diagnose preoperatively, and a high index of suspicion for advanced cancer should be maintained. ..
  23. Chen L, Sun W, Wu P, Zhang S, Xu M, Luo X, et al. Endoscope-assisted versus conventional second branchial cleft cyst resection. Surg Endosc. 2012;26:1397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Endoscope-assisted second branchial cleft cyst resection via retroauricular approach is a feasible technique. This procedure may serve as an alternative approach that allows an invisible incision and better cosmetic results. ..
  24. Sagit M, Gökler A, Akin I, Han U. Wrong egg in the usual nest: thyroid papillary carcinoma within a branchial cleft cyst. Ear Nose Throat J. 2013;92:E31-4 pubmed
    ..Total thyroidectomy is still the primary option in such cases, but when it cannot be performed for any reason, vigilant follow-up is essential. ..
  25. Amer I, Falzon A, Choudhury N, Ghufoor K. Branchiootic syndrome--a clinical case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47:1604-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of her symptoms, she underwent bilateral branchial fistula excision and tonsillectomy with an uneventful postoperative recovery. ..
  26. Choo M, Kim Y, Jin H. A case of second branchial cleft cyst with oropharyngeal presentation. J Korean Med Sci. 2002;17:564-5 pubmed
    ..We review reported oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal presentation of these cases in English literature and embryological explanation. ..
  27. Saarinen R, Kolho K, Pitkaranta A. Cases presenting as parotid abscesses in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:897-901 pubmed
    ..A parotid abscess is a rare complication of acute suppurative parotitis which most often requires hospitalization, intravenous antibiotic therapy, and surgical drainage...
  28. Ahn J, Kang S, Lee C, Yoon P, Lee K. Parapharyngeal branchial cleft cyst extending to the skull base: a lateral transzygomatic-transtemporal approach to the parapharyngeal space. Neurosurg Rev. 2005;28:73-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude the lateral transzygomatic-transtemporal approach allows surgeons direct access to the parapharyngeal space with satisfactory exposure for treating benign lesions of the parapharyngeal space. ..
  29. Devaney K, Rinaldo A, Ferlito A, Silver C, Fagan J, Bradley P, et al. Squamous carcinoma arising in a branchial cleft cyst: have you ever treated one? Will you?. J Laryngol Otol. 2008;122:547-50 pubmed
    ..g. imaging, panendoscopy, elective tonsillectomy) to exclude the existence of a primary site elsewhere, before considering a diagnosis of primary branchiogenic carcinoma. ..
  30. Dixit P, Bardale R. Fatal cyst: a case report of a previously unreported cause of death. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2009;30:45-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report emphasizes the recognition of this condition for proper certification of cause of death and elucidating the manner of death. ..
  31. Findley A, Pride H. Unusual cystic scalp lesions in Gorlin syndrome: a brief report. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27:204-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These are both new, previously unreported findings, possibly associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. ..
  32. Levien A, Summers B, Szladovits B, Benigni L, Baines S. Transformation of a thymic branchial cyst to a carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis in a dog. J Small Anim Pract. 2010;51:604-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite initially recovering well, acute sepsis and pyothorax resulted in cardiac arrest 8 days postoperatively. This is the first veterinary report of neoplastic transformation of a thymic branchial cyst with pulmonary metastasis. ..
  33. Anantharajan N, Ravindranathan N. Report of a rare case of carcinoma arising in a branchial cyst. Ear Nose Throat J. 2014;93:E4-6 pubmed
    ..Patients with this condition require a careful evaluation of the entire head and neck region, especially the oropharynx, to look for any cystic metastasis of the primary tumor. ..
  34. Carney J. Salivary heterotopia, cysts, and the parathyroid gland: branchial pouch derivatives and remnants. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24:837-45 pubmed
    ..One of the latter additionally had a focus of parathyroid cells in the cyst wall, and associated thyroid parenchyma with C cells, and cartilage...
  35. Garrel R, Jouzdani E, Gardiner Q, Makeieff M, Mondain M, Hagen P, et al. Fourth branchial pouch sinus: from diagnosis to treatment. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;134:157-63 pubmed
    ..It allows confirmation of the diagnosis and catheterization of the tract, which aids the surgical dissection. Total removal of the sinus tract tissue with dissection and preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is recommended. A-1. ..
  36. Keusters D, Van de Heyning P, Claes J, Corthouts B, De Schepper A. Cervical tuberculosis. Differential diagnosis and CT imaging. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 1987;41:958-64 pubmed
    ..It is meant to stress the importance of tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the neck on CT imaging. ..
  37. Eng C, Quraishi M, Watson M. Bronchial or branchial cervical cyst?. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;135:958-9 pubmed
  38. Chauhan N, Sharma Y, Bhagra T, Sud B. Branchial fistula arising from pyriform fossa: CT diagnosis of a case and discussion of radiological features. Clin Imaging. 2012;36:591-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a case of branchial sinus of pyriform fossa with external fistulization that presented in adulthood and was diagnosed on computed tomographic scan. The radiological features of this rare anomaly are revisited. ..
  39. Wen G, Huang X, Chen G. [Clinical study of primary branchiogenic carcinoma]. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2004;22:120-2 pubmed
    ..Rapid frozen pathologic section should be made regularly to make the diagnosis clear. The treatment should include extensive excision of tumor and radical neck dissection to improve the cure rate and survival rate. ..
  40. Choi H, Lee J, Kim J. Cervical branchial cartilaginous remnant. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:611-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we believe that the most important points are optimal incision for branchial cartilaginous remnants and surgical excision with preservation of the normal anatomy. ..
  41. Jones B, Koch B. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pediatric head and neck. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 1999;10:348-61 pubmed
  42. Kitano H, Fujimura M, Hirano M, Sato I, Kataoka H, Kinoshita T, et al. Endoscopic surgery for lateral cervical cysts. A report of three cases. Surg Endosc. 2000;14:1086 pubmed
    ..The incisions were completely covered by the patients' undergarments. This is the first report of endoscopic lateral cervical cystectomy...
  43. Glosser J, Pires C, Feinberg S. Branchial cleft or cervical lymphoepithelial cysts: etiology and management. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003;134:81-6 pubmed
    ..The objective of this article is to provide a brief review of the literature and to define diagnostic terms related to this anomaly, as well as to describe its etiology, clinical presentation and treatment...
  44. Pelc P, Vanmuylder N, Lefranc F, Heizmann C, Hassid S, Salmon I, et al. Differential expression of S100 calcium-binding proteins in epidermoid cysts, branchial cysts, craniopharyngiomas and cholesteatomas. Histopathology. 2003;42:387-94 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether epidermoid cysts, branchial cysts, craniopharyngiomas and cholesteatomas express S100 proteins differentially by immunohistochemical assaying the presence of S100A1, S100A2, S100A3, S100A4, S100A5, S100A6 and S100B...
  45. Andrews P, Giddings C, Su A. Management of lateral cystic swellings of the neck, in the over 40s' age group. J Laryngol Otol. 2003;117:318-20 pubmed
    ..It is our aim to treat a cystic lymph node metastasis as you would a solid lymph node metastasis...
  46. Park J, Kim G, Suh Y. Intrathyroidal branchial cleft-like cyst with heterotopic salivary gland-type tissue. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2004;7:262-7 pubmed
    ..This association of branchial cleft-like cyst with SCNs and unusual heterotopic tissues in the normal thyroid suggests a possible origin from the SCN as ultimobranchial vestigial structures...
  47. Winiarski P, Zmudziński A, Doroszewska G. [Lateral branchial cyst--case report]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2004;58:605-8 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis was based on ultrasonography with aspiration biopsy, computed tomography and histopathological findings. Successful surgical treatment was performed. Rarity of big size and long duration of the disease is emphasized...
  48. Garg A, Wadhera R, Gulati S, Kumar A. Branchio-oto-renal syndrome. J Assoc Physicians India. 2008;56:904-5 pubmed
    ..Authors are reporting a 19 year male patient, who presented with profound deafness & low set "lop-ear" with right sided preauricular pit. USG abdomen revealed agenesis of the left kidney...
  49. Robitschek J, Bothwell N, Takahashi G, Hall D, Sniezek J. Adult presentation of a fourth branchial pouch sinus. Ear Nose Throat J. 2009;88:E31-3 pubmed
    ..This unique case represents a delayed clinical presentation, and it broadens the differential diagnosis of recurrent deep neck abscess and thyroid cyst in the adult...
  50. Jeon G, Han S, Jung J, Kang M, Sin J. The first Korean case of cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:1387-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of a cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia, the first reported in Korea...
  51. Ming J, Fan Z, Gong Y, Yuan Q, Zhong L, Fan L. Endoscopic excision of branchial cleft cyst in the neck using mammary areolae and axilla approach: a case report. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2012;22:e284-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The endoscopic resection of the neck mass through bilateral areolae and axillary incisions is simple, safe, and feasible, because there were covert incisions and fewer complications...
  52. Liu S, Patnaik A, Burk R. Thymic branchial cysts in the dog and cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1983;182:1095-8 pubmed
    ..Surgical resection of the cysts was performed in 7 dogs; 3 dogs survived and were clinically normal for 18 to 36 months...
  53. Ruscito P, Longari F, Bicciolo G, Rizzo S, Ottaviano P, Frenguelli A. [Pharyngeal cysts of branchial origin, a review of the literature and a clinical case report]. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 1993;13:169-79 pubmed
    ..The authors stress the importance of less invasive surgery in the case of pharyngeal cyst possible after detailed monitoring of the disease site with modern computed tomography CT, MRI...
  54. Matsumoto K, Watanabe Y, Asano G. Thyroid papillary carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a branchial cleft cyst. Pathol Int. 1999;49:444-6 pubmed
    ..The first case of papillary carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a branchial cleft cyst, and accompanied by lymph node metastasis is presented...
  55. Al Salem A. Branchial remnants. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:673-6 pubmed
  56. Tzarnas C, Tzilinis A. Simultaneous carotid endarterectomy and excision of ipsilateral branchial cleft fistula--a case report. Vasc Surg. 2001;35:473-5 pubmed
    ..This case describes the presence of a second branchial cleft sinus in the setting of carotid artery disease, where both were treated surgically simultaneously without complication...
  57. Maturo S, Michaelson P, Faulkner J. Primary branchiogenic carcinoma: the confusion continues. Am J Otolaryngol. 2007;28:25-7 pubmed
    ..Although the disease is rare, the consideration of this diagnosis requires careful thought and analysis by the otolaryngologist, pathologist, and radiation oncologist so that a rational treatment plan can be offered to the patient...
  58. Ayugi J, Ogeng o J, Macharia I. Pattern of congenital neck masses in a Kenyan paediatric population. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74:64-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The distribution of congenital neck masses varies between countries and is important in diagnosis and treatment modalities. Data from Africa is scarce, and altogether absent from Kenya...
  59. Muñoz Fernández N, Mallea Cañizares I, Fernández Julián E, De La Fuente Arjona L, Marco Algarra J. [Double second branchial cleft anomaly]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 2011;62:68-70 pubmed publisher
    ..A review of simultaneous branchial cleft cyst in the literature is also made...
  60. Tsai T, Su C. Surgical technique of transoral marsupialization for the treatment of nasopharyngeal branchial cysts. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2010;119:336-41 pubmed
    ..Total excision of these cysts was the standard treatment in the past. We present a simpler and less invasive approach for NBC treatment, involving marsupialization, and report on its effectiveness and advantages...
  61. Chauhan A, Tiwari S, Pathak N. Primary branchiogenic carcinoma: report of a case and a review of the literature. J Cancer Res Ther. 2013;9:135-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The report highlights the controversy surrounding this entity and establishes the diagnosis based ona set of histopathologic criteria proposed by Martin et al. and later modified by Khafif et al...
  62. Park Y, Byeon H, Chung H, Rho K, Kim S. Robotic resection of benign neck masses via a retroauricular approach. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2013;23:578-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility and safety of robotic resection of benign upper neck masses through a modified facelift approach...
  63. Tasar F, Tumer C, Yulug N, Bayik S. Cervicofacial actinomycosis (a case report). J Marmara Univ Dent Fac. 1994;2:389-91 pubmed
    ..This case report presents a case of cervicofacial actinomycosis in a 14 year old boy which was misdiagnosed for a long time and the treatment of the disease with mezlocillin, a new antibiotic in the treatment of actinomycosis...
  64. Ayache D, Techuente A, Cohen M, Klap P. [Fistula of the fourth branchial pouch: apropos of a case treated by endoscopic cauterization]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2001;122:175-7 pubmed
    ..Endoscopic cauterization of 4th branchial pouch may be considered as an attractive alternative procedure for the management of this congenital anomaly...
  65. Taguchi S, Tatsuta K, Ieiri S, Taguchi T, Suita S. Efficacy of OK-432 local injection for the treatment of a neonatal branchial cleft cyst: a case report. Pediatr Surg Int. 2005;21:1004-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a final diagnosis of a branchial cleft cyst was made. The local injection of OK-432 was thus found to be an effective treatment for branchial cleft cysts...
  66. Noguera J, Fernandez S, Panizo A, Villanueva A. [Fourth branchial cyst within the thyrohyoid membrane: a difficult differential diagnosis with mixed laryngocele]. Rev Med Univ Navarra. 2007;51:34-7 pubmed
    ..The radiological and histological findings in both lesions may be similar, so only the communication with the larynx, or its absence, can solve diagnostic doubts, course...
  67. Pahlavan S, Haque W, Pereira K, Larrier D, Valdez T. Microbiology of third and fourth branchial pouch cysts. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:458-62 pubmed publisher
  68. Upile T, Jerjes W, Al Khawalde M, Kafas P, Frampton S, Gray A, et al. Branchial cysts within the parotid salivary gland. Head Neck Oncol. 2012;4:24 pubmed publisher
    ..Four of the most common embryological theories are also discussed with regard to these cases, as are their management...
  69. Bar Ziv J, Slasky B, Sichel J, Lieberman A, Katz R. Branchial pouch sinus tract from the piriform fossa causing acute suppurative thyroiditis, neck abscess, or both: CT appearance and the use of air as a contrast agent. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167:1569-72 pubmed
    ..In addition, we describe our observations on the use of air as a contrast agent during CT of the pharynx...
  70. Ang A, Pang K, Tan L. Complete branchial fistula. Case report and review of the literature. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001;110:1077-9 pubmed
    ..We present the case of a patient who presented with a complete branchial fistula and discuss the clinical presentation and surgical management of such lesions, with a review of the relevant literature...
  71. Hsieh Y, Hsueh S, Hsueh C, Lin J, Luo C, Lai J, et al. Pathological analysis of congenital cervical cysts in children: 20 years of experience at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Chang Gung Med J. 2003;26:107-13 pubmed
    ..This report analyzes cervical cysts in Taiwanese children diagnosed at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) over the past 20 years. The pathologic and clinical findings are reviewed...
  72. Rapidis A, Faratzis G, Lagogiannis G, Koutsoubi K. Large swelling of the lateral neck. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;63:820-8 pubmed
  73. Lanzafame S, Caltabiano R, Puzzo L, Imme A. Expression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) in extra thyroidal sites: papillary thyroid carcinoma of branchial cleft cysts and thyroglossal duct cysts and struma ovarii. Pathologica. 2006;98:640-4 pubmed
  74. Schroeder J, Mohyuddin N, Maddalozzo J. Branchial anomalies in the pediatric population. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;137:289-95 pubmed
    ..We sought to review the presentation, evaluation, and treatment of branchial anomalies in the pediatric population and to relate these findings to recurrences and complications...
  75. Joshi M, Provenzano M, Smith R, Sato Y, Smoker W. The rare third branchial cleft cyst. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30:1804-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Definitive treatment is surgical excision. We present a case of a third BCC and describe its diagnosis and treatment...
  76. Gupta A, Chazen J, Phillips C. Imaging evaluation of the parapharyngeal space. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2012;45:1223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Imaging approach is discussed in terms of the effect it has on differential diagnosis and diagnosis by the otolaryngologist. Neoplastic and congenital lesions are discussed along with other neck diseases occurring in this space...
  77. Tsai P, Chang C, Chang F. Prenatal imaging of the fetal branchial cleft cyst by three-dimensional ultrasound. Prenat Diagn. 2003;23:605-6 pubmed
  78. Rea P, Hartley B, Bailey C. Third and fourth branchial pouch anomalies. J Laryngol Otol. 2004;118:19-24 pubmed
    ..Two sinuses were treated with endoscopic diathermy to their internal opening. Adoption of the correct nomenclature, diagnostic tools and operative requirements for these cases will help reduce the significant morbidity...
  79. Jeyakumar A, Hengerer A. Various presentations of fourth branchial pouch anomalies. Ear Nose Throat J. 2004;83:640-2, 644 pubmed
    ..Treatment of acutely infected sinuses is best done with appropriate antibiotics and, if necessary, with incision and drainage. Surgical excision should be planned after the inflammation has completely resolved...
  80. Cappellani A, Di Vita M, Zanghi A, Di Stefano B, La Porta D, De Luca A, et al. A case of branchial cyst with an ectopic thyroid papillary carcinoma. Ann Ital Chir. 2004;75:349-51; discussion 352 pubmed
    ..A metastatic lesion from occult primary thyroid carcinoma has to be ruled out. The embryology of this cervical lesion is also discussed in order to point out the diagnostic criteria and the therapeutic guidelines...
  81. Mallet Y, Lallemant B, Robin Y, Lefebvre J. Cystic lymph node metastases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: pitfalls and controversies. Oral Oncol. 2005;41:429-34 pubmed
    ..We conclude by suggesting that Martin's criteria, largely used to differentiate between a cystic metastasis of a squamous cell carcinoma and a very theoretical branchial cleft carcinoma should be abandoned for lack of applicability...
  82. Ohmann E, Branstetter B, Johnson J. The utility of fine needle aspiration to identify unusual pathology in a parapharyngeal mass. Am J Otolaryngol. 2011;32:82-4 pubmed publisher
  83. Ohta N, Fukase S, Suzuki Y, Ishida A, Aoyagi M. Treatments of various otolaryngological cystic diseases by OK-4321: its indications and limitations. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:2193-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications for, and outcomes and limitations of, OK-432 therapy in various otolaryngological cystic diseases...
  84. Fahmy S. Cervical thymic cysts: their pathogenesis and relationship to branchial cysts. J Laryngol Otol. 1974;88:47-60 pubmed
  85. Apel R, Asa S, Chalvardjian A, LiVolsi V. Intrathyroidal lymphoepithelial cysts of probable branchial origin. Hum Pathol. 1994;25:1238-42 pubmed
    ..These branchial cleft-like cysts also may arise from branchial cleft derivatives, and their enlargement may be related to the immunological mechanisms associated with autoimmune thyroiditis...
  86. Apostolova E, Papadopoulos V, Leptidou Kerestetzi T. Branchial cyst empyema due to Brucella melitensis infection as a form of focal Brucellosis. J Infect. 2002;44:271 pubmed
  87. Anavi Y, Kaplan I, Calderon S. Lateral neck mass. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;94:536-9 pubmed
  88. Lukasik S, Szuber K. [A case branchogenic cyst of oro- and hypoharynx]. Otolaryngol Pol. 2004;58:991-3 pubmed
    ..In the case of brianchiogenic cysts a full diagnostics should be formed. The procedures, which enable us to estimate character and extent of a lesion and determine the proper surgical treatment, should include ultrasonography or CT...
  89. Kimura Y, Yano K, Kamiyama R, Kishimoto S. [Case of cystic metastasis of lingual tonsil carcinoma diagnosed first as a branchiogenic cyst]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho. 2005;108:698-701 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of the primary unknown cystic metastatic cervieal SCC requires a thorough examination of the palatine or lingual tonsil when there is no evidence of any vestigial remnant of branchiogenic organ...
  90. Chen P, Lin Y, Lin Y. Nasopharyngeal branchial cleft cyst. J Chin Med Assoc. 2012;75:660-2 pubmed publisher
    ..In our experience, marsupialization by diode laser via an endoscopy approach is a safe and straightforward method of treating nasopharyngeal branchial cleft cyst, with no adverse effects...
  91. Nakagawa T, Takashima T, Tomiyama K. Differential diagnosis of a lateral cervical cyst and solitary cystic lymph node metastasis of occult thyroid papillary carcinoma. J Laryngol Otol. 2001;115:240-2 pubmed
    ..Based on a comparison of the radiographical findings of the two cases, differential diagnosis between cystic lymph node metastasis of papillary carcinoma and branchial cyst is discussed...
  92. Augustine A, Pai K, Govindarajan R. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (66). Right complete branchial fistula. Singapore Med J. 2001;42:494-5 pubmed
    ..Branchial fistulae are formed due to the persistence of the embryonic second branchial cleft. Complete fistulae with the internal opening in the region of the tonsillar fossa are not common...