radicular cyst


Summary: Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.

Top Publications

  1. Lombardi T, Bischof M, Nedir R, Vergain D, Galgano C, Samson J, et al. Periapical central giant cell granuloma misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst. Int Endod J. 2006;39:510-5 pubmed
    ..Two lesions were submitted for histological examination with a diagnosis of radicular cyst whereas the remaining two were submitted with a diagnosis of residual cyst...
  2. Loreto C, Galanti C, Leonardi R, Musumeci G, Pannone G, Palazzo G, et al. Possible role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis and clinical evolution of radicular cyst: an immunohistochemical study. Int Endod J. 2013;46:642-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate whether the apoptotic cascade is activated through the extrinsic pathway in epithelial lining and connective tissue of radicular cysts...
  3. Bodner L, Manor E, Shear M, van der Waal I. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic cyst: a clinicopathologic analysis of 116 reported cases. J Oral Pathol Med. 2011;40:733-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To review the literature on primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma (PIOSCC) associated with odontogenic cyst...
  4. Bascones J, Llanes F. Clear cells in epithelial rests of Malassez. Oral Oncol. 2005;41:99-100 pubmed
  5. Jones A, Craig G, Franklin C. Range and demographics of odontogenic cysts diagnosed in a UK population over a 30-year period. J Oral Pathol Med. 2006;35:500-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the range of all histologically diagnosed odontogenic cysts along with age range, sex distribution and site of presentation over a 30-year period...
  6. Ramakrishna Y, Verma D. Radicular cyst associated with a deciduous molar: A case report with unusual clinical presentation. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2006;24:158-60 pubmed
    This article presents case report of a patient with radicular cyst associated with a primary molar with an unusual clinical presentation. The management comprised of enucleation of the cystic sac under general anesthesia.
  7. Muglali M, Komerik N, Bulut E, Yarim G, Celebi N, Sumer M. Cytokine and chemokine levels in radicular and residual cyst fluids. J Oral Pathol Med. 2008;37:185-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytokines were thought to play an important role for the expansion of odontogenic cysts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytokine and chemokine levels of radicular and residual cyst fluids...
  8. Graziani F, Vano M, Viacava P, Itro A, Tartaro G, Gabriele M. Microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human radicular cysts. Am J Dent. 2006;19:11-4 pubmed
    ..To assess vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and microvessel density (MVD) by immunohistochemistry and to relate them to the inflammatory status in a sample of radicular cysts...
  9. Moldauer I, Velez I, Kuttler S. Upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor in human periapical lesions. J Endod. 2006;32:408-11 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this growth factor could play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic apical periodontitis and periapical cysts...

More Information


  1. Tsai C, Weng S, Yang L, Huang F, Chen Y, Chang Y. Immunohistochemical localization of tissue-type plasminogen activator and type I plasminogen activator inhibitor in radicular cysts. J Oral Pathol Med. 2004;33:156-61 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the in situ localization of tissue-type PA (t-PA) and type I PA inhibitor (PAI-1) in radicular cysts...
  2. Delbem A, Cunha R, Vieira A, Pugliesi D. Conservative treatment of a radicular cyst in a 5-year-old child: a case report. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2003;13:447-50 pubmed
    The present report describes the management of a radicular cyst in a 5-year-old child. The treatment comprised extraction of the primary teeth involved followed by marsupialization...
  3. Johann A, Gomes C, Mesquita R. Radicular cyst: a case report treated with conservative therapy. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2006;31:66-7 pubmed
    This case reports on the treatment of a radicular cyst in a child. The patient presented a periapical radiolucent area associated to a root from the maxillary left primary second molar...
  4. Hayashi M, Ohshima T, Ohshima M, Yamaguchi Y, Miyata H, Takeichi O, et al. Profiling of radicular cyst and odontogenic keratocyst cytokine production suggests common growth mechanisms. J Endod. 2008;34:14-21 pubmed
    ..05). The similarities of cytokine production by tissue cultures derived from RC and OKC indicate that the expansion mechanisms of RC and OKC might involve similar biologic mechanisms other than infection...
  5. Gandhi S, Franklin D. Presentation of a radicular cyst associated with a primary molar. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2008;9:56-9 pubmed
    A radicular cyst in a 9-year old girl is reported.
  6. Suzuki T, Kumamoto H, Ooya K, Motegi K. Immunohistochemical analysis of CD1a-labeled Langerhans cells in human dental periapical inflammatory lesions--correlation with inflammatory cells and epithelial cells. Oral Dis. 2001;7:336-43 pubmed
    ..Distribution and density of CD1a-labeled Langerhans cells (LCs) were examined in human dental periapical inflammatory lesions, and compared with inflammatory cell infiltration or epithelial cell proliferation...
  7. Nonaka C, Maia A, Nascimento G, de Almeida Freitas R, Batista de Souza L, Galvão H. Immunoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor in periapical granulomas, radicular cysts, and residual radicular cysts. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;106:896-902 pubmed publisher
  8. Tseng S, Tsai Y, Li U, Jeng J. Radicular cyst with actinomycotic infection in an upper anterior tooth. J Formos Med Assoc. 2009;108:808-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathological examination of the removed periapical tissue showed a radicular cyst with actinomycosis...
  9. Tsuge S, Mizutani Y, Matsuoka K, Sawasaki T, Endo Y, Naruishi K, et al. Specific in situ visualization of plasma cells producing antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis in gingival radicular cyst: application of the enzyme-labeled antigen method. J Histochem Cytochem. 2011;59:673-89 pubmed publisher
    ..In two of eight lesions of gingival radicular cyst with inflammatory infiltration, CD138-positive plasma cells in frozen sections were signalized for Arg-hgp and ..
  10. Lux H, Goetz F, Hellwig E. Case report: endodontic and surgical treatment of an upper central incisor with external root resorption and radicular cyst following a traumatic tooth avulsion. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110:e61-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The gradual reduction led to a fast recovery of the bony defect and a root canal filling was placed. The 2-year follow-up showed an improved condition. All adjacent teeth remained vital during the course of the treatment...
  11. Gibson G, Pandolfi P, Luzader J. Case report: a large radicular cyst involving the entire maxillary sinus. Gen Dent. 2002;50:80-1 pubmed
    ..The lesion also caused paresthesia on the affected side. The lesion was removed with conservative treatment without any postoperative complications...
  12. Tortorici S, Amodio E, Massenti M, Buzzanca M, Burruano F, Vitale F. Prevalence and distribution of odontogenic cysts in Sicily: 1986-2005. J Oral Sci. 2008;50:15-8 pubmed
    ..The decreasing epidemiologic trend with time could be attributed to the possible changes in individual oral health behavior...
  13. Jurisic V, Terzic T, Colic S, Jurisic M. The concentration of TNF-alpha correlate with number of inflammatory cells and degree of vascularization in radicular cysts. Oral Dis. 2008;14:600-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To correlate values of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) depending on the count of inflammatory cells with degree of vascularization in cystic fluid of radicular cysts...
  14. Leonardi R, Caltabiano M, Pagano M, Pezzuto V, Loreto C, Palestro G. Detection of vascular endothelial growth factor/ vascular permeability factor in periapical lesions. J Endod. 2003;29:180-3 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize, therefore, that VEGF/VPF expression plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periapical granulomas and enlargement of radicular cysts by several mechanisms...
  15. Takiguchi M, Fujiwara T, Sobue S, Ooshima T. Radicular cyst associated with a primary molar following pulp therapy: a case report. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2001;11:452-5 pubmed
    A radicular cyst arising from the primary second molar and causing displacement of the permanent successor to the lower border of the mandible, with accompanying buccal expansion, was examined clinically and radiographically...
  16. Loyola A, Cardoso S, Lisa G, Oliveira L, Mesquita R, Carmo M, et al. Apoptosis in epithelial cells of apical radicular cysts. Int Endod J. 2005;38:465-9 pubmed
    ..To investigate the occurrence of apoptotic cell death in the epithelium of radicular cysts and to compare its frequency in lesions presenting a distinct functional state...
  17. Smith A, Cowpe J. Radicular cyst arising from a traumatized primary incisor: a case report of a rare complication that emphasizes the need for regular follow up. Dent Update. 2005;32:109-10, 113 pubmed
    ..A case of a 3-year-old boy who developed a large radicular cyst associated with a previously traumatized upper primary incisor is reported.
  18. Campos K, Gomes C, de Fátima Correia Silva J, Farias L, Fonseca Silva T, Bernardes V, et al. Methylation pattern of IFNG in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts. J Endod. 2013;39:493-6 pubmed publisher
    ..reaction was used to assess the DNA methylation pattern of the IFNG gene in 16 periapical granulomas and 13 radicular cyst samples...
  19. Tay J, Bay B, Yeo J, Harris M, Meghji S, Dheen S. Identification of RANKL in osteolytic lesions of the facial skeleton. J Dent Res. 2004;83:349-53 pubmed
    ..It can be concluded that RANKL plays a role in bone resorption in osteolytic lesions of the facial skeleton. ..
  20. Hernandez Vallejo G, Cohn C, García Peñín A, Martínez Lara S, Llanes Menéndez F, Montalvo Moreno J. Myxoma of the jaws. Report of three cases. Med Oral. 2001;6:106-13 pubmed
    ..In one of the three reported cases, we shall underline the need to follow a correct diagnostic work-up of all radiolucent lesions of the jaws, in order to avoid contraindicated therapeutic procedures. ..
  21. Marçal J, Samuel R, Fernandes D, de Araujo M, Napimoga M, Pereira S, et al. T-helper cell type 17/regulatory T-cell immunoregulatory balance in human radicular cysts and periapical granulomas. J Endod. 2010;36:995-9 pubmed publisher
  22. Lima A, Fregnani E, Silva Sousa Y, da Cruz Perez D. Parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor 1 expression in odontogenic cystic lesions. Int Endod J. 2012;45:209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The intensity of expression in the epithelial lining was significantly weaker in the radicular cyst (P = 0.007). However, in the fibrous capsule, the radicular cyst presented higher positivity for PTHR1 (P = 0...
  23. Gomes N, Diniz M, Pereira T, Estrela C, de Macedo Farias L, de Andrade B, et al. Actinomyces israelii in radicular cysts: a molecular study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2017;123:586-590 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, to verify whether this bacterium can be detected in radicular cyst specimens not presenting aggregates...
  24. Huang H, Chen Y, Ko E, Chuang F, Chen P, Chen C, et al. Retrospective analysis of nonendodontic periapical lesions misdiagnosed as endodontic apical periodontitis lesions in a population of Taiwanese patients. Clin Oral Investig. 2017;21:2077-2082 pubmed publisher
    ..diagnoses of nonendodontic periapical lesions were retrieved from all cases with a clinical diagnosis of radicular cyst, apical granuloma, or apical periodontitis in the institution...
  25. Kattimani V, Bajantai N, Sriram S, Sriram R, Rao V, Desai P. Observer strategy and radiographic classification of healing after grafting of cystic defects in maxilla: a radiological appraisal. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2013;14:227-32 pubmed
    ..In this study the characteristics of the new bone formation were also delineated. This strategy is helpful for follow-up studies; implant procedures and so; to know quality and condition of bone after treatment. ..
  26. Armada L, Marotta P, Pires F, Siqueira J. Expression and Distribution of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B, Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand, and Osteoprotegerin in Periradicular Cysts. J Endod. 2015;41:1281-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The chronic infiltrate is likely to have increased osteolytic activity because of a higher RANKL/OPG ratio. ..
  27. Gaitán Cepeda L, Quezada Rivera D, Tenorio Rocha F, Leyva Huerta E. Reclassification of odontogenic keratocyst as tumour. Impact on the odontogenic tumours prevalence. Oral Dis. 2010;16:185-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to establish the impact of the redefinition and reclassification of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) as a tumour on the prevalence of odontogenic tumours (OT)...
  28. Nortje C. General practitioner's radiology case 33. SADJ. 2005;60:261 pubmed
  29. Ozan U, Er K. Endodontic treatment of a large cyst-like periradicular lesion using a combination of antibiotic drugs: a case report. J Endod. 2005;31:898-900 pubmed
    ..5% sodium hypochlorite solution was used for irrigation and a combination of antibiotic drugs was used for the intracanal dressing. Periapical healing was observed 3-month after initial treatment and continued at the 7-month review. ..
  30. Roda R. Root perforation repair: surgical and nonsurgical management. Pract Proced Aesthet Dent. 2001;13:467-72; quiz 474 pubmed
  31. Di Stefano D, Andreasi Bassi M, Cinci L, Pieri L, Ammirabile G. Treatment of a bone defect consequent to the removal of a periapical cyst with equine bone and equine membranes: clinical and histological outcome. Minerva Stomatol. 2012;61:477-90 pubmed
    ..The deantigenated equine bone is biocompatible and undergoes osteoclastic remodelling. Both the equine collagen and pericardium membrane acted as effective barriers for guided bone regeneration. ..
  32. De Carvalho Fraga C, Alves L, de Sousa A, de Jesus S, Vilela D, Pereira C, et al. Th1 and Th2-like protein balance in human inflammatory radicular cysts and periapical granulomas. J Endod. 2013;39:453-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are necessary to elucidate the signaling pathways mediated by these cytokines and to facilitate the development of more effective periapical disease management strategies. ..
  33. Kress B, Gottschalk A, Schmitter M, Sartor K. [Benign diseases of the mandible in MRI]. Rofo. 2004;176:491-9 pubmed
    ..New quantitative methods now enable insights into the pathophysiology. The objective of this review is to communicate accepted indications for MRI of the mandible and to present innovative applications. ..
  34. Chiapasco M, Rossi A, Motta J, Crescentini M. Spontaneous bone regeneration after enucleation of large mandibular cysts: a radiographic computed analysis of 27 consecutive cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000;58:942-8; discussion 949 pubmed
    ..This simplifies the surgical procedure, decreases the economic and biologic costs, and reduces the risk of postoperative complications. ..
  35. Różyło Kalinowska I. Digital radiography density measurements in differentiation between periapical granulomas and radicular cysts. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13 Suppl 1:129-36 pubmed
    ..Combination of two criteria - the calculated difference between densities and the largest dimension of a lesion, increased diagnostic possibilities of radiological differentiation of granulomas and radicular cysts. ..
  36. Torres Lagares D, Segura Egea J, Rodríguez Caballero A, Llamas Carreras J, Gutierrez Perez J. Treatment of a large maxillary cyst with marsupialization, decompression, surgical endodontic therapy and enucleation. J Can Dent Assoc. 2011;77:b87 pubmed
    ..Therefore, treatment should begin with the more conservative approach of decompression, to reduce the size of the lesion, followed by apicoectomy and cystectomy. ..
  37. Gervásio A, Silva D, Taketomi E, Souza C, Sung S, Loyola A. Levels of GM-CSF, IL-3, and IL-6 in fluid and tissue from human radicular cysts. J Dent Res. 2002;81:64-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, IL-3 was found only in the cystic tissue, even though in few lesions. These cytokines may contribute to the inflammation, cystic growth, and bone resorption that characterize cystic lesions. ..
  38. Vorast H, Howaldt H, Wetzel W. The treatment of mandibular cysts associated with osteogenesis imperfecta. ASDC J Dent Child. 2000;67:64-6, 10 pubmed
    ..Six months postoperatively we saw a complete regeneration of the bone-structures. We came to the conclusion that cysts which appear independently from the disease of OI can heal after surgical intervention. ..
  39. Parker R, Hawkes C, Cox A, Barakzai S. Treatment of a periradicular lesion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos). J Vet Dent. 2011;28:22-4 pubmed
    ..This case report describes the diagnosis and surgical treatment of a cyst-like periradicular lesion in an alpaca. ..
  40. Henriques A, Vasconcelos M, Galvão H, de Souza L, de Almeida Freitas R. Comparative analysis of the immunohistochemical expression of collagen IV, MMP-9, and TIMP-2 in odontogenic cysts and tumors. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011;112:468-75 pubmed publisher
    ..001). These results demonstrate that the interaction between collagen IV, MMP-9, and TIMP-2 is an important factor for the establishment of differences in the biologic behavior of the odontogenic cysts and tumors studied. ..
  41. Doobrow J, Leite R, Hirsch H. Concomitant oroantral communication repair and immediate implant placement: a five-year case report. Implant Dent. 2008;17:176-81 pubmed publisher
    ..5-mm-diameter implant. No flap elevation was performed and no membranes were placed. A radiograph taken 5 year after loading showed a stable implant in conjunction with a new maxillary sinus bony floor. ..
  42. Ricucci D, Mannocci F, Ford T. A study of periapical lesions correlating the presence of a radiopaque lamina with histological findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;101:389-94 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of periapical lesions cannot be made on the basis of the presence or absence of a radiopaque lamina, but requires histological examination of serial sections. ..
  43. Suzuki T, Kumamoto H, Kunimori K, Ooya K. Immunohistochemical analysis of apoptosis-related factors in lining epithelium of radicular cysts. J Oral Pathol Med. 2005;34:46-52 pubmed
    ..Such factors may be affected by the structure of lining epithelium and the degree of inflammatory change. ..
  44. . Immunologic reactions and endodontics: an online study guide. J Endod. 2008;34:e181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover potential immunological reactions, endotoxin, and cysts versus granulomas. ..
  45. Nair P, Pajarola G, Luder H. Ciliated epithelium-lined radicular cysts. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;94:485-93 pubmed
    ..Microbial agents from diseased root canals can advance into radicular cysts, particularly in pocket cysts, with the possible threat of such infection in upper posterior teeth spreading into the maxillary sinus. ..
  46. da Costa N, de Siqueira A, Ribeiro A, da Silva Kataoka M, Jaeger R, de Alves Júnior S, et al. Role of HIF-1? and CASPASE-3 in cystogenesis of odontogenic cysts and tumors. Clin Oral Investig. 2018;22:141-149 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty cases of ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) (n = 20), radicular cyst (RC) (n = 18), dentigerous cyst (DC) (n = 11), calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (n = 8), and dental ..
  47. Piattelli A, Rubini C, Fioroni M, Favero L, Strocchi R. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) in odontogenic cysts. Int Endod J. 2004;37:7-11 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the positivity to transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) in different types of odontogenic cysts...
  48. Velickovic M, Pejnovic N, Petrovic R, Mitrović S, Jeftic I, Kanjevac T, et al. Expression of interleukin-33 and its receptor ST2 in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts. J Oral Pathol Med. 2016;45:70-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased numbers of IL-33- and ST2-positive fibroblasts in periapical lesions when compared to healthy periapical tissues suggest that IL-33/ST2 signaling may be involved in periapical inflammation and tissue fibrosis. ..
  49. Nortje C. General practitioner's radiology case 64. Apical cyst. SADJ. 2008;63:310 pubmed
  50. Kondori I, Mottin R, Laskin D. Accuracy of dentists in the clinical diagnosis of oral lesions. Quintessence Int. 2011;42:575-7 pubmed
    ..16%), focal inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (10%), fibroma (8%), periapical granuloma (7%), and radicular cyst (6%). Cancerous lesions were misdiagnosed 5.6% of the time...
  51. Yawaka Y, Kaga M, Osanai M, Fukui A, Oguchi H. Delayed eruption of premolars with periodontitis of primary predecessors and a cystic lesion: a case report. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2002;12:53-60 pubmed
    ..Clinical and radiological follow-up, therefore, of primary teeth that have undergone pulp therapy procedures should be performed until eruption of succedaneous teeth...
  52. Manor E, Kachko L, Puterman M, SZABO G, Bodner L. Cystic lesions of the jaws - a clinicopathological study of 322 cases and review of the literature. Int J Med Sci. 2012;9:20-6 pubmed
    ..The differences in prevalence of each type of jaw cyst during a lifetime may point toward a multifactorial polygenic pattern rather than a monogenic pattern...
  53. Ali Z, Keshani D. Indications for surgical endodontics and findings of an audit into referrals. Dent Update. 2011;38:610-2, 614 pubmed
  54. Rózyło T, Walawska B, Rózyło I, Jurkiewicz Mazurek M. [Iatrogenic foreign bodies within the maxillofacial region]. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska Med. 1998;53:205-11 pubmed
    ..The second site where iatrogenic foreign bodies were found was the maxillary sinus. The reason of these complications was the lack of proper radiological and endometric diagnosis before the beginning of the endodontic treatment...
  55. Kubota Y, Imajo I, Itonaga R, Takenoshita Y. Effects of the patient's age and the size of the primary lesion on the speed of shrinkage after marsupialisation of keratocystic odontogenic tumours, dentigerous cysts, and radicular cysts. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013;51:358-62 pubmed publisher
    ..69, p<0.01) and radicular cysts (r=0.73, p<0.01). These results suggest that the size of a cyst before marsupialisation may affect the speed of shrinkage in KCOT and radicular cysts, while the age of the patient does not...
  56. Palattella P, Ruggeri B. [Influence of inflammation on the histopathologic characteristics of radicular cysts]. Dent Cadmos. 1984;52:57-64 pubmed
  57. Kawamoto S, Hamamura S, Kawahara H, Nishi Y, Nagaoka E. Use of a magnetic attachment to retain an obturator prosthesis for an osseous defect. J Prosthodont. 2009;18:359-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This report describes procedures for the fabrication of an osseous defect obturator prosthesis connected to a fixed partial denture by a magnetic attachment along with the clinical outcome...
  58. Terakado N, Shintani S, Nakashiro K, Hamakawa H. Malignant pleural mesothelioma metastasis to the mandible. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004;33:798-800 pubmed
    ..J. Dis. Chest 70 (1976) 246]. There has been only one previous report of this tumor metastasizing to the jaw bone [Pathologica 92 (2000) 273]...
  59. Menezes R, Bramante C, da Silva Paiva K, Letra A, Carneiro E, Fernando Zambuzzi W, et al. Receptor activator NFkappaB-ligand and osteoprotegerin protein expression in human periapical cysts and granulomas. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102:404-9 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of receptor activator of NFkappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) associated with bone destruction in periapical cysts and granulomas...
  60. Simon J, Enciso R, Malfaz J, Roges R, Bailey Perry M, Patel A. Differential diagnosis of large periapical lesions using cone-beam computed tomography measurements and biopsy. J Endod. 2006;32:833-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the CBCT may provide a more accurate diagnosis than biopsy and histology providing a diagnosis without invasive surgery and/or waiting a year to see if nonsurgical therapy is effective...
  61. Gundappa M, Ng S, Whaites E. Comparison of ultrasound, digital and conventional radiography in differentiating periapical lesions. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2006;35:326-33 pubmed
    ..To carry out an in vivo comparative pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound, digital (DR) and conventional plain film-based imaging (PF) in the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions...
  62. Tripi T, Bonaccorso A, Rapisarda E, Bartoloni G. Proliferative activity in periapical lesions. Aust Endod J. 2003;29:31-3 pubmed
    ..The expression of the positive reaction of Ki67 and PCNA in periapical lesions is therefore an indicator of cell proliferation as a result of a chronic irritative stimulus...
  63. Ali M. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in odontogenic cysts. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;106:258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of EMMPRIN in odontogenic cysts has not been previously studied. This study was done to determine the presence and the variability of EMMPRIN expression in various types of odontogenic cysts...
  64. Ricucci D, Pascon E, Ford T, Langeland K. Epithelium and bacteria in periapical lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;101:239-49 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate 50 human periapical lesions for bacteria and epithelium in a case study in dental practice...
  65. Taghavi N, Modabbernia S, Akbarzadeh A, Sajjadi S. Cyclin d1 expression in odontogenic cysts. Turk Patoloji Derg. 2013;29:101-7 pubmed publisher
    In the present study expression of cyclin D1 in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and glandular odontogenic cyst was investigated to compare proliferative activity in these lesions.
  66. Pavelic B, Plancak D, Peric B. Histologic difference in epithelial linings between follicular and radicular cysts. Coll Antropol. 1998;22 Suppl:167-71 pubmed
    ..Follicular cysts showed 2-4 cell-layer-thick of non-keratinized stratified squamous or flattened-low cuboidal epithelium and connective tissue capsule free from inflammatory cell infiltration...
  67. Buch R, Fischer B, Kleis W, Reichert T. [Partsch's chronic granulomatous inflammation, the cutaneous manifestation of a dental cause]. Chirurg. 2003;74:757-61 pubmed
    ..Therefore, X-ray examinations are necessary to exclude possible dentogenic causes in cases of badly healing processes of the face or neck...
  68. Lin L, Huang G, Rosenberg P. Proliferation of epithelial cell rests, formation of apical cysts, and regression of apical cysts after periapical wound healing. J Endod. 2007;33:908-16 pubmed
    ..Epithelial cells will also regress because of activation of apoptosis or programmed cell death through deprivation of survival factors or by receiving death signals during periapical wound healing...
  69. Kocyigit I, Atil F, Alp Y, Tekin U, Tuz H. Piezosurgery versus conventional surgery in radicular cyst enucleation. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23:1805-8 pubmed publisher
    This study compared the use of piezosurgery and conventional surgery in radicular cyst enucleation.
  70. Baughman R. Testing your diagnostic skills (#58). Case no. 2. Radicular cyst. Todays FDA. 2002;14:20, 22 pubmed
  71. Scivetti M, Lucchese A, Crincoli V, Pilolli G, Favia G. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of liesegang rings in odontogenic cysts: analysis of three-dimensional image reconstruction. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2009;33:48-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These investigations indicate that Liesegang rings are composed of multiple birefringent concentric rings, resulting from a progressive deposition of organic substances, with an unclear pathogenesis...
  72. Sekine J, Irie A, Dotsu H, Inokuchi T. Bilateral pneumothorax with extensive subcutaneous emphysema manifested during third molar surgery. A case report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000;29:355-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum were present. In our patient, air dissection was probably caused by pressurized air being forced through the operating site into the surrounding connective tissue...
  73. Martins C, Rivero E, Dufloth R, Figueiredo C, Vieira D. Immunohistochemical detection of factors related to cellular proliferation and apoptosis in radicular and dentigerous cysts. J Endod. 2011;37:36-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study proposed to investigate aspects of cell proliferation and death in the epithelium of radicular (RCs) and dentigerous (DCs) cysts...
  74. Ihan Hren N, Miljavec M. Spontaneous bone healing of the large bone defects in the mandible. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37:1111-6 pubmed publisher
  75. Indramohan J, Neelakantan P, Subba Rao C, Vasudevan C. Can traumatic occlusion cause endodontic problems? A case report. Gen Dent. 2011;59:e153-5 pubmed
    ..This paper reports a rare case in which traumatic occlusion was identified as the etiology of a radicular cyst. Endodontic treatment was performed and the traumatic occlusion also was corrected...
  76. Takata N, Yokoo S, Komori T. The cytobiological differences between two odontogenic cyst-lining keratinocytes. Kobe J Med Sci. 2011;57:E75-86 pubmed
  77. Laskin D, Giglio J, Ferrer Nuin L. Multilocular lesion in the body of the mandible. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2002;60:1045-8 pubmed
  78. Fukada S, Silva T, Garlet G, Rosa A, Da Silva J, Cunha F. Factors involved in the T helper type 1 and type 2 cell commitment and osteoclast regulation in inflammatory apical diseases. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009;24:25-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate whether different forms of apical periodontitis, namely cysts and granulomas, show different balances of Th1, Th2 regulators, Treg markers, and factors involved in osteoclast chemotaxis and activation...
  79. Nair P. On the causes of persistent apical periodontitis: a review. Int Endod J. 2006;39:249-81 pubmed
    ..This article provides a comprehensive overview of the causative factors of non-resolving periapical lesions that are seen as asymptomatic radiolucencies post-treatment...
  80. Kubota Y, Ninomiya T, Oka S, Takenoshita Y, Shirasuna K. Interleukin-1alpha-dependent regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9) secretion and activation in the epithelial cells of odontogenic jaw cysts. J Dent Res. 2000;79:1423-30 pubmed
    ..in odontogenic keratocyst (6 of 8 cases) fluids more frequently than dentigerous cyst (3 of 10 cases) and radicular cyst (3 of 10 cases) fluids, although proMMP-9 was present in all cyst fluids...
  81. de Moraes M, de Lucena H, de Azevedo P, Queiroz L, Costa A. Comparative immunohistochemical expression of RANK, RANKL and OPG in radicular and dentigerous cysts. Arch Oral Biol. 2011;56:1256-63 pubmed publisher
    ..To clarify the roles of osteoclast regulatory factors in cystic expansion of odontogenic cysts, expression of these proteins were analysed in radicular and dentigerous cysts...
  82. Gurel K, Sanal S, Gurel S, Kalfaoglu M, Boran C. Two maxillary lesions containing bony/calcified shells. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2009;38:296-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnoses of a residual radicular cyst in one case and a calcified mucocoele (which is very rare) in the other case were predicted with the help of ..
  83. Pevsner P, Bast W, Lumerman H, Pivawer G. CT analysis of a complicated nasopalatine duct cyst. N Y State Dent J. 2000;66:18-20 pubmed
    ..Radicular cysts differ in that the teeth apices are within the cyst rather than being displaced. We concluded that differentiation is clearly demonstrated by CT images...
  84. Chrcanovic B, Reis B, Freire Maia B. Paradental (mandibular inflammatory buccal) cyst. Head Neck Pathol. 2011;5:159-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Bearing in mind the minor clinical variations, the present article aims to discuss the differential diagnosis of this lesion and its different possible treatments by presenting a case report to illustrate the findings...
  85. Ruiz P, Toledo O, Nonaka C, Pinto L, Souza L. Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in radicular and residual radicular cysts. J Appl Oral Sci. 2010;18:613-20 pubmed
  86. Bansal V, Kumar S, Mowar A, Sharma S, Gupta S. Postoperative psychosis in an adolescent subsequent to oral surgical outpatient procedure. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:458-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the exact cause for postoperative psychosis has not been identified, medical and substance-induced mental disorders are commonly diagnosed postoperatively in surgical patients...
  87. Ricucci D, Siqueira J. Anatomic and microbiologic challenges to achieving success with endodontic treatment: a case report. J Endod. 2008;34:1249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report clearly illustrates the difficulties imposed by anatomic complexities in attaining a disinfection level that is compatible with periradicular tissue healing...